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Trouble

Cause

Popping in carburetor. Flame
or smoke about carburetor. Flood-
ing or overflowing of carburetor.

Remedy
and rust. If piston itself is worn
have it ground down at a high-
grade machine shop.

Adjust mixture. Clean carbu-
retor. Examine inlet valve and
spring. Advance spark slightly.
Clean float and float valve or put
in new ones.

Short circuits. Misfires. Slug-
gish or irregular action. Sparks on
wires (at night) or in timer or at
vibrator. Engine stops suddenly.

new

Too rich or too weak a mixture.
Inlet valve stuck or worn or spring
too weak. Spark too much re-
tarded. Float in carburetor stuck,
broken, or wrongly adjusted. Float
valve loose, worn, or dirty.

Loose, dirty, worn, wet, or
grease-soaked wires. Broken in-
sulation. Poor terminal or switch
connections or contacts. Batteries
or wires touching. Worn-out or
wet coil or magneto. Wet bat-
teries. Some metal object or wet
cloth across two wires. Dirty or
worn timer. Spark plug dirty,
broken, or points too close or too
far apart.

Some part of motor
touching plug or secondary wire.
Wet plug or plug packing. Broken
micas in make-and-break plugs.

new

Go over every wire and connec-
tion, test plug, coil, timer. Try

wires, plugs, and switch.
Never use metal tacks or staples
over wire.

Watch where sparks
occur and replace such parts with

wires, etc. Adjust plug
points to about 1/50 of an inch
apart or, better still, use new plug.
If wet, clean and soak in gasolene
and dry. If wet and in a hurry
soak with gasolene and burn same
off, which will dry plug but may
crack porcelain. Clean and re-
piace micas.

Trouble Spark-plug troubles. Short circuits. Misfires. Leakage around plug.

Cause Unsuitable plug. Plug too short or too long. Wet or moist plugs. Water, rust, or carbon on points. Core cracked or loose. Electrode nearly broken oor burnt through. Points touching or too far apart. Porcelain or mica core broken or sooted. Terminal for wire loose. Packing blown out or broken, allowing leak of compression. One or both points broken. Rust or oil between thread of plug and plug hole in engine.

Remedy Clean and overhaul plug. Use a plug long enough to reach well into cylinder but not so long that it will strike piston or valves. Have thread in cylinder clean. See that wire connection is clean and tight. If points are badly worn or burnt use a new plug. If points are rusty, corroded, or sooty, smooth with fine emery cloth. Always have several plugs on hand and as soon as trouble is traced to plug replace with a new one; the old one may be repaired at any time.

Timer troubles. Knocking or pounding. Loss of power. Overheating. Irregular firing. Explosions in muffler or intake.

Badly worn timer or fibre insulation. Weak timer springs. Timer dry and stuck. Incorrect timing. Timer loose on shaft. Timer control rods bent, loose, or out of adjustment. Badly worn crank shaft, cam, cam shaft, gears, push-rod, or any valve trouble. Poor mixture which ignites slowly.

Clean and oil timer. Take up lost motion and, if necessary, try a new timer. Adjust so that contact is made just after end of compression stroke when spark is retarded. Look over rods, gears, shafts, etc. Replace any weak or worn springs and any old, worn fibre.

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or

Cause

Remedy
Cam-shaft gear badly set, worn,
or a tooth chipped or broken.

Sooty or gummy deposits on Clean valve stems by free use
stems or springs. Spindles bent, of kerosene while operating same
broken, or rough. Spring too by hand.

If pitted, worn,
strong or too weak.

Pitted or

scored, the valve should be
scored valves. Wear of cam, gear, ground. If stem is bent get a new
push-rods, tappets, valve stems or valve. New springs are a great
feet, or a cotter-pin in same which help. New pins and feet, if old
is loose, worn, or broken. Also are worn, will make a great im-
hole for cotter-pin being worn oval provement. See that all lost mo-
or oblong. Not enough or too tion is taken up but that the push
much lift. In case of automatic rod or tappet is not continually
inlet valve, leak in cylinder or by bearing against the valve stem.
piston, thus preventing suction Test your valves now and then
from opening valve.

to see that they are properly
timed; the variation of 1/32 of
an inch in the piston travel as
compared with valve opening or
closing will add or detract a lot

of power from the motor.
Leaky joints in jacket, at head, Provide a strainer in pipe line.
or other packed joints; around Protect tank and carburetor from
pet-cocks or priming cups. Water rain. Draw off a small lot of gaso-

Water in crank chamber. Water
in carburetor. Loud explosions.
Steam from exhaust. Slow or ir-

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CHAPTER IX

GLOSSARY OF ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED TECHNICAL TERMS

USED IN CONNECTION WITH GASOLENE ENGINES, with Ex-
PLANATIONS.–VARIOUS USEFUL TABLES; HEAT VALUE OF
FUELS; SIZE AND CAPACITY OF Tanks; IRON-PIPE SIZES;
DRILL SIZES FOR SCREW HOLES; UNITED STATES STANDARD
SCREW THREADS; CAP-SCREW Sizes; FINDING SURFACE AND
VOLUME.

GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS

Accelerator-Any attachment or device for increasing speed. Advanced Spark-An electrical spark produced to ignite a charge of

gas in a motor before the piston reaches the upward limit of its

compression stroke. Air Lock-A gathering of air in a pipe which prevents the flow of

liquid through the same. AnnularPertaining to or in the form of a ring. Annular Bearing—A bearing in the form of a ring. Annular OpeningA ring-shaped opening. AmpereA unit of electrical measurement nearly analogous to

quantity. Ampmeter (Ammeter)—An instrument for indicating or measuring

amperes. Armature-A wire coil around an iron core used in producing elec

tricity between two magnets, as in a dynamo. Atmosphere—The weight, or pressure, of air, equivalent to 15 pounds

per square inch.

Babbitt-A composition of various soft metals used as bearings to

overcome friction. Bearings made from babbitt. Backfiring—The backward or premature explosion of a gas engine. Baffle Plate-A plate or partition to turn or stop the flow or force

of gases or other matter. Balance Weight-A weight attached to a crank, shaft, or wheel, to

balance the explosive force of the motor and lessen vibration, as well as to overcome the tendency to a dead centre.

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