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plete romance which he left. Miss Lucy Aikin says of the Arcadia, that “ fervour of eloquence," "nice discrimination of character," and "purity of thought," "stamp it for the offspring of a noble mind."

His death," continues Miss Aikin, "was worthy of the best parts of his life : he showed himself to the last devout, courageous, and serene. His wife, the beautiful daughter of Walsingham ; his brother Robert, to whom he had performed the part rather of an anxious and indulgent parent than of a brother; and many sorrowing friends, surrounded his bed. Their grief was, beyond a doubt, sincere and poignant, as well as that of the many persons of letters and of worth who gloried in his friendship, and flourish. ed by his bountiful patronage."

Such a man's name and example should still serve to kindle in the bosom of youth the animating glow of virtuous emulation. Lord Thurlow, a late Lord Chancellor of England, wrote a pretty sonnet on Sidney's picture :

“ The man that looks, sweet Sidney, in thy face,

Beholding there love's truest majesty,
And the soft image of departed grace,

Shall fill his mind with magnanimity :
There may he read unfeigned humility,

And golden pity, born of heavenly brood,
Unsullied thoughts of immortality,

And musing virtue, prodigal of blood :
Yes in this map of what is fair and good,

This glorious index of a heavenly book ;
Not seldom, as in youthful years he stood,

Divinest Spenser would admiring look ;
And, framing thence high wit and pure desire,
Imagined deeds that set the world on fire !"

SIR WALTER RALEIGH.

Sir Walter Raleigh was born at Hayes Farın in Devonshire, 1552, and was beheaded in London, 1618. He is memorable for his understanding, his knowledge, and his enterprising spirit. During the reign of Elizabeth, Raleigh performed many honorable services in the British navy, and fitted out, and sometimes accompanied, ships of discovery which explored the coasts of North and South America. After the accession of James II, Elizabeth's successor, Raleigh was indicted and tried for treason, upon the charge of attempting to place Lady Arabella Stuart on the throne of England ; and though he was not condemed, he suffered fifteen years of imprisonment.

When Raleigh was liberated, he obtained a commission from the King, and commanded an expedition against Guiana, in South America. In this enterprise he was unsuccessful, though he committed some depredations upon the Spaniards who were in possession of the country. On his return to England he was

the former accusation, and sentenced to death. The sentence was immediately executed, and a life of singular vicissitudes, in which the prosperity was adorned by eminent accomplishments, and the adversity sustained by admirable fortitude, was thus cruelly terminated.

tried upon

SPENSER.

UNA AND THE REDCROSS KNIGHT.

“ 'The heavenly Una and her milk-white lamb."—Wordsworth.

“ A gentle knight was. pricking* on the plain,

Yclad† in mighty arms and silver shield,
Wherein old dints of deep wounds did remain,
The cruel marks of many a bloody field ;
Yet arms till that time did he never wield ;
His

angry steed did chide his foaming bit,
As much disdaining to the curb to yield :

Full jolly knight he seemed, and fair did sit,
As one for knightly jousts‡ and fierce encounters fit.

But on his breast a bloody cross he bore,
The dear remembrance of his dying Lord,
For whose sweet sake that glorious badge he wore,
And dead (as living) ever him adored :
Upon his shield the like was also scored,§
For sovereign hope, which in his help he had :
Right faithful true he was in deed and word ;

But of his cheer did seem too solemn sad :
Yet nothing did he dread; but ever was ydrad.||

* Riding.

† Attired. § Engraved

‡ Contests of skill and arms.

|| Dreaded.

Upon a great adventure he was bound,
That greatest Gloriana to him gave,
That greatest glorious queen of fairy lond,
To win him worship, and her grace to have,
Which of all earthly things he most did crave ;
And ever as he rode his heart did

yearn To prove his puissance in battle brave

Upon his foe, and his new force to learn ;
Upon his foe, a dragon horrible and stern.

A lovely lady rode him fair beside,
Upon a lowly ass more white than snow;
Yet she much whiter, but the same did hide
Under a veil, that wimpled* was full low,
And over all a black stole† she did throw,
As one that inly mourned ; so was she sad,
And heavy sat upon her palfrey slow ;

Seemed in heart some hidden care she had,
And by her in a line a milk-white lamb she led.

