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out of sight it is all too frequently out of mind as well. Many a splendid motor-car, that is resplendent in polished brass, rich upholstery, and shining paint and varnish, carries beneath its hood a motor so greasy, dusty, dirty, and neglected that it would be a disgrace to the most slovenly fisherman's dinghy.

CHAPTER VIII

TOOLS; EMERGENCY REPAIRS AND MAKESHIFTS; USEFUL HINTS

AND WRINKLES; GRINDING VALVES AND GRINDING COM-
POUNDS;

CARBON-REMOVERS AND CLEANSERS; POLISHES;
ENAMELS, PAINTS, ETC.; BELTS AND BELT DRESSINGS; Anti-
FREEZING MIXTURES; TABLE OF MOTOR TROUBLES WITH
CAUSES AND REMEDIES.

FEW motor-owners realize the importance of being provided with proper tools, and this is especially true where marine or stationary motors are concerned. Every motor should have a tool box or chest or a tool-roll within easy reach, and the tools should always be kept in good condition and ready for use. Many a motoroperator may be found whose only tools are an old rusty bicycle wrench, a dull or bent screw-driver, and an old claw hammer. Tools are cheap and comparatively few are required. A superabundance of tools is a nuisance, and the aim of the operator should be to have a tool for every emergency and for each particular use, but not to duplicate them. The following tools are really essential in connection with any motor:

A “Stilson” or pipe wrench capable of handling any pipe on the motor; if this cannot be procured, owing to the variation in size of pipes, two or more Stilson wrenches should be on hand.

A monkey or “Coe" wrench large enough to handle the heaviest nuts and unions on the engine or exhaust.

A small “Coe” wrench capable of handling the smallest nuts; a good bicycle wrench will answer for this, or a

set of spanner wrenches to fit the various nuts may be used.

A medium-sized — six- or eight-inch — “ Westcott” wrench or a set of "S" wrenches.

A pair of combined cutting pliers and tweezers.
A pair of round-nosed pliers.

Small, medium, and large-sized screw-drivers, or a set of screw-driver blades with an adjustable handle.

A small or medium-sized machinist's hammer with round pein.

A half-inch cold chisel.
A centre, or prick, punch.
A hollow punch.

A flat or "bastard” file, a round file, and a threecornered file.

An assortment of copper and iron wire of various sizes.

Assorted machine screws. Assorted cap screws and nuts. Assorted plain and lock washers. Assorted cotter pins.

In case there are any nuts or bolts which cannot be readily reached with an ordinary wrench, socket wrenches should be provided, for such nuts or bolts are invariably the ones that need attention oftenest.

In addition to the above tools there are many others which will prove very useful at times, especially if you expect to make your own repairs. A breast drill with a good assortment of drills is a useful and handy tool, and a bit-stock with various-sized twist drills is also very useful. By drilling a small hole with the breast drill, a large twist drill will readily bore through iron

or brass with an ordinary bit-stock, the larger drill following the small hole very easily.

In connection with the drills, reamers and countersinks should be on hand, and if much metal-boring is to be done a self-feeding chain attachment for the bit-brace should be added. By means of this handy tool large holes can be rapidly and easily bored through iron or steel without any great trouble or strength being required. Hack saws are very useful and in fact almost indispensable, and screw slotters to fit the hack-saw frame will save much time and trouble in using old screws. An exceedingly useful tool is the Vixen milling tool. This is a hardened steel blade with sharp, curved teeth and is used like a file. It will cut ten times as rapidly and easily as a file and will never clog, even when used on lead, copper, or aluminum. New blades may be purchased at a small cost and the old ones recut or sharpened at trifling expense, but under the severest use a blade will usually last two years or more.

Machine taps and dies are very useful and save many times their cost in a season, as well as the trouble of running to a machine shop for every screw thread you want cut. Pipe taps and dies are also handy, but most pipe fittings are so cheap and so readily procured that they hardly pay unless one does considerable pipe-fitting or is a long distance from a dealer in pipes and fittings. Calipers are useful, and an assortment of cold chisels, cape chisels, and punches will prove of great value.

Every motor-owner should learn the proper use and care of tools, for a rusty, dull, or broken tool is worse than none at all, and there is no excuse for keeping tools

in poor condition. Around salt water tools rust very quickly, but if greased every few days the corrosion will not cause any trouble. You should not expect to work metal as easily as wood, even with the best tools, and many a good tool is injured or broken by trying. to force it. Slow and sure is the way to work metal, and trying to drill too rapidly is sure to result in broken drills, while using too much force on a nut or bolt will result in stripped threads or broken bolt heads. A very light blow with a hammer will often start a nut or joint, but wherever the surface struck joins another surface a piece of hardwood or a strip of copper or lead should be placed over it before striking. Great care should be used in striking cast iron, or a crack or break will result; high-grade cast iron will chip or crack almost like glass and a hammer should never be used without wood or soft metal under it when striking cast iron. Sometimes an obstinate nut or bolt may be readily started with a cold chisel and hammer, but you should not use enough force to shear off a corner of the nut. Hold the chisel at an angle against one side of the nut and strike gently. After it is started the burr made by the chisel should be smoothed off with a file. Turpentine is very useful in drilling, sawing, or filing metal, and many tight pipe joints or screw threads will come apart easily after soaking a few hours in turpentine. Kerosene is good also, and in case a pipe joint or thread is badly stuck it may be soaked in kerosene and then ignited. The burning kerosene will usually expand the joint enough to break the corrosion and then by soaking in turpentine the joint will be easy to separate.

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