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It is no different with the auto industry. one-half of one per cent of the Earth's Consider Henry Ford alone. Here's a vast, people produces one-sixth of the world's international corporation, radiating from pig iron and the same proportion of its Detroit, Michigan, outward to many cities coal!' and lands. How about conquering it for “There is more eulogy of a similar kind. industrial unionism? And then there's the The reader learns, 'Yet, with all of this Studebaker, and other auto corporations to concentration, Pennsylvania has a greater be considered in addition.
diversity of industries than any other State, There is more in the giant industrialism leading both New York and Illinois in that of the East than is dreamed of in the in- particular.' The 'heavy manufactures' dustrial union philosophy of the West. abound in Pennsylvania, viz., steel and
Take the State of Pennsylvania, as an iron. In addition, The State makes nearly example. There's the home of the steel half of the country's cotton lace, more than trust, the Bethlehem Steel Company, the a third of its carpets and rugs, more than a Jones and Laughlin Co., and other colossal third of its chocolate and cocoa, nearly half steel corporations and coal companies. Let of its felt hats, and more than a third of us quote some facts and figures from the its silk. It produces more asbestos manuMay, 1919, issue of “The National Geo- factures than all the rest of the country, graphic Magazine,” as reprinted in Indus- and more bluing, ice cream, hammocks, trial Solidarity of March 10, 1923. This and leather than any other State repremagazine contained an article entitled : sented on our starry flag.' Tobacco and “The Industrial Titan of America. Penn- cement
cement also figure in Pennsylvania's insylvania, Once the Keystone of the Orig- dustries. inal Thirteen, Now the Keystone of Forty- “The reader learns further that the 'true Eight Sovereign States."
value of all the property in the CommonThe article says: "Measured in terms of wealth amounts to more than 15 billion our own country, Pennsylvania has many dollars'.... this is four billion dollars more surprises for the investigator of its position than the aggregate wealth of all New Engin the Union. One might add the popula- land and only 5 billions less than the nations of four far-western states to that of tional wealth of Italy.' all New England and still have fewer peo- "Some state! The sender of the article ple than dwell in the land of William Penn. to Industrial Solidarity says: 'Do you want Draw a line from the Canadian border to workers in the industries to organize? the Rio Grande on the meridian that sepa- Come here; the state is full of both. Most rates the Dakotas and Nebraska from Mon- of the workers are unorganized. Here's tana and Wyoming, and all of the people your chance.' who live between that line and on the "It sure is.” shores of the Pacific would barely suffice Industrial Unionism in the East to equal Penn-land's population."
Such is the problem of industrial union “This includes eleven states.
organization in the East. How can it be “The article also says: 'The manufactur- met? Very easily. Merely by extending ing industry of the State is an epic of human all the present industrial union activities energy. What bit of fiction could thrill more eastward. For instance, New York State than the facts showing how one-twelfth has a big agricultural and canning section of the people of the United States, the in Monroe county, or in and about Rochbusiest nation on the face of the earth, ester. Why not transfer some of the can succeed in producing one-eight of activities of the Agricultural Workers' Inthe Republic's manufactures and more dustrial Union there; and in that way add than one-fourth of its minerals. Or to and promote I. W. W. agitation in New what story could appeal more than the one York State ? which tells how a district constituting only By the way, new fields for western mi
gratory workers will become inevitable big field for
big field for the General Construction within a few more years. With the farmers Workers' Industrial Union No. 310. being driven from the farms, the labor of The point is this, that, with I. W. W. migratory workers on the farms of the activities extended to the eastern states, I. West will be useless. In other words, the W. W. prospects and strength will increase migratory worker will be displaced and there. A case i'n point is the presence of rendered more idle than at present. Farm- the Marine Transport Workers' branch at ing will be industrialized, with fewer hands Philadelphia. This served as a base that needed.
enabled the Metal and Machinery WorkBut to resume the argument on ways and ers’ Industrial Union, No. 440, to organize means of shifting the base of I. W. W. the recent revolt in Schwab's steel hells activities eastward. Take Maine, New at Bethlehem, Pa.
