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cent Roman citizen publicly mangled with fcourging, whilst the only words he uttered amidst his cruel sufferings, Were, “I am a Roman citizen !”
18. With these he hoped to defend himself from violence and infamy : but of so little service was this privilege to him, that while he was thus asserting his citizenship, the order was given for his execution for his execution upon the cross !
19. O liberty !-O fourd, once delightful to every Ronan ear ! facred privilege of Roman citizenship! Once facred, row transpled upon! But what then ! Is it come to this?
20. Shall an inferior magistrate, a governor who helds his own power of the Ronan people, in a Roman province, within fight of Italy, bind, fcourge, torture with fire and red hot plates of iron, and at last put to the infamous death of the cross, a Roman citizen?
21. Shall neither the cries of innocence, expiring in agony, nor the tears of pitying spectators, nor the majesty of the Roman commonwealth, nor the fear or the justice of his countıý, restrain the licentious and wanton cruelty of a monster, wino in cor.fidence of his riches, strikes at the root of liberty, and fets munkind at defiance ? 22. I conclude with exprefsing my hopes that your
wife dom, and justice, fathers, will not, by suffering the atrocious and unexampled infolence of Caius Verres to escape the due punishment, leave room to apprehend the danger of a total fubversion of authority, and introduction of ge. neral anarchy and confufion.
SPLECH of CANULLs, a Roman tribune, to tbe consuls; in
which bedemands tbat tbe Plebeians may be admitted into the Consulsbip; and that tbe law probibiting Patri, cians and Plebeians from intermarrying,may be repealed.
THAT an infult upon us is this! If we are not
lo rich as the Patricians, are we not citizens of Rome as well as they ? inhabitants of the fame country ? members of the fame community? The nations bordering upon Rome, and even strangers more remote, are admitted not only to marriage with us, but to what is of much greater importance, the freedom of the city.
2. Are we, because we are comigoners, to be worfe treated than ftrangers ? and when we demanded that the people may be free to bestow their offices and diguities on whom they pleafe, do we ak any thing unreafonable or
Do we claim more than their; original inherent right? What occafion then for all this uproar, as if the universe was falling to ruin? They were juft going to lay violent lands upon me in the senate house.
3. What! muft this empire then, be unavoidably overturned ? Must Rome of neceffity link at once, if a Plebeian, worthy of the office, thould be raised to the confulfhip? The Patricians, I am persuaded, if they could, would deprive you of the comnion light.
4. It certainly offends them that you breathe, that you speak, that you have the shapes of men.. Nay, but to make a commouer a consul, would be, say they, a most enormous thing. Numa Pompilius, however, without be ing so much as a Roinan citizen, was made king of Rome.
s. The elder Tarquin, by birth not even Italian, was nevertheless placed upon the throne. Servius Tullius, the son of a captive woman, (nobody knows who his father was) obtained the kingdom as the reward of Iris wildom and virtue.
6. In those days, no man, in whom virtue shone -confpicuous, was rejected or despised on account of his race and descent. And did the fate profper the less for that ? Were not thefe strangers tire very best of our kings ? And fuppofiog now, that a Plebeian fhould have their talents and merits, must not he be suffered to govern us ?
.7. But " we find, that upon the abolition of the regal power, no commoner was chosen to the confutate, And what of that p Before Numa's time there were no -pontiffs in Rome,
Before Servius Tullius' days, there was no census, no division of the people into classes and centuries. -Who ever heard of consuls before the expulfion of Tarquin the proud ? Dictators, we all know, are of modern inventioii; arid fo, are the offices of tribunes, ædiles, quæftors. . Within these ten years, we have made decemvirs
, and we have unnade then. Is nothing to be done but what has been done before? That very law, forbidding marriages of Patricia's and Plebeians, is not that a nie
thing? Was there any such law before the decemyris en acted it? And a most fameful one it is, in a free ftate, 9. Such marriages, it seemis will taint the
blood of the nobility! Why, if they think so, let them take care to match their fifters and daughters with men of their own fort. No Plebian will do violence to the daughter of a Patrician. Thofe are exploits for our prime nobles.
10. There is no need to fear that we mall force, any body into a contract of marriage. But to make an express law to prohibit marriages of Patricians with Plebeians, what is this but to fhow the utmost contempt of us, and to declare one part of the community to be impure
11. They talk to us of the confusion there will be in families if this statute should be repealed. I wonder they don't make a law against a commoner's living near a nobleman or going the same road that he is going ; or being present at the same feast, or appearing in the same market place.
