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Youth's Book of Natural Philosophy, Hartford lit
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Schools. Hartford l»t edition 18'iH; N. Y. 1856* System of Natiirnl Philosophy, Hartford 1830; 2nd edition 1831; (3rd edition 1832 :) New York 45tli edition 1837; 53rd edition 1838 '44; 143rd edition 185V.." Questions and Illustrotions of Natural Phil isophv, N.
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York • Outlines of Geology, Hartfird 1st edition 183:1; New
York.* Elements of Geology, New York 1849 '54.* Yoolh's Book of Astronnmv. Hartford lsteililion "39.* The Young Botanist, N. York (1st edition 1830;; 2nd
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Hebrew Grammar. See IV. Qeteniul. CONDIE, D. F..
Practice of Medicine. See G. H. Harlow.
Princi[ies de la Grninmairc Franchise, Paris 18112.
The II innonio, for Schools. New Haven 1851.*
Botanv. See Green o"- Congdon.
English Grammar *
First English Heading Book, Part I., Edinburgh I860. "Part II., " 1801.
Part III., " 1861. Sixth English Reading Book, Edinburgh 2nd edition
18ii(t. Advanced English Reading Biwk, Edinburgh 2nd edi
tion 18IMJ. Curnc's Elements of Musical Analysis, Edinburgh 2nd
edition 1861. Brewster's Household Economy, Edinburgh 2nd edition 1858.
Copy Books four numbers, Philadelphia 1845.* CONVERSE, C. C,
The Musical Bouquet. See Bradl'ury Sr Converse. COOK, AMOS 1,
Student's Companion, (Rending, &c.,^ Portland 1812; Cone >rd, N. H. 2nd edition 1823." COOK, DAVID,. The American Arithmetic, New Haven 1st edition 180U. COOK. F. a, Tegctinoier's Manuel of Domestic Economy, London 1853. COOK, WILLIAM H.,
Principles of Surgery, for Students.*
The American Orator. New Haven 1811 1818; Hart-
Elements of Chemical Physics, Boston.* Chemical Problems and Reactions, Cambridge 1857.* CUOK3LEY, G. G.,
Selections from Catullus, revised by Bristed, New York 1849 • COOPKR, JOAB GOLDSMITH, The North American Selling Boot, Phila. 1834.* Plain and Practical Kniriish Grammar, Phtla. 1831. Abridgment of Murray's English Grammar, Philadelphia 1838* New Pronouncing Dictionary of English Language,
Philadelphia 1831.* New Latin Grammar, New York 182°*. Vi-gilii Opera—with Notes. New York 9th ed. 1853. Scholar's Assistant. (System of Arithmetic.) Philadelphia 1st edition 1830; (New York.) COOPER. M. A.,
See Xenophon. COOPER. THOMAS.
Elements of Political Economy, Columbia, S. C. *96;
(2nd edition 1829.) The Institutes of Justinian. New York 1842.* Accum's Chemical Amusement, Philadelphia 2nd edition 1818. COOPF.R, RKV. MR ,
History of North America, Lansingburg 1835; New
York IH18.* Histories of Greece and Rome, &c, Plymouth 1808 (2nd edition 1818.) COOT& EDWARD,
The English School-master, London (1624) 40th edition 1680. COPPEE. HENRY,
New School Academic Reader, Philadelphia.* The Select Academic Speaker, Philn. I860. Elements of Rhetoric, Philn. revised edition I860.** Elements of Logic, Philadelphia 1880. CORDEHIUS. M ,
Colloqumrum Centnrin, Clarke's edition, (Ixsnd. 20th edition 1761): Boston 18th edition 178J ;) Exeter 18110; Worcester 18111; (New York 18J9.) Clarke's edition revised by Ross, Philadelphia 1810. Colloquies, in Latin, Philadelphia.*
edited by J. Hardie.* Nonvelle Traduction des Culloques, 1806.*
Thorough Bnse and Harmony, New York.* CORMON & MANN IE,
Dictionnnire Portatif, Franc, et Italien, abridged by Lanri, Paris 1830" CORNELL, WILLIAM M„
An English Grammar. Buston 1st edition 1840.*
First Steps in Geography, New York 1858 *
Child's Pictorial History of England, Philadelphia.* CORNWELL, J. & J. G. FITCH.
The Science of Arithmetic, Loiulon 3rd edition 1857 COTTIN. MADAME.
Elizabeth, ou Les Exile's de Sibfrie, New York.*
Introduction to Chemistry, Boston 1822.*
COULOMB. C. A.,
Principles of Butnnv—Cryptogamia, Phils. 1853.*
Wif ht. 2 vols, New York 1852 '36.* Element* of Psychology, translated by Henry, New
York 4th edition 1856. Philosophy of the Beautiful, translated bv Daniel, N.
York'1849* Lectures on the True, the Bcniiliful. and the Good, translated l.y Wight, New York 1854 1856.* COUTAN. MADAME A.. Chun des Poesies, New York 1850*
Questions on Matthew, New York.*
COVELL. T. T..
Elementary Mural Lessons, Philadelphia 1857.*
Wutde's Cudex Alexandrinus Nov. Test. Grscnj, N. York.* COWPF.R, WILLIAM. The Tssk. Boyd's School Edition, New York.* School editions, Boston 1849 ; (Philadelphia 1852.*) COX, GEORGE.
First Steps. See James Hinton. COXE. A. F.
Public School Singing Book, Philadelphia.* CRABB. GEORGE. English Synonyms, Boston 1st edition 1819; New York
(1845";) 10th edition 1847 1859. Dictionary of General Knowledge, New York 1830; Philn. 1847.* CRAIG. JOHN D., Elements of Euclid, Baltimore 1818. fawner's Complete Measurer, corrected by Keith, I Baltimore 4th edition 1820. CJtAKELT. WILLIAM.