at Bethlehem, Pa. This should be dupliYork, Minnesota and Wisconsin: They cated everywhere in the East by the extenhave big lumber interests operated by big sion of all I. W. W. activities eastward. capital and employing hundreds of lumber In the future, let us add to the old Wobworkers. How about transferring some of bly harvest song, “We are coming home, the activities of the Lumber Workers' In- John Farmer; we are coming back to stay," dustrial Union, I. W. W., to these states, this song, “We are coming home, Plutocthereby strengthening the other I. W. W. racy; we are coming home to stay ; to propaganda in them?
organize the big industries and break your The same thing can be said of general iron sway." construction. New York is building canals And let it be soon. For without a and aqueducts that require labor organ- triumph in big industry, such as the East ization. It presents a big field for Railroad
presents, we, the workers, to use the verWorkers' Industrial Union No. 520, just as nacular, can get nowhere. Big industry is the aforementioned enterprises provide a the nut to crack. Let us crack it!
ANY people are sorely puzzled as to the real reasons why the I. W. W. war-opinion pris
oners are still incarcerated. There are still others who do not know just what is back of the present vicious persecutions in California. With the object of getting to the bottom of this thing, we interviewed Harry Feinberg, Secretary of the General Defense Committee.
How much longer will these men, whose only crime has been love of humanity and commendable persistence in adhering to their honest opinions, have to remain in prison? So we asked Feinberg this quesbion:
“What are the latest developments in the cases of the I. W. W. class-war prisoners in Leavenworth?”
"There are no late developments,” said Feinberg. "So far as anybody krows, the status of the prisoners is the same today as it was months ago. There have been rumors but they have remained rumors. Although hundreds of thousands of people all over the country have appealed for the release of these men, the administration remains adamant.
"The action of the Harding Administration has been a sad blow to all who believe in fair play. Multitudes of men and women prominent in all walks of life, senators, representatives, bishops, priests, professors, judges, municipal officials, social workers and others have appealed for amnesty, but, -no result. There has never been another case to parallel this in the entire history of the United States.
President Breaks His Promise “Take, for instance, the mammoth petition that was presented to the President on July 19, 1922. It comprised over 300,000 signatures. Practically every church and liberal organization, to say nothing of labor organizations, joined in the appeal for amnesty. The President promised to review all the cases inside of sixty days. Nothing was done at the expiration of that time, so we gave him 30 days' grace, in view of his being swamped with work at the time.
“Was anything done after the 90 days? thing. So we started another intensive amnesty campaign. During the drive Senator William E. Borah spoke to large audiences in practically all the big cities in the country, urging the release of the wartime prisoners. Numerous publications came out editorially in favor of amnesty. Senator George Wharton Pepper reviewed the Chicago I. W. W. trial, and having found that there was no earthly ground on which the men could be justly retained behind prison bars, recommended to the President their immediate and unconditional release; still no results. Only a few weeks ago 51 bishops signed a letter asking amnesty. In Cleveland 500 delegates to the Methodist Episcopal Church Council of Cities passed a resolution asking the release of the prisoners. All this has failed to move the administration at Washington.
“True, a few have been released and deported. Also a few have been released on individual clemINDUSTRIAL PIONEER
ency applications. This, however, does not affect the cases of those still behind prison walls, as they are American born citizens, and have never committed any actual crime, so have no grounds on which to apply for clemency."
"In view of all this that you have just told me, what will be your next move? If appeals to executive clemency have failed, surely the General · Defense Committee must be contemplating action
along other lines.”
whatever reputation it had in other countries for being the home of the brave and the land of the free.
“Also, it has been hit in the pocketbook through the actions of the workers in other parts of the world, particularly in South and Central America. In Argentina, the largest labor unions have officially protested against the continued imprisonment of the politicals here. And the Argentine Syndicalist Union has announced that it will picket all ships from the United States, asking Yankee passengers why this nation does not let the European war come to an end.