12. They might as well pretend that these things make confusion in families, as that intermarriages will do it.Does not every one know that their children will be ranked according to the quality of their father, let him be a Patrician or a Plebeian? In short it is manifest enough that we have nothing in view but to be treated as men and citizens; nor can they, who oppose our demand, have any motive to do it, but the love of domineering.
13. I would fain know of you, Consuls and Patricians, is the fovereign power in the people of Rome, or in your I hope you will allow, that the people can at their pleasure either inake a law or repeal one.
14. And will you, then as soon as any law is proposed to them, pretend to lift them immediately for the war, and hinder them from giving their fuffrages by leading them into the field ?
15. Hear me, Consuls. Whether the news of the war you talk of be true; or whether it be only a false rumour (pread abroad for nothing but a colour to send the people out of the city, I declare as Tribune, that this people who have already so often spilt their blood in our country's cause, are again ready to arm for its defence
and its glory, if they may be restored to their natural rights, and you will no longer treat 'us like strangers in our own country.
16. But if you account us unworthy of your alliance by intermarriages, if you will not suffer the entrance to the chief offices in the state to be open to all persons of merit indifferently, but will confine your choice of magiftrates to the senate alone; talk of war as much as ever you please ; paint, in your ordinary discourses, the league. and power of our enemies, ten times nore dreadful than you do now, I declare that this people, whom you so much despise, and to whom you are nevertheless indebted for all your victories, shall never more inlift themselves; not a man of them fhall take any arms! not a man of them shall expose his life for imperious lords, with whom he can neither share the dignities of the state, nor in private life have any alliance by marriage. SPEECH of PUBLIUS Scipio to the ROMAN ARMy bee
fore the battle of Ticin. ERE you, soldiers, the same ariny which I had
with me in Gaul, I might well forbear faying any thing at this time ; for what occafion could there be to use exhortation to cavalry that had fo signally van. quished the squadrons of the enemy upon the Khone ; or to legions, by whom that fanie enemy, fying before them to avoid a battle, did in effect confess themselves con. quered ?
2.. But, as these troops having been enrolled for Spain are there with my brother Cneius, making war under my auspicies (as was the will of the senate and people of Rome) 1, that you might have a Conful for your "Captain againlt Hannibal and the Carthaginians, have freely offered my. self for this war. You then have a new General, and I a new army:
On this account, a few words from me to you will be neither improper nor unseafonable.
3. That you may not be unapprised of what sort of enemies you are going to encounter, or of what is to be feared froin them : they are the very fame, whom in a former war, you vanquished both by land sea; the same from whom you took' Sicily and Sardinia, and who have been these twenty years your tributaries.
4. You will not, I presume, march against these men with only that courage with which you are wont to face
W with me
other enemies ; but with a certain anger and indignation such as you would feel if
flaves on a sudden nife up against you.
5. Conquered and endlaved, it is not boldness, but necellity that urges them to battle ; unless you can believe that those, who avoided fighting when their army was en: tíre, have acquired better hope by the lofs of two thirds of their korle and food in passing the Alps. 6, But
you have heard perhaps, that though they are few in number, they are men of stout hearts, and tobust bodies; heroes of such strength and vigoar, as nothing is able to refift.-Mere effigies! nay thadows of men! wretches, emaciated with hunger, and benuinbed with cold
i bruised and battered to pieces among the rocks and craggy cliffs ! their weapons broken, and their horses weak and foundered ! Such are the cavalry, and such the infantry; with which you are going to contend l; not enemies but the fragments of enemies.
7. There is nothing which I more apprehend, than that it will be thought Hannibal was vanquilled by the Alps before we had any conflict with himn. But, perhaps, it was fitting it should be fo ; and that, with a people and a leader who had violated leagues and covenants, the gods theinselves, without'man's hely, fhould begin the war, and bring it to a near conclufion; and that we, who next to the gods, have been injured and offended should happily finish: what they have begu:12.
8. I need not be in any fear that you should suspect me of saying these things merely to encourage you, while inwardly I have different sentiments. What hindered me from going to Spain? That was my province, where I should have had the less dreadful Afdrubal, not Hannibal to deal with.
9. But, hearing, as I passed along the coast of Gaul, of this enemy's march, I landed my troops, fent the horse forward, and pitched my camp upon the Rhone. A part of my cavalry encountered and defeated that of the enemy. My infantry not being able to overtake their's, which filed before us, I returned to my feet; and with all the expedition I could use in fo long a voyage by sea and land am come to meet them at the foot of the Alps.
10. Was it, then, my jaclinaliou to avoid a contest with