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drill, attention, &c. The second is to agree upon the relative values of each study, conduct, &c., in aggregating the whole positive or negative performance of a cadet, in his whole course at West Point. The summation of these for any one year gives his class-standing for that year, and the summation for the whole course gives his standing at the time of graduation, and his rank in the army.

Formerly, and we believe yet, the mode of marking and summing up for standing, was this. Each professor or teacher marked for one performance one of seven marks, from—3 to +3. This being purely artificial may be changed. But it is in this way the marking is made. Then in regard to relative values of study and conduct, the scale formerly was :

Mathematics, . . . . . 300.
Philosophy and Mechanics,

Engineering and Military Science,

300. Chemistry and Mineralogy, .

200. Moral and Political Philosophy,

200. Conduct, . .

300. Infantry Tactics, .

150. Artillery Practice,

150. French, . . . . . 100. Drawing,

. 100. To obtain 2,100, the aggregate, a cadet must never have failed in. a recitation, or been absent from a military duty, or derelict in the least particular. This most rarely if ever happens. Not to fall short more than 100, is evidence of very high standing.

It is evident, that under this system, emulation is highly excited, and, in fact, there must be a constant, unremitting effort to graduate at all. The general result is, that not more than one-balf of all appointed are graduates. At the first semi-annual examination, many drop off; several more at the end of the first year, and more at the end of the second. Nearly all who survive the second year are graduated.

The only remaining point, peculiar to the system at West Point, is that of Military Exercises. As a Military Institution, this is a necessity, but it has also a great advantage as a means of Physical Education. This is a kind of education too much neglected, and for which civil colleges afford little opportunity, and no encouragement. The ordinary games, amusements, and walks in the field are relied upon to afford development to the body, and the natural tastes the only guide. So thought not Persian statesmen, Greek Philosopher, or Roman Senator: In contrast, a systematic education of the body was a principle, and a practice, with all the civilized nations of antiquity. There was a constant attention to this in the training of youth; and the Olympian Games, the Gymnastic Exercises, and the Gladiatorial Shows, all had reference to this principle. If heathen nations could thus wisely attend to the healthy development of their bodies, can Christian people safely neglect it? There is no question that the Christian law of temperance, daily labor, good temper and amiable dispositions will do much to preserve health and strength. The health of the mind goes far to make the health of the body; but we must recollect that all students, properly so called—men who are set apart for the cultivation of learning and science—the savans of a country, are cut off at the very beginning, from that daily labor of the body, which in the dawn of human history was declared to be the necessity of man's existence. There is, therefore, a positive need of supplying by some system of salutary exercises, the place of that labor in which the farmer and mechanic are constantly exercised. What shall it be? Our common classical institutions have left this almost entirely to the student's own choice. Several hours of the day are left to the student to employ as he pleases. Does not experience prove, that he is quite as apt to employ this in novel reading, or playing cards, or visiting, or in the case of an ambitious pupil,) in studying or reading the classics, as in any systematic method of exercise ? Let the early dead of consumption, the victims of dissipation, and the unhappy subjects of chronic diseases, teach the living, that education consists not merely in spurring the mind on to intellectual feats, however admirable. The bird soars through the mid-heavens, but soars on the strength of his wings; and if he had the soul of Socrates, would still fall, when they are exhausted.

The military exercises, at West Point, accomplish some great results. They give an admirable exercise to the body, and they occupy time which might be wasted, and they compel the cadets to give up late night studies. Let us begin with the last. Nothing is more common among the ambitious students of colleges, than to sit up late at night. To burn the midnight oil, in order to accompany every thought in the realms of Plato, or fight with Hector on the plains of Troy, or pursue the phantom of metaphysics, or the genius of literature through the bright worlds of fiction, is the common boast of scholars. They have little thought, till too late, that life was shortened, and happiness impaired, by every hour taken from the natural period of rest. At West Point this evil is avoided, not so much by force of command, as by that of wise arrange. ments. At the dawn of day, even in the shortest days, the shrill fife and rolling drum summon the cadet to his morning duties, and with the exception of the hours of meals, there is one incessant pressure upon him for bodily and intellectual labor, till ten at night. The results of this is, that when the hour of retirement comes, he must have more than human strength, who is not ready and willing to lie down and sleep. There are, of course, exceptions ; but, at West Point, they are rare. The lights are put out at 10 o'clock, and the weary student is ready to retire. Thus, the system of discipline at the Military Academy at once strengthens the body, stimulates ambition, prevents idleness, and compels the mind to pursue the object of reason, rather than the charms of imagination.

