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Ball BearingA bearing in which revolving steel balls aid in over

coming friction. Ball CageA metal cup, ring, or recess, holding the balls in a ball

bearing. Ball Check-A check valve in which a ball fits over the opening, in

place of a regular valve. Ball Pein—The round end of a machinist's hammer. Ball RaceHardened steel washers, or disks, against which the balls

bear in a ball bearing. BearingsThe parts on which a revolving surface rests, or through

which it passes in contact. BedThe surface to which a motor is fastened by its bed plate. Bed Plate-The flat surface at the base of a motor used to attach

the engine to its bed. Bell Crank-An angular crank transmitting power, or pull, at right

angles. Bevel GearCog-wheels, or gears, with sloping faces for transmitting

power at an angle. Binding Post—The post, or metal object, to which electrical wires are

fastened. Boxes—The metal casings which contain, or hold, bearings in place. Brasses—Bearings of bronze or brass used in place of babbitt. Break SparkAn electrical spark produced by interrupting or

breaking an electrical current. Breaker-An object for breaking or interrupting an electrical current. BrushesMetal or carbon points used to gather or transmit elec

tricity from the armature of a magneto to the wires. Burr-A roughened or enlarged edge, or end, of a bolt, shaft, pipe,

or other metal object. BushingA cylindrical shell or casing to reduce a hole in a pipe,

wheel, or other object or to enlarge the object that passes through

a hole. Butt SparkSee Kiss Spark. By-passThe passage through which the explosive gas passes from

the base to the firing chamber of a two-cycle motor.

Cam-An irregular or variously shaped piece attached to a shaft

and so designed as to transmit a varying motion. Cam Gear—The gear used to operate a cam. Cam ShaftThe shaft, or spindle, carrying a cam. Calorific Power—The power actually contained in a unit of heat.

Calorific ValueThe number of thermal, or heat, units contained in

a certain quantity of fuel. Cap ScrewA form of machine screw, or bolt, having a square or

hexagonal head. Carburetor--A device for so combining or mixing liquid fuel with

air as to produce an explosive or combustible gas. Castellated Nut-A nut with grooves on its top, to hold cotter pins. Catalytic Ignition—Ignition by the use of spongy platinum which

becomes incandescent in contact with coal-gas or carbureted air. Centrifugal Governor-A device which regulates the speed of an engine

by the centrifugal force of weights operating through springs or

other devices. Centrifugal Pump-A pump which operates by a revolving fan or

wheel within a casing, and which forces water or other liquids by

centrifugal force. Check ValveA valve so constructed that the valve lifts or opens

to the pressure in one direction, but closes or seats when pressure

is exerted in the opposite direction. ChokingThe failure of a motor to operate properly through the

surplus of oil, fuel, carbon, or restricted passages in the exhaust. Clearance—The space between the top of piston at its upward limit

and the interior of the top of the cylinder; space between any two

objects. Clutch-A device for holding motion or power between the motor

and the mechanism to be operated and which may be thrown off

or released at will. Coil-Wire wound about an iron core used to create a greater inten

sity in the electrical current. Columbia Locknut-A form of nut provided with a tapered, threaded

bushing within a nut; so designed as to contract or grip the thread upon which it is screwed and thus obviate slipping or

working loose. Combustion Chamber--The chamber or space in the cylinder, or

connected thereto, in which the gas is ignited or exploded. Commutator-A revolving or oscillating object connected to the

wires of an armature and through the action of which the electricity is transferred by brushes to the wires. Also applied to

timers. Compression StrokeThe stroke of a piston which compresses the

gas in the cylinder and at or near the limit of which the ignition and explosion take place.

Compression Cock—Same as Relief Cock.
Condenser—Numerous sheets of tin-foil placed in an induction coil

and connected to wires across the interrupter. Designed to reduce

primary sparking at the contacts and to increase the current. Connecting RodThe arm or rod connecting the piston with the

crank shaft. Constant Oil Feed-A device for constantly feeding oil while the

machine is in operation. A force-feed oiler. Contact PointsThe points through which an electrical contact is

made. The platinum points of the vibrator or of the electrodes

on a make-and-break igniter. Controller-A device for controlling any mechanism. Cotter Pin-A metal pin with the two ends bent around so as to lie

close together. When placed in a hole the ends are separated,

thus preventing the cotter from slipping out. CounterweightThe same as Balance Weight. Counterbalance—The same as above. Coupling-Any device for connecting two pipes, rods, or shafts. CrankThe offset portion of a shaft to which the connecting rod

