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two editions, and became the standard authority in all cases of controversy until the adoption of the Code of 1855, by which it was superseded. Through the columns of the “ District School Journal," and by public lectures and addresses, he exerted a powerful influence in preparing the public mind for the adoption of the principle of Free Schools; and the organization of Normal Schools and Institutes for the preparation of teachers. His various annual reports since his appointment as City Superintendent of New York, will be found to embrace recommendations, suggestions, and arguments for most of these great features in the system of public instruction in that city, which have placed it on a footing of equality with, if not of superiority, over any system of public education in the United States. He has steadily resisted every effort to render its teachings sectarian or political, while assiduously inculcating christian morality and true patriotism. He has strenuously advocated additional facilities for the higher education of females; and normal instruction for the more perfect preparation of teachers. He has uniformly sought to discountenance the infliction of corporeal or other degrading chastisements as a means of school discipline, and urged the importance and necessity of a thorough and systematic physical intellectual and moral development and culture of the pupils of our public schools—the education of the whole being. In conducting the examinations of the several schools and classes under his supervision he has uniformly sought to awaken the mental energies of the pupils themselves, and to draw out from, rather than to communicate to them, the knowledge which they had been endeavoring to acquire; to accustom them to think and to reason for themselves, instead of depending, as is far too generally the case, upon the authority of others. In short, he has endeavored to the best of his ability, to incorporate with, and infuse into the system over which he presides, the ideas and principles of the best and most enlightened educators of the age.
II. EDUCATION OF THE FEMALE SEX.
Who can find a virtuous woman? for her price is far above rubies.
The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, so that he shall have no need of spoil.
She will do him good and not evil all the days of her life.
She riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth meat to her household, and a portion to her maidens.
She considereth a field and buyeth it; with the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard.
She layeth her hands to the spindle, and her hands hold the distaff.
She stretcheth out her hands to the poor; yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy.
She is not afraid of the snow for her household; for all her household are clothed with double garments.
She maketh herself coverings of tapestry; her clothing is silk and purple.
Her husband is known in the gates, when he sitteth among the elders of the land.
Strength and honor are her clothing; and she shall rejoice in time to come.
She openeth her mouth with wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of kindness.
She looketh well to the ways of her household, and eateth not the bread of idleness.
Her children arise up and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praiseth her.
Favor is deceitful, and beauty is vain: but a woman that feareth the Lord, she shall be praised..
Give her of the fruit of her hands; and let her own works praise her in the gates.
A gracious woman retaineth honor.
A virtuous woman is a crown to her husband; but she that maketh ashamed is as rottenness in his bones. A prudent wife is from the Lord.
BIBLE, Proverbs Wives, submit yourselves unto your husbands, as unto the Lord.
For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church.
Therefore as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in everything.
Let your women keep silence in the churches.
That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, to be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God may not be blasphemed. Bible; Eph., v; 22–24. 1 Cor., xiv ; 34. Titus, ii; 4, 5.
The authority and dominion remain with the husband, for the wife, according to God's commandment, must be subject and obedient. The husband must govern the house and exercise authority, go to war, defend his property, plow, sow, build, plant, &c.
The wife, on the other hand, must sit at home and be busy in the house. Thus Venus was represented standing on a snail-shell, showing
that as the snail carries his house with him, so should the wife always be at home and be busied about the occupations of the house.
Among the first virtues of a wife is, that the heart of her husband shall trust in her; that is that he shall love her truly and wholly, shall anticipate no evil from her, but shall feel certain that she loves him in return, and that she will be careful of his comfort.
A pious wife should be honored and loved ; first, because she is God's gift and bestowal; and secondly, because God has given to women great and excellent virtues, which far outweigh some small defects and faults, especially when they hold fast to modesty, truth and faith.
Women, when they learn the gospel, are much stronger and more fervent in faith. Mary Magdalene was more bold than Peter.
“It is not good for man to be alone. I will make him a help meet for him." These are the words of God; and can not be understood without faith. Weak woman has nothing more precious and noble than her honor. And thus she should be so minded as not to over-estimate ornament.
Otherwise, when once absorbed in seeking it, she will never cease from the pursuit. Such is the female character.
Therefore a Christian wife should contemn it.
A woman should be adorned, as St. Peter saith (I, iii ; 3, 4), with the hidden adornment of a meek and quiet spirit. | A wife is sufficiently adorned when she is adorned for her husband. V
Christ will not have you adorn yourself to please others, and to have men call you a handsome strumpet.
But to this you should look ; that you have a hid treasure and a rich adornment in your heart; and that you live an unspotted and honorable and modest life.
It is a good indication that there is nothing very attractive in the mind, when too much attention is paid to ornament. (Esther, ii; 15.)
Gold and jewels are before man, splendid; but before God, an ill savor. Why do foolish young women try to attract young fellows?
Do you not know that a young fellow will be afraid to choose you, if he thinks you will cost him so much in maintenance and clothing?
If you would gain the love of a young fellow, take this good advice : Be modest and speak little, and adorn yourself not much, and do not look straight at him with bold eyes.
The greatest adornment of a woman or a maiden is, a modest shamefacedness ; for men's hearts are more attracted by that than by all adornments of attire. And if this ornament departs, love also departs.
LUTHER. See, in the tender child, two lovely blossoms united; youth and maiden, but thus far the bud conceals them both. But softly its bonds are dissolved, and their fresh young natures develop, and from her lovely modesty parts his fiery strength. Suffer the boy to play; give his furious impulses freedom; only when sated, his strength will return to her grace again. Forth from the bud, the blossoms are both beginning to struggle; each is lovely, yet neither is all that the heart desires. The maiden's graceful limbs are inspired with glowing feeling; but pride, like a girdle strong, represses closely their glow. Shy, like the trembling roe-deer, that fees from the forest bugle, she flees from man as a foe; even hates him until she loves. But the youth looks, defiant and boldly, from under his shadowing eye-brows; and, hardened to strife and battle, stiffens his sinews amain. Far in the throng of spears, along the dust-covered race-course, enticing glory calls him, and boiling courage drives.