Having thus traced very briefly the history, studies, and discipline of West Point, it is only just to say something upon the fruits it has produced. These are divided naturally into two classes ; the work of the Professors, and the performance of Graduates. The former is little noticed in the accounts of our colleges, except in the reputation of some distinguished men ; but the latter, (the divines, lawyers, and statesmen who have graduated,) make the glory and the ornament of the triennial catalogue. Let us see if something has not been produced by West Point, which, in regard to the peculiar objects and teaching of the Academy, may bear a favorable comparison with the catalogue of any institution for the last half cen. tury. We do not mean in regard to the learned professions, for if West Point had excelled in these departments, it would have ntterly failed in those for which it was made. But, we mean in the great field of science and of usefulness. First, let us look at some of the fruits produced by its professors, especially in the production of text-books. In the history of instruction at West Point, we have stated the total absence in the beginning, of text-books on some subjects, and the unfitness of those on others, even the common studies of Mathematics. The first text-book on Descriptive Geometry, published in America, and we believe, the English language, was prepared by Professor Crozet; but, as he then understood our language imperfectly, and had little taste for authorship, it was soon supplanted, by a complete treatise prepared by Professor Davies. On that subject, as on the subject of Engineering, there was no systematic treatise; and for a time, West Point got along by oral teaching, and such collateral aid as could be had. The utter deficiency of suitable books may be known by the fact, that the first really tolerable text-books on mathematics were translations of La Croix, Bourdon, Biot, &c., French authors. The French methods of writing and teaching science are, on most topics, the best. Their style is clear and analytical. The English treatises are clumsy, being what is called in literature, elliptical, having vacancies in the reasoning, to be supplied by the student. The next great and permanent improvement in books, were the mathematical works of Professor Davies, a graduate of 1815, when the Academy was yet in a chrysalis state; he was several years a teacher before he conceived the idea of supplying a new series of mathematical text-books. His first plan was to adopt the best French works as a basis, and modify them, so as to be adapted to the American course of instruction. In this manner were prepared “ Davies' Legendre,” (Geometry,) and subsequently “ Davies' Bourdon,” (Algebra.) Other treatises were prepared on his own plan, and thus, for many years, Professor Davies pursued the quiet and laborious task (independent of other avocations,) of preparing an entire course of mathematical text-books. In time he modified these again, so as to fit them for the best colleges, and the higher schools. From the smallest mental arithmetic, to the profoundest treatise on the Calculus, he has produced clear and admirable text-books on every topic of mathematical studies. Many other good books have been prepared by professors in colleges, but there is no part of the United States in which some one of Davies' works is not taught in schools and colleges. Gradually, the civil institutions have been, in some degree, brought up to the standard of West Point, in mathematical studies.

In more recent years, Professor BARTLETT has published his treatise on Optics; Professor Church, on the Calculus, and Professor Mahan, on Field Fortification, and a treatise on Civil Engineering. Various other works on military subjects have been contributed to the stock of knowledge, by graduates of the Academy.*

Thus have the graduates of West Point, by disseminating in textbooks, and teaching the higher knowledge, and better methods pursued there, in fact, and beyond dispute, elevated the entire standard of education in this country. Contrast, for example, the text-books of Day, Hutton, Enfield, Gregory, &c., which were the only ones to be had on mathematical science in 1818, with those now in use at West Point, New Haven, or Princeton. Contrast the methods of

* The authorship of West Point has been quite extensive ; too much so to enumerate here. Among the works of its graduates, we may mention the "Political Manual," “ American Education," and Statistical Reports by Edward D. Mansfield, the “Review of Edwards on the Will," by A. T. Bledsoe, and the Military Tactics of Generals McClellan, and Halleck. The Educational Works of Mr. Mansfield have been before the public for many years, and studied in all parts of the United States. In this class also may be mentioned the editorial labors of some twenty of the graduates, sorne of whom have had no small influence on pub lic affairs,

study before the blackboard, the art of drawing, the system of rigid demonstration, and of exact scales of merit were introduced, with those now in use in the higher schools of science, and we shall be satisfied that West Point has done a great and most useful work in elevating the standard of education. This is one fruit of its production, which has been altogether too lightly estimated. If it be of importance to increase the number of blades of grass, it is of much more importance to increase the number of minds fitted to enjoy the works of God, and use beneficially the gifts with which he has intrusted them.

A more obvious and commonly remarked fruit of West Point, is the men, laboring in their vocations, which it has produced. It is impossible here, (though it would be a labor of love,) to note the individual examples of merit and usefulness, among those whom West Point has sent into the service of their country. We are here limited rather to a statement of general results. It may bo done briefly; and since we have seen no Register later than 1850, we must deal in round numbers. These, however, will approximate the precise facts. They are there statistically :

Whole number of Graduates, (about) · 2,000.
Killed in battle, . . •

Died in service, .

In military service of the United States now, 800.
Have been in political service (ministers, gov-

ernors,) mayors, and members of congress, { 80.
and of legislature,

. . ,
Other civil and state offices, . . 100.
Lawyers, . .
Clergymen, (including two bishops,). 16.

. 110.
President of colleges, professors and teachers, 100.
Authors, editors, and artists, . . 25.
Civil engineers, and officers of R. R. and canals, 180.
Merchants, financiers, farmers, and manufac-

turers, . . . . . 140.
Officers of militia, and volunteers, (not of the
army,) .

. . 110. Numbers have resigned, and died young, not above enumerated, and numbers of these also have died in the civil service. We have made this classification to show how largely West Point has contributed to education, civil engineering, and the professions. These were not the direct objects of the Academy; but, when long years


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