"Thousands of workingmen and women in Mexico are participating in a boycott against all moving picture films made in the States. This news is spreading swiftly throughout the South American countries, where the workers are expected to do likewise.
“Many labor organizations and liberty-loving individuals in Europe have sent appeals for the politicals to the nearest U. S. consul or direct to President Harding."
Economic Pressure Is Next Step “We are now resorting to economic pressure," answered the defense secretary. "The sentiment among the rank and file of the Industrial Workers of the World at the present time is for a general strike. Hit the master class in the pocketbook and maybe it will wake up.
“There is more activity among the I. W. W. membership on the Pacific Coast today than ever before. They want action, and they want it quick. They have become impatient of dilly-dallying with an administration whose actions are evidently determined by unseen forces.
“Two circuit courts of appeals threw out the two counts against the prisoners charging sabotage and property destruction. Yet the administration, contrary to all legal precedent, ignores the appeals courts' action. So what can we do? Economic action on as large a scale as possible is now the only means to effect the release of these innocent men. The general strike will do it."
“Will you mention some of the more prominent organizations and individuals who have been active in the amnesty campaign ?” was our next question.
"Well, besides the ones whom I have already mentioned, there is Charles Nagel, Secretary of Commerce and Labor under Taft, and an ex-cabinet minister who served under McKinley and Roosevelt, whose name I am not going to mention, has contributed money. Besides, just recently the Wisconsin Senate passed a resolution urging the release of the war-opinion prisoners.”
“What particular group of capitalists, in your opinion, is especially active in keeping the men behind bars?"
“I could not say what special interests, are responsible for the outrage. All that I know is that the capitalist class in general is to be blamed for keeping these innocent men in prison. Of course, their flunkeys and cohorts, such as the American Legion and other reactionary and lawless elements, are always on the job."
"Is it not a fact that war-opinion prisoners have been released in every country on the face of the earth? How do these other countries look upon this survival of vicious persecution in the United States?"
All Other Nations Have Given Amnesty “I am glad you asked me that,” answered Feinberg, “Yes, all other nations have freed their waropinion prisoners and the United States is fast losing
California Shows Its Fangs Next we wanted to know about the persecutions going on in California. Whence comes this terrible outburst of viciousness against the working class in that paradise of the United States? We were informed that some 48 members of the I. W. W. are incarcerated in San Quentin and Folsom penitentiaries, serving sentences ranging from one to 25 years. In the case of most prisoners starting out on an indeterminate sentence, a flat sentence is given to them after one year, but with the I. W. W.S, it is sometimes two or more years before they learn the exact length of their incarceration. Besides these 48, there are about 20 out on bail today awaiting the results of appeal, and on top of these, somewhere around 50 who are still waiting trial. Most of these latter, however, are in on vagrancy charges.
“On what grounds have most of these workingmen been convicted ?" we asked.
“Of membership in the I. W. W., under the crininal syndicalism law. No overt acts of violence, sabotage, or destruction of property have been proved against any of them. Yet there they are, behind penitentiary walls for the 'crime' of belonging to a labor union."
“How about the three professional witnesses used by the state,—Dymond, Coutts and Townsend? Are they as bad as they have been painted by the pa
This touched a sore spot in the defense secretary's makeup. "Bad! Why, bad is no name for it! They are degenerates of an unspeakable type. Each of them ought to be given at least a hundred years in the penitentiary and barred forever from associating with human beings. Yet here are the facts: These proven and self-confessed sexual degenerates and criminals are being employed by the State of California to uphold the sanctity of its laws. Has ever
anything more offensive to all sense of decency and Californians from the machinations of this ring of fair play been pulled off anywhere on the face of high-handed politicians. It is also highly probable the earth ?”
that it is but a repetition of what is taking place in
regard to the Leavenworth prisoners. They are beTerrorism in San Francisco
ing used as a smoke-screen by the grafting con“What is back of the raid on the California de
tractors who defrauded the people of the United fense office in San Francisco and the arrest of its
States out of millions of dollars during the war. secretary, Tom Connors ?”
