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JULY, 19 2 3

of us.

charge car by the smell of the smoke. I didn't want enough workmanship in me to know that a system to have my fingers curl up in me! I didn't want to that is slung together in such a haywire manner has have dagger pains in every joint of my body till had some damn poor mechanics on the job. they reached my heart and stopped the works! I am Tightline Johnson and any bull of the woods

“And neither did Andy. I went back on the floor will tell you that Tightline may be a hard-boiled with Andy when my time was up and I still had wobbly but he wears ,no chinwhiskers as a fog money ahead. I still was holdin' out on the com- buster and can handle a yarder with any man that pany—and they knew it.

walks on two legs. Just ask 'em and see. And what “Two weeks after I went back to work we was I can do with a yarder in the way of nursin' it along paid off again. I had nothin' comin' for they took and makin' the parts run easy and smooth, me and it out for my board. Andy was decoyed and tanked the rest of us wobs has been tryin' to do with up again. Oh! Yes! I saw the whole thing—and I the system of production and distribution of the couldn't help it. But next night when Andy and I things we make. came on the Graveyard shift together I turned "Because I am a rebel against the slave-drivin' double, trick, for the old man was down and out. system that takes all that a man produces and gives Sweatin' and puffin' I pushed the buggies for both him no chance in life unless he lines up and fights

because I have shown my fellow workers how and At three o'clock in the mornin' I knocked off to why to line up they have made an outcast and an throw in a gulp of black coffee and a couple of bites outlaw out of me. Every gunman's hand is against of sinker from my lump. When I came back on me. Every scab and fink hates me and all that are the feed floor Andy was gone. And I knew that

like me. Andy had taken his last big smell of the smoke. “They have kept me on the bum. They have Leanin' over into the charge I could see an outline driven me from camp to camp/blacklisting my of his bones down below in the colored flames. name from Ketchikan to Eureka, Calif. They have

I ran like mad to the furnace boss. But he said thrown me into jails—hunted for me with ropes he dassent blow out the furnace. So at the last the in their hands-hired an army of stoolpigeons and *company got back even the lead that had been eatin' spies to sneak out the secrets of my organization into Andy's bones and playin' tag thru Andy's veins. when we have no secrets to hide. They have sent "I could never face a feed floor again. I was done. hundreds of my best friends and the whitest men

that were ever born-have sent them into prison “Before I got another job I was flat broke. Could because they have ideals. I write home and tell my mother that I was already “I ask you is a man who is living such a life and a bum beatin' my way on freight cars to every fighting such a battle in a position to take on a place where I heard of a job? I ask you, fellow wife? Can one whose very freedom is in jeopardy worker, could you do that?

every day and every hour bring peace and happiness “When after many months I did get some money into a love life? Is it treating a girl fair to call -after I did find a place in the damnable profit up in her the tender feelings of love only to tear her makin' machinery of business and sent for her—she heart to bits with fear and perhaps leave her weepin' was dead!

with the little ones when they send you to the big í “Died of a broken heart, they said, while I was house? grabbin' armsful of box cars lookin' for a job “I never walked a dirty street by choice. I never at anything, for anything-except chargin' a lead went into a brothel by preference. furnace.

“I have trembled at the thought of a sweet wom“Did that ever happen to you? Was you ever in an's arms clasped about me in love. I have stood with a fix like that? Better think it over, fellow worker- my throat choked with a string of burning lumpsseems like somethin' was wrong. Some said-hard outside of some bourgeois's home, and watched a luck. But I cut my eye teeth on that hard luck- while the antics of the clean children playin' on I seen it from every side. It is worse than that. the lawn. “I had an instinct of solidarity! I had a feelin'

“You sit up there and tell me I am not wanted! swell up inside me at a job well done. And it was

You sit up there and say that I am a waster of my these feelin's that made a rebel out of me. I want

natural gifts! How would you act and what would to show my solidarity to my fellow workers at

you do? Just answer me that!" every chance by puttin' my shoulder to the wheel

And do you know the old geezer broke down and and helpin' them to make things better so that no

cried like a baby.other kid will have to go thru the mill that me and millions more like me has bucked up against. I got And when I woke up it was mornin'


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Savage Survivals in Higher Peoples



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LL civilized peoples have come from savage
peoples. They have grown from savages, just

as you and I as individuals have grown from babies. It is important to know this. For we can't understand the things civilized men and women do and think and feel-many of them are so barbarous and strange—unless we recognize the fact that civilized men and women are merely made-over savages.

It is also important to know something of the nature and ideas of savages; so that we can compare them with our own nature and ideas and see how much of us has survived from savage times and how much has been produced since then.

These articles will prove that all higher peoples go back in their ancestry to savages, and will show what sort of beings savages are; that is, something about what sort of animals our ancestors were.

Where the English Came From Go back into the past two or three.thousand years, and you don't find any English in the world, nor any French, nor Spanish, nor Germans, nor Russians. But what you do find is that each of these modern peoples is represented at that time by one or more barbarous tribes, from which it has grown. The English go back to the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, three barbarous or semi-barbarous tribes that lived originally in the region of Denmark and southward. They came over and settled the island of Great Britain fourteen or fifteen hundred years ago. The first settlement was made about 449 A. D.