is attached and through which power is transmitted to the shaft. Crank (Starting)—The crank or handle for turning over or starting

the fly-wheel of the motor. CrankingThe operation of turning over the fly-wheel of the motor

by hand to start the engine. Crank Case—The case or recess within which the crank revolves. Crank Shaft-The shaft bearing the crank. Cross-head--The piece to which the connecting rod is attached and

to which the piston rod is also fastened, and which slides in guides, thus transmitting straight linear motion to a crank by allowing the

connecting rod to oscillate on a pivot through the cross-head. Current-breaker-A device for interrupting or breaking the current

of electricity to produce a spark. Cut-out-A device for allowing the exhaust to pass directly into the

air without going through the muffler. Cylinder—The portion of the motor which contains the piston and

within which the explosion takes place. Cylinder RibsMetal ribs, or flanges, cast upon the cylinder's

external surface to radiate heat and cool the cylinder in air-cooled

motors. Cycle-A certain period of time within which the same events occur

regularly. As applied to gas engines it is practically equivalent

to “stroke" and is one-half a revolution of the fly-wheel, approx

imately. Cyclic Phases—The phases or changes in operation during each

cycle of a motor.

Dead Centre-That portion of a revolution during which the piston

cannot transmit motion to the crank; the upward and downward

limits of the stroke. DeflectorThe projection from the top of the piston in two-cycle

motors designed to prevent the inrushing gas from passing across and mingling with, or escaping with, the exhaust and to direct

its course toward the top of the cylinder. Diaphragm-A thin plate or partition, usually flexible. Die-A tool for cutting male screw threads on rods or pipes. Die StockThe handles and holder for holding a die when using it. Differential Gear-A combination of gears, or wheels, so arranged

that motion may be transmitted to different speeds or powers, or where the resistance is unequal the power exerted may be

equalized. Differential CamA cam transmitting varying motions or powers. Differential PistonA piston composed of two pistons of different

sizes and operating together to perform separate duties. Distillate-Denatured alcohol or similar fuels. Distributor-A device for listributing anything. In connection with

motors it is usually applied to a form of electrical device which distributes the ignition current to the various cylinders, but is also applied to devices for feeding oil or to an arrangement for

leading the charges of gas to various cylinders (see Elmore motor). Dog-A mechanical appliance for transmitting certain motions. DowellA pin or key used to hold two pieces or parts together. Drop Tee-A pipe fitting in the form of a tee but provided with a

bracket or flange for fastening to a wall or other object. Drop Ell-A pipe elbow with bracket as above. Dynamo-A machine for generating electricity through the revolu

tion of an armature between electro-magnets. DynamometerA device for ascertaining the power necessary to

operate a machine at a given speed.

Eccentric-A circular disk set on a revolving shaft with its centre

out of true with that of the shaft and used to transmit reciprocating motion from rotary motion.

Eddy Current-A current or irregular flow of the gas caused by square

or rough corners in the passages which prevent a free flow to cr

from the cylinder. Electro-magnet-A piece of iron covered with a coil of wire. When

an electrical current is passed through the coil the iron core

becomes highly magnetic. ElectrodesThe two points carrying the electric current between

which a spark is produced, as in a spark plug. ExhaustThe escape of the burnt gases from the cylinder. The

opening through which these gases escape. Exhaust Valve-The valve which allows the burnt gases to escape

from the cylinder. Expansion Joint-A joint or coupling so designed as to be capable

of expansion and contraction by one side sliding over the other.

Face—The smooth or flat surface of a joint or wheel.
Face Plate-A plate of metal provided with clamps by the use of

which an object is held in a lathe where the surface is to be turned

off or faced. Faced Joint-A joint made by having the two surfaces ground smooth

and flat. Fan-A revolving wheel or disk provided with blades or paddles

for circulating air about a motor to cool it. Applied erroneously

to a propeller wheel. Feather Vibrator-A form of vibrator of very delicate construction

and capable of very rapid vibration. Flange-A projecting surface, or ridge, usually applied to parts

designed to be bolted together or attached to some other

object. Flange Coupling-A joint formed by fastening two pipes or shafts

together by two flanges bolted together. Flange Union-A flange coupling when applied to pipe. Flash PointThe temperature at which a substance ignites. Flexible Coupling-A coupling composed of oscillating parts so

designed as to allow the shaft to revolve even when the two parts

are at an angle. Flexible Elbow-An elbow constructed as in the above. Flexible Joint-Same as above, but more often applied to small

rods, etc. Flexible Union-A union for connecting pipe constructed with parts

which permit it to be set at varying angles.

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