« НазадПродовжити »
the rapid movement of the feet of many children, as they sit in the gallery, by rolling any heavy object on the floor, or by the lower tones of the voice. Call attention to such slight sounds as those produced by the rubbing or striking of various substances, and then let the children listen with closed eyes, and try to determine the causes which produce them. Place several children out of sight and let them speak in succession, while the class try to discriminate their voices. Direct attention to the feelings expressed by the human voice in exclamations of sorrow, joy, pain, terror, mirth, and other emotions, and to the voices of animals expressive of their feelings and wants.
Explain the difference between inarticulate sounds, such as laughing, sobbing, muttering, screaming ; and articulate sounds, as speaking and singing.
The kind and amount of instruction given in each lesson must, of course, depend entirely upon the age and advancement of the pupils; the subject may as easily be treated in a way to suit a child of three as of ten years of age, and such preliminary lessons are an excellent preparation for correctness of ear in speaking and singing. Indeed, when developed, the imitative power of children is so great that no refinement of tone or inflections of voice are difficult to them; and hence the importance of a pure pronunciation and correct manner of speaking in the teacher, as defects in this respect are but too readily imitated, and bad habits formed.
Developing Lessons on Objects. When, by the preceding series of lessons, some idea of the general properties of things has been imparted, the observation of particular objects should be commenced; but we must always keep clearly in view the principle on which this kind of lesson rests, viz., that the children should discover for themselves the qualities of the object under examination, the teacher merely supplying the words needed to . express them ; for to tell the pupil that such and such qualities exist in it, which we are not able to demonstrate, will not develop his faculties. Hence it follows, that attention should be called only to the more palpable and striking characteristics, and that, if possible, the same quality should be traced through several examples, and even contrasted with its opposite, to render it more evident.
Suppose, for instance, two such substances as glass and india-rubber were chosen for a lesson. The most striking properties of the glass are that it is transparent, hard, brittle, sonorous, rigid, reflective. These are rendered more evident by contrasting them with the qualities of the india-rubber, which is opaque, soft, tough, not sonorous, flexible, dull. The idea of transparency may be rendered more general by reference to water, air, mica, crystals, and other examples, and also by extending the idea of the opposite property of opacity, and so on with the remaining qualities. We will now proceed to an example of this kind of teaching.
Lesson on Coal and Chalk. Teacher.-Tell me what you observe in the object I now show you. Children. - It is white. Is it quite white? Yes, quite white. What else have you seen of the rame kind of white ? Linen, paper, snow. Tell me the color of this objent It is black. Is it black like this piece of cloth ? No, the coal is bright and the cloth is not. But are not both black ? Yes. Is the chalk bright and
smooth? Feel it and try. No, it is quite rough and dull. Now feel the piece of coal. Is it smooth? Yes, in some parts. Does it shine or reflect the light ? Yes. Repeat now with me, coal is black and reflects the light ; chalk is white and dull I will make a line on the blackboard with the chalk. How is it that the chalk makes a white mark? Some of it rubs off. Yes, it is friable ; that is, it will rub or crumble away. Now we will try to make the coal mark. Hlas it made any mark? No. I will tell you the reason: the wood is softer than the coal, and so it will not mark. Weigh the two substances in your hands, and tell me are they heavy or light. Try which feels the harder. Listen while I strike each of them, and tell me what you hear. The coal gives a sharper sound than the chalk. Yes, because it is harder; for you will find that soft bodies give a dull, heavy sound, and hard bodies a sharp sound.
I am going to hold the piece of coal in the flame of this candle; will you watch what takes place? The coal burns and gives out smoke. Say, coal burns or is combustible. Now, watch if the chalk burns when in the fame. No, it neither burns nor smokes. Say, chalk will not burn; it is incombustible. It is changed, indeed, by the heat, but you can not see the change now.