These people were very rude. They dressed in skins, loved adventure, and were fond of water. They lived a good deal by pillage. They would get in their boats and cruise along the coast of the Baltic till they came to a town of some other tribe. They would drive the people out or kill them, plunder the town, and then burn it. They thought this was the proper thing to do; for they acted on the principle that "might makes right”; that is, on the principle that it is right to do whatever one has the power to do.

Wherever you go you find the English—in North and South America (we are English), in South Africa, Australia, India, and in many islands of the sea. The English, more than any other people, have been the explorers and settlers of the planet. The English-speaking peoples are so enterprising that they already occupy a large part of the surface of the earth, including practically two whole continents.

One reason why the English have been so restless as a race is because their ancestors were that kind of a people—sea-rovers. Suppose the English had come from land animals—beings who lived in the interior of Europe, a quiet, home-loving, peaceful people. Don't you suppose the history of England

would have been a very different thing from what it is today? The adult English people merely reflect the character of the infant peoples from whom they have grown, just as a grown man is in a general way like what he was when he was a child.

Other Modern Peoples The French came from the Gauls, scattered tribes that lived in the region of what is now France at the time of the Roman Empire.

The Germans came from the Goths, Vandals, and Cimbri, three barbarous tribes that lived in central Europe and assisted in overrunning the Roman Empire.

The Italians come from the Romans, a people who spoke the Latin language and lived in the peninsula of Italy and other Mediterranean lands about the time of Christ and later.

The modern Greeks are from the ancient Greeks.

And all of the modern white peoples-Russians, Germans, French, English, Swedes, and Americanscan trace their ancestry back, by means of common languages and common legends, to a people who came long ago out of the East, out of the land beyond the Caspian. These people came into what is now Europe and settled there long before written history. And from them all of the modern European peoples have come. So you see we have all branched from the same tribe if we go back far enough.

The Cradle of Mankind But where did these original white people come from? And where did the dark peoples come from? And the Chinese? and the Indians? Where was the cradle of the human species? In what part of the world and at what time did man originate as a new and distinct species of animal? This must have occurred at some certain place on the earth and at some definite period af time.

It is pretty certain that the human species did not originate in what is called the western half of the earth and spread from there as a center over the world. For reasons, the most of which I cannot give you, because it would take too long to make them plain, it is believed by scientists that the cradle of mankind was somewhere in the eastern hemisphere.

One reason for this belief is that it is here that we find the oldest tracks of man, the earliest evidence of his existence in the world. We can go back into the civilization of the Nile and of the Euphrates and of some of the rivers of India for thousands of years, in some places 8,000 or 10,000 years. Here we find one civilization on top of another. Here are found the things men have fought with and worked with and lived in-objects which have defied the teeth of time, and which endure long after their creators have vanished. It is believed that man originated somewhere in southern Asia.

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JULY, 19 2 3

Or, possibly, still further south than the present only get at them we would find many things in the boundary of Asia, in lands now drowned by the lands under the sea that would be useful to us land Indian Ocean. This supposed land has been called animals. Maybe, sometime, when we have exhausted Lemuria.

the stores of the land, we shall get so hard up or Changes in Geography

so skilled that we shall be able to get at these You know from your study of physiography that drowned treasures beneath the oceans. a large part of what is now the land surface of the We know that there have been many changes in earth was once the floor of the sea. Sandstone and the geography of the earth in the past—that the limestone, which are so common over the land sur- geography of the earth a million or ten million faces, we know, are made under water, and no years ago was not what it is today. We know that place else. And we find the fossils of fishes and Africa was joined to Europe at Gibraltar until other water animals scattered all over the land, rather recent times in the history of the earth, even to the mountain tops. The remains of a whale and that Asia and North America were united at were found in northern Mississippi the other day. Behring Strait. This animal, when it died, was swimming in the Geologists say that North and South America Mississippi Sea, a great body of water which once have been separate continents during most of their extended from the Gulf of Mexico over what is geological history. The Isthmus of Panama is very now the Great Central Plains of the United States. recent, geologically speaking. There are reasons for

The City of Louisville, Kentucky, is built where believing that before South America was joined it is because the Ohio river has a fall there. This to North America it was connected with Africa and fall is caused by a coral reef running across the even Australia ( forming a great Antartic continent. river at that point. Corals are sea animals. And In the Pliocene age of geology Alaska was joined the corals that located the city of Louisville by to Asia by a rather wide isthmus. It was over this forming a reef at that particular place and com- isthmus of Behring that many of the North Amerpelling the Ohio river to stumble over it, lived and ican animals first came into America from Asia. died in that far off time when Indiana and Kentucky Animals like the buffalo and the mountain sheep formed a part of the floor of the Mississippi Sea. did not originate in America. They came from

Now, it is not so well known, but it is a fair Asia. And they came over the Behring bridge in the inference, that much of what is now water surface Pliocene age of the world. No bones of these anwas once land surface. We mine coal under the imals are found in America previous to this time. sea some places. And I suppose that if we could The Indians also no doubt came into America from


Lands (Shaded) and Seas (White) at the Beginning of the Eocene Epoch.