Dictionaries. See Entick. CRAMER, J. B.,
Instruction for the Piano Forte, edited by Willy, '44.* CRAXDALL, T. R,
crnopsis of English Grammar, Delphi, N. Y. 1849. CRAXDLE, D. Columbian Spelling Book, Cooperstown 1st edition 18J0.
Butler's Analogy of Religion, with Questions, New York.* CRAVEN, J. T., Child's First Music Book for the Piano Forte, Boston; New York.*
Rupture Catechism, fcc, New York* CREASY, E. S, Rise and Progress of the English Constitution, New York 3rd edition.* CREIGHTON, JAMES. Dictionary of Scripture Proper Names, Philadelphia 1st edition 1814. CRISP1XUS, D , Sallostii Omnia 0|iern quae Extant, tDelnh. edition,)
Philadelphia 1804 1814. Ovidii, Oe Tristibus Libri V., (Delph. edition.) London 1719. CRITTENDEN. A. F., * S. W., System of Double Entry Book-keeping, School edition, Ph.lsdelphta 1845. CRITTENDEN, b. W„ Treatise on Single Entry Book-keeping. P:iila.* Treatise on Book-keeping by Single and Double Entry, School edition, Philadelphia 1849 ('54.)
Same. Counting-House edition, Philadelphia.* fur Common Schools, Phila.* for High Schools, Phila* for Commercial Institutes, Phila.* CROOKS, G. R.,
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< 11-5(1) '59. See McClintock ir Crooks. CROOKS. G. R., «fc A. J. SCHEM,
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Greek and English Lexicon of Homer, translated by H. Smith. Hartford 1844.* CRUTTENDEN, D. H.,
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Systematic Arithmetic for Beginners, Albany.*
Introduction to do.. New York.*
Lnrser Arithmetic for Beginners, Albany.* CRUVELLl. D..
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Method of Singing. New York.* CUB1 Y SOLER, MARIANO,
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The Greek Translator, Boston 1826.*
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XV. MILITARY SYSTEM AND SCHOOLS IN AUSTRIA.
L OUTLIXE OF MILITARY SYSTEM.
The Austrian Army is recruited by conscription, the period of service being for eight years, with two years in addition for the reserve; but such soldiers as wish it may generally obtain leave after six years' service. Those who serve eight years are understood to have a claim for employment on railways and in the custom-houses. Substitutes are allowed, but they are provided solely by the State, and the means used for supplying them is made an element towards securing good Non-Commissioned Officers for the Austrian Army, in the following manner.
The sum paid over by private individuals for avoiding service in the Army is £150 (1,500 florins,) and the Government, in providing a substitute, pays him the interest of this sum during his period of service, and the capital when it is completed. A good substitute is permitted to serve twice, and he may thus receive £300 (3,000 florins) when he quits the army. Generally speaking, the substitutes provided by the Government are good Non-Commissioned Officers, who by these means are induced to continue a length of time in the service.
The Officers are obtained during a state of peace, either from the Military Academies, or by direct entry as Cadets, after passing a slight examination, into the regiments of infantry and cavalry, in which capacity they perform the ordinary duties of soldiers, and no particular period of service is required in this grade. The entry as Cadets is by nomination, part by the Colonels, proprietors of Regiments; part consisting of those having claims on the Regiments; and part of those recommended from the ranks.
Those who join the Army from the Military Academies consist principally of the sons of military men, whose education is mainly provided for by the State, and of others who are placed there by means of funds provided by provinces, districts, municipalities, or private individuals.
Any Austrian subject has a claim for admittance, on payment of the annual sum prescribed by the regulations.
There is no fixed proportion existing between the Infantry and Cavalry officers supplied from the Military Academics, and those entering regiments directly as cadets, but it is understood that the former do not amount to more than one-twentieth or one-thirtieth of the latter.
The Artillery and Engineers are now entirely supplied with officers from the Military Academies.
There is no difference in the pay of officers of the same rank in the various arms in Austria.
Officers when not required are placed on half-pay, which is rather less than the half of their actual pay whilst serving. When an officer dies, his widow is not entitled to a pension, but the state provides for the education of the children; and to prevent distress, an officer is not permitted to marry unless he has a certain income, independent of his pay, for the maintenance of his wife.
The promotion in the Infantry and Cavalry is regimental, and usually by seniority; but there is no doubt that promotion by selection also takes place, though not in the regiment itself, the officer selected being promoted into another regiment. The promotion in the Artillery and Engineers is also by seniority, and by corps, and, until the Hungarian war, was exceedingly slow.
Although not actually sanctioned by the authorities, cases have occurred in the Austrian service where officers have purchased steps from others serving in different regiments to themselves in the following manner:—if any officer is about to retire from the service, the promotion in the regiment being by seniority, the officer whose turn it would be to obtain the promotion would frequently sell his right to a junior officer serving in another regiment, who would thus be promoted into the vacancy. We were informed that this system had formerly led to frequent duels between the officer obtaining the promotion, and those officers in the regiment whose prospects were directly .injured, by the senior having sold his promotion, and thus stopped their advancement
H. OUTLINE OP SYSTEM OP MILITARY EDUCATION.
Military education in Austria has been entirely remodeled since the Hungarian war, and is now conducted in a very regular and systematic manner under the sole control and supervision of the Fourth Section of the Supreme War Department, entitled "Military Schools."
The establishment consists besides of—
2 Majors of Infantry.