Let your daily occupations, dear girls, like those of your brothers, be industriously pursued, and apply yourselves diligently to what is commanded you; thus you will escape many useless thoughts and many follies.
Read diligently the Psalter, Jesus the son of Sirach, and Paul Gerhard's Hymns.
Read not foolish books, but flee from them as a poison which may destroy your soul.
For a young girl's hand these two things are proper, a prayer-book and a spindle.
Be much more cautious of doubtful or false friends, than even of open enemies.
A young woman should apply herself earnestly to domestic affairs; for a wife who can not keep house is the ruin and destruction of her husband.
But if God permits, practice, besides writing, arithmetic and housekeeping, also music and singing.
If you have yet time, devote it to prayer.
Sacred singing cspecially, is a truly angelic and heavenly employment, and a foretaste of the beautiful and lovely music of the angels of God; especially where not overloaded with ornament, and where it proceeds from heartfelt devotion, and not from pride and conceit.
Always show modesty, and act in an unobtrusive manner.
Where there is no discipline, there is no honor; but vile passions, bad thoughts and bad deeds.
A young woman ought not to use many words; for she ought not to be crammed with mere knowledge.
May God preserve us from an over-wise learned woman!
Prayer, writing, arithmetic, singing and housekeeping, are knowledge enough for a young woman.
Also a young woman should neither curse nor swear, should never speak unless spoken to, and should always answer as briefly as possible.
Also, she should live a quiet, orderly and blameless life, not running into every corner after news and new fashions, as Ringwald says,
“Avoid her who takes pleasure in gadding, in standing at the window or the door, talks with everybody, and works or spins lazily; who is addicted to roguish tricks, is proud and irritable, and determined always to be above every body; who is obstinate, and will not be controlled."
It is almost a born trait of women, to be able to search out, discuss and find fault with almost everything. A hateful vice! How many maidens have come to great misfortune, and been prevented from all prosperity, by their own mouths!
Therefore a young woman should guard herself from pride and vanity.
For pride is not merely a foolish vice because it costs much, but is above others to be condemned, because it turns us aside from God; and every right-minded man should therefore diligently avoid it.
A proud person is an enemy of God, who is all mildness, benevolence and goodness ;-is a jest and an abhorrence to all his neighbors, and his own destruction.
Young women should strive after humility, orderliness and purity. Modesty distinguishes a pure mother of a family; humility, an intelli. gent one; order and neatness, a reliable one.
MOSCHIEROSCII. First, let there be nothing froward in your voice; and let your soft glance, full of goodness, not go idly forth from under your modest brow; and be neither too loud, nor too slow, in speech; for such persons are not welcome here.
Danaus to his daughters, in ÆschylUS. The husband, in hard-working life, inust work and labor, and plant and
contrive, and plot and scheme, and strive and venture, to secure success. Thus will he obtain ceaseless riches, and his warehouses will be filled with precious goods; his lands will increase, and his house will increase. And in it is presiding the modest housewife, the mother of his children, wisely ruling his domestic circle, teaching her girls and restraining her boys, and incessantly directing their industrious hands, and with judicious, orderly management increasing her husband's gains, and filling the fragrant chests with treasures, and spinning the humming thread on the spindle, and lay. ing up in the polished box the tright wool and snowy linen, and keeping all his household goods bright and shining, and never resting.
SCHILLER. (Poem.) Woman both needs, and may easily fail of securing the proper development of her immortal part, for the thankless labors and detailed occupations of her sex render her especially liable to neglect in this particular, and to be bound down and chained to earth, by the restricted limits of her sphere of action.
It is therefore time that not only amongst the lower classes, but among the middle and higher ranks, woman should raise herself out of the intellectual poverty, ignorance and restraint, the empty struggles after externals and the worthless tinsel of a shallow universal knowledge of social affairs, to which the egoism of men has hitherto usually condemned her.
To desire to place woman in a condition exactly similar to man's, is ridiculous; and to undertake this by means of the vain parade of school knowledge, is nonsense.
But she should stand as high as man, in her own department. So much is her right. And it is upon the attainment of this object that her hopes depend for a better mental development in the future.
Soldan. For girls, no cold speculative instruction, but a training of the susceptibilities, and one as nearly as possible adapted to the relations of the female sex. Women can very well spare any other instruction.
KANT. All male characters show more independent activity; all female oncs, more passive susceptibility.
But their difference is rather in tendency, than in natural endowment; and thus it is the difference of intellectual tendency which chiefly distinguishes the male from the female character.
The former begins by performing some action, and afterwards receives a reactive impression, through the receptive faculties. The latter pursues the opposite method, first receiving the impression, and then reproducing it by means of the active faculties.
W. von HUMBOLDT. Man endeavors after freedom; woman after propriety. GOETHE.. The morality of women is a propriety, not a principle.
Boys may be improved by the bad example of a drunken Helot; but women only by a good example.
None but boys can pass through the Augean stable of this world's life with only a little of its odor upon them.
But girls are tender, white Paris-apple-blossoms, hothouse flowers; from which dirt must be removed not with the hand, but with a delicate brush.
They should be trained up like the ancient priestesses, only in holy orders; and should never hear anything coarse, immoral or violent-not to mention seeing it.
Magdalena Pazzi said in her death-bed, that she did not know what an offence against chastity was. Education should at least try to proceed according to that pattern.