What more natural than this? Do not many bur“Intimidation and lawlessness, pure and simple. glars, when they contemplate pulling off an especially Connors was doing a lot of good work for the de
big job, start a fire in the neighborhood, so as to fense, so he had to be put out of the way. He had
throw off the attention of the people from what created a lot of sentiment for the repeal of the
they intend to do? criminal syndicalism law. His activities were getting
“What particular interests, in your opinion, are results. He was arousing a sense of justice in the
back of the prosecution ?” citizens and taxpayers of California, so naturally
“That is a hard question to answer. There is a man like that could not be tolerated by the cor
little doubt, however, that the lumber and railroad rupt powers that rule that state.
interests are backing it, and also possibly the South"He was arrested on a warrant sworn out by
ern California Edison Company. And many raids the authorities of Sacramento County, for tamper
on the Marine Transport Workers in San Francisco ing with a jury, simply because one of the defense
were made at the direct request of Andrew Furuseth circulars reprinting an editorial from the Fresno
of the International Seamen's Union. Daily Republican had accidentally fallen into the
The ferocity with which the Los Angeles prosecuhands of a juror in a syndicalism trial in Sacra
tions have been waged can be laid directly at the mento. Newspapers which are vehemently opposed
door of Thomas Lee Woolwine, district attorney of to the I. W. W. reach jurors right along. Why are
Los Angeles county, who attempts to shield his own the owners of these newspapers not thrown into
ill-doing by attacking others whom he thinks too prison?”
weak to resist effectively; in Sacramento, they are "How will the utter disregard for law, order,
partly due to the insane hatred which McClatchey, precedent and justice by the California courts react
owner of the Sacramento Bee, bears to all liberalupon the rest of the country?”
minded people, I. W. W.s or no; and since the "It merely emphasizes what class-conscious work
Southern California Edison Company is now emers have known for years; that there is one law for
ploying F. W. Kelly, who represented the Departthe workingmen and another for the employers. The
men of Justice in the I. W. W. war trial at Sacracourts are seen to be nothing but instruments in the
mento, its participation in the prosecution of I. W. hands of the industrial overlords. Another result
Wis is not difficult to explain. The American has been that in California itself the entire fabric
Legion, too, not only upholds the California syndicof criminal procedure has collapsed. For years past alism law, but at this time is sending emissaries the American people have been told to have respect
into Oregon in an effort to induce the legislature of for the courts, but the actions of the courts them
that state to rewrite its syndicalism law to conform selves have been such as to inspire nothing but dis
to the California statute.” respect from all justice-loving people.” “How about these professional witnesses? Do you
Struggle in California Must Go On think that other states may follow California's ex
There was still another point on which we wanted ample in employing self-confessed criminals and
to be straightened out, which had been raised by moral degenerates as state witnesses ?”
some well-meaning people who have the interests of “No, I do not. California uses them because it
labor close at heart. can get away with it. It was done in the Mooney
"Why not abandon the struggle in California for case and other cases, and it is being done today.
the time being and concentrate on organization work You must remember that California has been so
somewhere else? How would the membership of the long controlled by unscrupulous public utility cor
I. W. W. look at any such proposal? Or is it at all porations and railroads that they have lost all sense of political decency. It is doubtful that, if the things
possible or practical, in the first place ?" done in California were attempted in other states,
“This is not possible, practical, nor advisable. It the reactionaries could get away with them."
is impractical for the simple reason that the members
of the Industrial Workers of the World do not carry 1. W. W. Used as Smoke-Screen
on the struggle out of visionary or idealistic motives, “What connection do you see between the present but because they work in the State of California. persecution of the I. W. W. and the control of Cali- They are there, and they are attempting to organize fornia's politics by the ring mentioned above?" on the job in order to get as many benefits from the
“Well, it seems to me that the I. W. W. is being employers as possible. Another thing, if we were to used by these selfish interests merely as a smoke- give up the struggle, or make an attempt to do so, screen to divert the attention of the well-meaning we thereby would practically admit our guilt.