When we wish to break coal into convenient pieces, how do we do it? With a hammer. Can chalk be broken in the same way? Let us try. Yes, both coal and chalk can be broken by a blow, and are therefore called brittle. Do you think that coal or cbalk is made by men ? No; I will tell you : they are both dug out of the ground, and were formed by the power of God, and such things are called natural, while things made by man are called artificial. Is either of these substances transparent ? No, most rocks and other things dug out of the earth are opaque, that is, no light will shine through them, nor can we see through them. Such things as are neither animal nor vegetable are called mineral, and these are mineral substances. Now let us repeat what we have learned about them : Both coal and chalk are natural, mineral, opaque, brittle, heavy. Coal is also combustible, black, smooth, shining, hard. Chalk is white, friable soft, and will not burn. You know that they are both useful. Will you try to name some of the uses of coal ? To warm our houses, to cook with, to drive steam engines, to make gas, and so on. Now some of the uses of chalk? To write and draw with, to make whitewash, to make lime, to manure land. Now you have examined these two substances and know some of their qualities, I will tell you something more about them. Coal is generally found deep down in the earth, and men must dig down to get it. Some of you may have seen a well out of which water is raised, and the entrance to a coal mine is like a very deep well. Up this well or shaft the coal is drawn by a rope or chain, moved by a steam engine, and when the workmen wish to go down into the mine, they get into a box covered with an iron roof, and are let down. If you look on the map of England for the counties of Northumberland and Durbam, it is there, on both sides of the river Tyne, that so many coal mines are worked ; but there are many other places in England, Ireland, and Scotland, where coal is found.
If you wish to see a coal mine, you would first have to be let down the shaft very far; and then, when you arrived at the bottom, you would find many passages leading in different directions, along which little cars laden with coal are drawn by horses or pushed along by boys; and, in some places you would see the miners digging the coal out of the earth with pickaxe and spade, each with a lantern to light him, covered with wire-gauze ; for a kind of gas like that which burns in the street lamps comes out of the coal, and if the flame of a candle or lamp touches it, it takes fire and explodes with a dreadful noise, often killing the poor miners who may be near; but this gas will not pass through the small holes in the wire-gauze, and so can not take fire from the miner's light.
Chalk is dug out of the ground, but it is not so deep in the earth as coal, and is often close to the surface. The men who dig it out are called chalk-cutters, and a great quantity of chalk is used to put on land to make wheat and other crops grow. When chalk is burned, it changes into quick-lime, and is then used for making mortar for building. Sometimes chalk is given to calves to lick, or put into the water which cattle drink. Although chalk is now found in the sides of hills, it was once underneath the sea ; for sea-shells are found mixed with it, which must have got in it when it was in a soft state at the bottom of the sea, just as we find shells mixed with the soft sind on the sea-shore now.
Sponge and Bread. Let us compare these two things, and try to find out their properties. First look at the sponge, and tell me its form; is it of a regular or irregular shape ? What is its color?' Feel it, and tell me what sensation it gives to your hand. It is rough. Look at it, and tell me if the surface is uniform or every where the same. No, it is full of holes. Things which are so are called porous. Try if you can press it into a different shape. Does it remain in the form you pressed it into ? No, it springs back to the shape it was in at first. Yes, it is elastic. Dip it into this glass of water, and tell me what you observe. It takes up some of the water. Will you try, children, to remember what this qunlity is called ? Absorbent. Take the sponge from the water and squeeze it dry. Is any of it gone ? No, it is the same as before. That is because sponge will not melt or dissolve in water.
Now let us examine the bread. What is its color? Its form? Is it like the sponge in any thing? Yes, it has holes or pores. Can you press it into a new shape? Yes. Does it spring back to its former shape ? No; things which can be pressed or molded into new shapes in this way are said to be pliant. If you rub the bread, what happens ? It cruinbles away. Will the sponge crumble when rubbed ?' No, it is lough and elastic. Try if the bread will absorb water. Yes; but you see the water changes the bread into a sort of pulp, so that it must be miscible in water. Try which is the lighter substance, bread or sponge ? Sponge. Now tell me what you know about bread. It can be eaten. It is made from flour, and flour from wheat. Then what kind of substance must bread be? Vegetable. Show me the hardest part of the bread? What made the crust hard? When you toast bread, does the surface become hard or soft ? Does it change color? What part of the bread is inost like the sponge in color ? What is sponge used for? Why is it useful for washing and cleaning ? Because it is soft, flexible, elastic, and porous. Sponge is not a vegetable, like brend, but part of an animal which lives at the bottom of the sea, and men dive down to get it from the rocks on which it lives. Could you eat sponge? No, the qualities which make it useful for washing render it unfit for food. God has given to each thing some purpose to fulfill ; and he has made bread wholesome and nutritious to ent, and sponge useful for cleanliness and comfort. Let us think now of all the properties we have found in these two things. They are both light, but the sponge is the lighter. Both are full of holes or pores. Both suck up or absorb water. Both can be squeezed into new shapes; but the bread remains in the shape into which it is put, while the sponge springs back to its first form. When soaked in water, the bread is changed ; the sponge is not. The bread is easily broken in crumbs ; the sponge is not, it is tough. Bread is yellowish white; sponge is brown. Bread is vegetable; sponge is aninial. Bread is edible and nutritious ; sponge is not. Both are rough to the touch, and of a dull surface. One is in a natural form, the other artificially prepared. If we were to try, we would find out a great many more properties in these simple things; but let us admire the wisdom and power of God, who made all things in so wonderful a manner. The most skillful and learned man could never make a piece of sponge, nor give it life as this once had, or cause a single grain of wheat to grow.
