Evidence and Evolution: The Logic Behind the Science
Cambridge University Press, 27 бер. 2008 р.
How should the concept of evidence be understood? And how does the concept of evidence apply to the controversy about creationism as well as to work in evolutionary biology about natural selection and common ancestry? In this rich and wide-ranging book, Elliott Sober investigates general questions about probability and evidence and shows how the answers he develops to those questions apply to the specifics of evolutionary biology. Drawing on a set of fascinating examples, he analyzes whether claims about intelligent design are untestable; whether they are discredited by the fact that many adaptations are imperfect; how evidence bears on whether present species trace back to common ancestors; how hypotheses about natural selection can be tested, and many other issues. His book will interest all readers who want to understand philosophical questions about evidence and evolution, as they arise both in Darwin's work and in contemporary biological research.
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AIC score ancestry assign assumptions Bayesian biologists causal centimeters cladistic coin common ancestor complex concept consider Darwin data set deﬁned deﬁnition depicted in Figure descendants described design argument dichotomous character drift entails estimate evidential evolution evolutionary biology evolutionary process evolve example fact favor ﬁnd ﬁnite ﬁrst ﬁt ﬁtness function ﬁtted models fossil frequency frequency-dependent selection frequentists fur length higher likelihood human independent inference inﬁnite inﬂuence intelligent design intelligent-design justiﬁed lands heads law of likelihood likelihood ratio likelihoodists lineage logically means model-selection modus tollens natural selection null hypothesis observations optimal organisms Paley Paley’s parsimony phenotypic phylogenetic tree polar bears population posterior probabilities postulated PrðX predictive accuracy prior probabilities probabilistic problem proposition question random reﬂect reject scientiﬁc signiﬁcance tests similarity SPD hypothesis species speciﬁc sufﬁce Suppose testability theorem total evidence trait value transformation series tree true tuberculosis twenty tosses uniﬁed vertebrates
Сторінка 109 - To conclude therefore, let no man, upon a weak conceit of sobriety or an ill-applied moderation, think or maintain that a man can search too far or be too well studied in the book of God's word or in the book of God's works ; divinity or philosophy; but rather let men endeavour an endless progress or proficience in both...
Сторінка 118 - I knew to the contrary, it had lain there for ever: nor would it perhaps be very easy to show the absurdity of this answer. But suppose I had found a watch upon the ground, and it should be inquired how the watch happened to be in that place, I should hardly think of the answer which I had...
Сторінка 159 - To suppose that the eye, with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest possible degree.
Сторінка 111 - There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved.
Сторінка 266 - I believe that animals are descended from at most only four or five progenitors, and plants from an equal or lesser number.
Сторінка 111 - It is mere rubbish, thinking at present of the origin of life ; one might as well think of the origin of matter.
Сторінка 119 - ... the inference, we think, is inevitable, that the watch must have had a maker ; that there must have existed, at some time, and at some place or other, an artificer or artificers, who formed it for the purpose which we find it actually to answer ; who comprehended its construction, and designed its use.
Сторінка 297 - ... although of the utmost importance to the welfare of the being, are almost valueless to the systematist. For animals, belonging to two most distinct lines of descent, may readily become adapted to similar conditions, and thus assume a close external resemblance : but such resemblances will not reveal — will rather tend to conceal their blood-relationship to their proper lines of descent.
Сторінка 109 - But with regard to the material world, we can at least go so far as this — we can perceive that events are brought about not by insulated interpositions of Divine power, exerted in each particular case, but by the establishment of general laws.
Сторінка 170 - ... infer a man, it is only the resemblance of the effects which leads us to conclude that there is a like resemblance in the cause : but that this extraordinary voice, by its loudness, extent, and flexibility to all languages, bears so little analogy to any human voice, that we have no reason to suppose any analogy in their causes : and consequently, that a rational, wise, coherent speech proceeded, you...