Asia by the same route, altho the Indians came much a branch of the orange race probably moved on later than the buffalo.

over from Asia, past the Behring Strait region, into Until comparatively recent times in geological what is now called America, forming a modification history, the island of Great Britain was joined to, of the orange race, the copper or red race, the soand formed a part of, the Continent of Europe. The called American Indians. And another branch of the earliest inhabitants of Great Britain were Celts. species moved eastward to the Malay peninsula, They were called Britons by the Anglo-Saxons. Great the East India Islands, Borneo, New Guinea, the isBritain may not have become an island until some lands of the South Pacific, on as far as the Hawaiian time after it was settled by human beings. The Islands, forming the brown or Malay race. This Celts may have walked dry-shod over what is now gives you a little idea of the scattering out of the the North Sea into what was then a western penin- different races of men from the original human nest. sula of Continental Europe. That is, when England The Malays are an island race. They love the was first settled by human beings, it may have been water and are at home in the water. They have been a peninsula.

developed in connection with the water, and are How Old Is Man?

largely water animals. You know there is one species How long it has been since man originated as a of buffalo that is called the "water buffalo," because new species of animal, no one knows. But it is it loves the water. The Malays are water men. known that it was a long time ago. Until fifty or The Hawaiian islands were not settled from North one hundred years ago, it was generally supposed America nor Asia, but by those brown sea-rovers that human beings had not existed on the earth from the southwest. The nearest land to the more than five or six thousand years. But the Hawaiian islands is over 2,000 miles away. How the more man is studied and the more the earth is rum- first human inhabitants of those remote dots ever maged, the further back into the past is the begin- found their way over the vast wave-wastes they ning of things known to be. It is known positively had to traverse before getting there no one will that there have been living beings on the earth for ever know. But probably they were refugees, carried a good many millions of years. It is estimated that out to sea by a storm, and losing their way on the life has existed on the earth for fifty or one hundred trackless plains, wandered on and on, until they million years; that is, that the animal kingdom is happened to stumble upon those hitherto unknown fifty or one hundred million years old. But during volcano-tops. We know such things can happen, most of this time there were no human beings in the for a junk with survivors on board drifted ashore world. Man is a recent species. But it is believed from the west at the Hawaiian islands in December, that man has existed on the earth for as much as 1832. five hundred thousand years.

The First Men
The Spread of Mankind

Original men, that is, the first men who ever The human species probably originated somewhere

existed, probably lived in small, loose bands, each in the Indian region of southern Asia. And from

band being composed of from 20 to 50 or more inthis as a center it has spread pretty thoroughly over

dividuals. These bands, in their organization and the land surfaces of the globe, not only over the con

modes of life, were probably very much like the tinents but to most of the islands. One branch

bands of other animals that are met with today moved westward and formed the dark people of

in the forests and on the prairies. They were without Africa. Another moved north and northwest and

fixed places of abode. They subsisted on the fruits, became the white or Caucasian race. Another moved

nuts, roots, young shoots, and bird's eggs which north and east and developed into the yellow or they came upon during their wanderings thru the orange race, that is, the Chinese, Japanese, etc. And

forest. These bands of early men must have had only

the bare beginnings of law and government. Each band was led by an old male as chief, who had won his position as leader by his exceptional strength and intelligence. There was probably no family life, the sexes mingling much as among lower animals generally. Early men lived in a tropical climate, and were without either clothes or

fire. They had long arms, and short, weak LEMURIA

legs. Their weapons were sticks and stones. They were able to overcome all except the larger animals by co-operation and the force of numbers. They probably used the trees a great deal as a refuge in time of danger. They may have had the beginnings of super

stition, The Spread of Mankind.

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Editor's Note.—The above is the first of a series author of these articles is Professor J. Howard of articles dealing with the origin and descent of Moore, one of the world's greatest authorities on man, special emphasis being laid on the survival of anthropology. For the permission to print this work primitive traits both in human beings and in domes- we are indebted to the publishing house of Chas. ticated aninials. This is a subject in which all think- H. Kerr & Co. of Chicago, who first brought it cut ing men and women are intensely interested. The in book form under the title of “Savage Survivals.”

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HE people is a beast of muddy brain

That knows not its own strength, and therefore stands
Loaded with wood and stone; the powerless hands
Of a mere child guide it with bit and rein;
One kick would be enough to break the chain,
But the beast fears, and what the child demands
It does; nor its own terror understands,
Confused and stupefied by bugbears vain.
Most wonderful! With its own hand it ties
And gags itself-gives itself death and war
For pence doled out by kings from its own store.
Its own are all things between earth and heaven;
But this it knows not; and if one arise
To tell this truth, it kills him unforgiven.

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