Lesson on a Penny. What is this? A penny. What is it made of ? Copper. What color is it? A reddish brown. Tell me its shape. Round or circular? Have you seen any thing else circular? A ring. Is a penny like a ring? Why not? A ring has the middle part cut away; a penny is solid. How many surfaces has a penny? Count and see. Two flat round sides, and a circular curved part. What geometrical solid is it like then? A cylinder. What kind of cylinder? A very short one. How many edges has the penny? Two circular edges. Are the sides quite flat ? No, the edges are raised, and there are figures in the middle. What do you see on this side? The Queen's likeness. And on the other side ? A figure of Britannia. Are these figures raised or sunk on the surface? Raised. Yes, they are said to be in relief. Do you know how these figures were formed on the penny? I will tell you ; they were stamped by dies of very hard steel, on the surface of the copper, which is much softer than steel. To explain this to you,
I will melt some of this sealing wax, and stamp an inipression of the penny on it Now you see I have made a copy of one side on the wax. Is it exactly the same? No; the figures are sunk on the wax, and raised on the penny. Why did the wax receive an impression ? Because it was softer than the penny. Tell me what sound you hear when I strike the penny? A ringing sound. That is because it was pressed and made hard by the steel dies If it were softened again, it would not sound the same ; and bad money has generally a differeut sound from good, either from not having been struck in a die, or from not being made of the same metal. Now we will talk about the penny as money. You all know the use of a penny. Many of you, no doubt, have been intrusted with money by your mothers, to buy things with. Did you ever think why people are so ready to give their goods for money? Because they can spend the money again. Yes, but what makes a penny of any value? Because it is made of copper. You are quite right; copper is very valuable, and also very useful; it serves to cover the boltoms of ships, to make kettles and saucepans, and many other things. It is made into wire, and also, when mixed with zinc, it formis brass. But how do you think copper is' first obtained? You know how many things can be got without much trouble. Common stones, and earth, and wild plants can be easily picked up; but did you ever see copper lying about the ground? Oh no! if it were so common as that, it would not do to inake money with, although it would be just as useful for other things. However, much has to be done before the copper to make a peony is to be had. First, men have to search out the veins of ore in the rocks, and then to dig mines down to them, and rend the hard rock with gunpowder, and break it with haminers, and then pick out the bits of ore, which must be heated and pounded fine, so as to separate all the stony or earthy part, and then it has to be melted by great heat, and refined or made pure. All ihis costs much labor and skill, and employs many different men, who must be paid for their work; sv that by the time it is made inw pure copper, it is very valuable. But with all this trouble, only a certain quantity of this metal can be got; so that it is rather scarce, and this makes it dearer, and the better suited to make money ; for you know that a few pennies, which can be held in the hand, are worth as much as a loaf, or a good quantity of potatoes. If I buy a penny loaf, I give a penny for the bread, because the corn that made the bread took much trouble to cultivate ; then the millor must be paid for grinding it, and the baker for baking it; and as the loaf is valuable and useful for food, so the penny is valuable, because copper is useful for many things. Now suppose pennies were made of iron or lead, would they be as convenient ? No; for to be of the same value they would require to be much larger, and would be too heavy to carry about. When much money has tu be paid, we do not use copper, but silver or gold, which being worth more take up much less space, and are not so heavy in proportion. Shall I tell you a little story before we close our lesson! There was a very clever painter, who lived in Italy a long time ago. Ile spent much time and thought in painting a picture, and when he went to receive the money which was the price of the work, it was paid to him all in copper coin. The weight was very great, and he had a long way to go home; he was not strong, and the fatigue of carrying so great a weight along the hot road so injured his health as to cause his death. Now, if he had been paid in gold coin, it would have given him no trouble to carry home; for a very small weight of gold would have been as valuable as his great bag of copper.