So pure an innocent, as that same lamb,
She was in life and every virtuous lore,
And by descent from royal lineage came
Of ancient kings and queens, that had of yore
Their sceptres stretcht from east to western shore,
And all the world in their subjection held;
Till that infernal fiend with foul uproar

Forewasted all their land and them expelled :
Whom to avenge, she had this knight from far compelled.

Behind her far away a dwarf did lag,
'That lazy seemed in being ever last,
Or wearied with bearing of her bag
Of needments at his back.

Thus as they past
The day with clouds was sudden overcast,
And
angry

Jove an hideous storm of rain
Did pour

into his leman's lap so fast, That every wight to shroud it did constrain, And this fair couple eke to shroud themselves were fain."

Enforced to seek some covert nigh at hand,
A shady grove not far away they spied,
That promised aid the tempest to withstand ;
Whose lofty trees, yclad with summer's pride,
* Drawn closely.

+ Robe.

Did spread so broad, they heaven's light did hide,
Not pierceable with power of any star :
And all within were paths and alleys wide,

With footing worn, and leading inward far:
Fair harbour, that them seems ; so in they entred are.

And forth they pass, with pleasure forward led,
Joying to hear the bird's sweet harmony,
Which therein shrouded from the tempest's dread,
Seemed in their song to scorn the cruel sky.
Much can they praise the trees so straight and high,
The sailing Pine, the Cedar proud and tall,
The vine-prop Elm, the Poplar never dry,
"The builder Oak, sole king of forests all,
The Aspen good for staves, the Cypress funeral.

The Laurel, meed of mighty conquerors
And poets sage, the Fir that weepeth still,
The Willow, worn of forlorn paramours,
The Yew, obedient to the bender's will,
The Birch for shafts, the Swallow for the mill,
The Myrrh sweet bleeding in the bitter wound,
The warlike Beech, the Ash for nothing ill,

The fruitful Olive, and the Plantain round,
The carver Holme, the Maple seldom inward sound :

Led with delight they thus beguile the way,
Until the blustering storm is overblown,
When, weening* to return, whence they did stray,
They cannot find that path which first was shown,
But wander to and fro in ways unknown,
Furthest from end then, when they nearest ween,
That makes them doubt their wits be not their own :

So many paths, so many turnings seen.
That which of them to take, in divers doubts they been.

These verses are easily comprehended. Every young person should know something of Chivalry. That institution had once great influence upon the manners and happiness of Europe. The situation of Una, and the nature of her protector's character and office, will not be understood without some acquaintance with the meaning of chivalry.

Presuming.

CHIVALRY.

The origin of Chivalry was briefly this :—France, Spain, England, Germany, Italy and Holland, once belonged to the Roman Empire ; but armies from the North of Europe invaded these more southern countries, overthrew the Roman power, and at different times took possession of the places they conquered. When they had made themselves masters of a country, the great leaders of the armies took large tracts of land ; and their followers, that is the soldiers they commanded, together with such of the original inhabitants of the countries as they permitted to live, became the vassals of these great men.

These subject people were not acquainted with the useful arts or comforts of life which we enjoy, but they could take care of cattle, cultivate the soil in a rude and imperfect manner, could help to erect the castle and hurch their master, and could follow him to battle. This latter service, together with a great part of the cattle and corn which they could procure from the cultivation of the soil, they gave to their lords. 'The lords always kept many of their vassals in their houses or castles, and usually went out with a considerable number of them as attendants. This was partly for show, and partly for safety. These followers were called Retainers, and when they went abroad with their masters formed his Retinue. The more people a great lord had about his person, the better was he guarded, and the more was he feared.

In the present happier age of the world, when every man has his own business, and property, and leisure, and enjoyments, no great man has any right to the services of so many of his fellowmen; nor has he any need of them, for he has nothing to fear from the violence of others—he is protected by the laws of his country, and what is better, by the humanity of all men, who have learned in some measure to respect one another's lives and property, and to know, in order that all may be happy, all must be safe, and protected by each other.

But a thousand years ago men lived very differently. The owners of property which lay together often claimed the same; and as there were not courts of justice to inquire into and settle their rights, they and their vassals fought about them. Many of the richer and more powerful lords, wanting to become still more rich and powerful, and having no sense of religion, of justice, or mercy—none of the fear of God or love of man—murdered their neighbours, set fire to their houses, carried off their

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