Moral Lessons.-God. A few years ago, not one of you little children was alive. Where were you then? Not in any place. God had not made you. Many children come to life every day, and many people die every day. But God was always alive! The world we live in was made by his word; but He lived before all worlds, before all men and angels, and He will continue to live forever. Is God like as we are? No, for we are all sinful, and He is perfectly good and pure. We know very little ; He knows every thing : we can only see and hear a little way around us; He can see and hear ever so far. We can only be in one place at a time ; God is in every place at the same time. Ile is here in this room now, and knows what we are all thinking about, and all that we do and say. He could destroy us all in a moment. Will he do so ? No; for He is very kind, and loves us. He has told us how to become good, that we may go to Him, and be happy forever. He sent us his Son Jesus Christ into the world to save us from our sins, and to show us what we ought to do that we may become his children. Although God is present every where, yet Heaven is called his dwelling-place, for it is there that He is pleased to show his glory most; there every thing is good, and pure, and holy; there saints and angels dwell, and those who serve God on earth will go there at last, to live forever in perfect happiness. Can we see God ? No; not with our eyes; but we can think of Him in our minds when we see his wonderful works. If one of you saw a clock, would you think that it made itself? Would not you say, some man must have inade it? If the clock were going, you would know that some one must have wound it up. A clock is a very curious work ; the hands move, and the bell rings to tell the time; and many other things men make are very ingenious, but they are very different from the works of God. If one of you were to lose an arm, could any man make a new arm grow for you? No; for our bodies are the work of God. If you pluck a rose in the garden, can you join it again to the tree? No; for the rose-tree is God's work.
The great globe on which we live is always moving very swiftly on ; who could move or stop so very large a thing? The bright sun goes on always shining; who could make so great a light ? All the men and animals on the earth are fed every day; who finds so vast a quantity of food as to give all creatures (nough? How many things we have to make us happy; from whom do these blessings come? From God. What can we give God in return? Nothing, for all things are His; but we should love Him for all his goodness to us, and trust in Him, aud give Him thanks and praise for all we have. Let us think what God has done. He made all things. He supports and preserves all things. All his works are full of wonders. He sent his Son to redeem us from sin and death.
Let us think how great God is. He is all-wise, all-powerful. He is in every place; and He is eternal. He had no beginning, and he will have no end.
What comes from God? All life comes from him, and he is the source of love and truth, knowledge and power, justice and mercy. Without him we could not live a moment. Oh! let us love and serve him as long as we live.
Creation. As I have told you something about God, we will now talk about Creation. Do you know what that word means? Well, I will try to tell you, but you must listen very attentively, and think, as it is rather difficult for little children to understand at first. I dare say you often sit upon a chair or stool when you are at home; and when you eat your dinner you sit at a table and eat off a plate with , a spoon, or knife and fork; at night you sleep upon a bed, and in the morning when you get up, you put on some clothes to keep you warm. Now, all these things must have been made by somebody and out of something. The chair and stool and table were made by a ? carpenter, and of? wood. The plate by a ? potter, and of ? clay. The knife and fork by a ? cutler, and of? metal. You see all these things are made by man, but did man make the wond, the clay, or the metal? Oh no! they were all created or produced by the power of God. When you look at this beautiful world, and all the things in it which are given us for our use and pleasure, do you not feel that some great Being whom we can not see must have made all ? Yes, dear children, you know it was Almighty God. He called into existence this wonderful world on which we live, the sun and moon and stars, which altogether we call Creation or the Universe. I will now begin to tell you the way in which God did this Do you think IIe had need of any thing to make the world with? No; he only spoke and it was done! Can any one else make things by speaking ? No. You are right; it is only Almighty God who can do such a wonderful thing. We are told that at first" the earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep;” that means, that the earth was without any agreeable shape or order, and that it was empty. There were no nice trees or plants to furnish it, por beautiful lakes and mountains and valleys, nor animals to inhabit it. First of all, God made the light. He said, “Let light be, and there was light." Then he made the air and sky, or firmament. Can you see the air ? No; but you can feel it. Do you know where the air is? It is every where; it covers the whole earth. Sometimes water comes down from the clouds; what do we call it? Rain. Now, God said, " Let the waters that are under the heavens be gathered togeth-r into one