Introduction to Chemical Physics: Designed for the Use of Academies, High Schools, and Colleges. Illus. with Numerous Engravings, and Containing Copious Lists of Experiments with Directions for Preparing Them

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D. Van Nostrand, 1873 - 550 стор.
 

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Chemistry is connected with many processes in the Arts
10
Chemistry explains Respiration
11
Chemistry explains the extraction of Metals
12
Importance of Chemistry
13
Chemistry depends upon the Balance
15
Simple and Compound substances distinguished
16
The number of the Elements
17
Chemical Affinity defined
18
The active Agents of Chemistry
19
The Chemical Agents Heat Light Electricity why called
20
The study of Chemistry begins with the Chemical Agents
21
Evapor Ation SPECIFIC HEAT SOURCEs UF HEAt NATURE OF HEAT 1 Diffusion of Heat 37 The Nature of Heat
22
Heat present in all bodies
23
Heat the repulsive principle of Matter
24
Three modes in which Heat seeks an Equilibrium
25
First mode Conduction
26
Density favorable to Conduction
27
Porous bodies bad conductors
28
Illustrations of Conduction
30
Applications in the Arts
31
Animals and Plants protected by nonconducting coverings
32
Liquids poor conductors
33
The Gases poor conductors
34
The conducting power of different Gases different
35
PAR PAGE 58 The second mode of diffusionConvection
37
Convection in Gases
38
What makes heated Water and Air ascend
40
The ascension of heated Liquids and Gases illustrated
41
The third mode of diffusionRadiation
42
Radiant Heat follows the same laws as Radiant Light
43
Other circumstances affecting the rate of Radiation
45
Radiation takes place from points beneath the surface
46
The radiation of the Earth
47
The theory of Radiation
48
Concave Mirrors
49
Experiments with two Concave Mirrors
50
The different reflecting powers of different substances
52
The apparent radiation and reflection of Cold
53
Practical applications
54
The reflection of Heat by Fireplaces
55
The absorption of Radiant Heat
56
The absorption of Heat affected by Color
57
Transmission of Heat depends upon the source from which it proceeds
58
Transmission of Heat from different sources of equal intensity different for the same substance
59
Transmission of Radiant Heat from the same source different for different substancesDiathermancy
61
Diathermancy not proportioned to Transparency
62
The diathermancy of Liquids
64
The diathermancy of Gases
65
Diathermancy explained on the supposition that there are differ ent kinds of Heat
66
The different kinds of Heat separated from each other
69
Different kinds of Heat emitted by different sources of Heat
70
xil TABLE OF CONTENTS PAR PAGE 95 Unequal diathermancy of Heat from different sourcesdue to the different kinds of Heat emitted
72
The refrangibility of rays of heat may be altered by re radia tionCalorescence
74
The double refraction and polarization of Heat
75
The different processes through which Heat may pass in seeking an Equilibrium
76
Effects of Heat Expansion 100 Expansion produced by Heat
79
Expansion of Solids proved
80
The expansion of Metals
82
Illustrations of Expansion
83
Applications in the Arts
85
Injurious effects of Expansion
86
Fracture produced by sudden cooling
87
Metallic instruments injured by Expansion
88
Other Compensation Pendulums
89
The Compensation Balance
90
The expansion of Liquids
91
The expansion of the Liquids produced by the condensation of the Gases
92
The expansion of Air
93
Exception to the general law of expansion by heatWater at certain temperatures contracts from Heat and expands from Cold
95
Important effects of this exception
96
This peculiar constitution of water proved by experiment
97
PAR Page 124 Water expands in freezing
98
Illustrations of this Force in Nature
99
Other substances also expand in Solidifying
100
The Air Thermometer
101
The Differential Thermometer
102
The Mercurial Thermome er
103
Construction of the Thermometer
104
Fahrenheits Scale
105
Other Thermometric Scales
106
Different forms of the Thermometer
108
Metallic Thermometers
109
Pyrometers
110
Heat of Composition
112
Liquefaction produced by Heat melting point
113
170
114
The amount of Heat absorbed during the melting of Ice 1 14
115
Solids cannot be heated above their point of fusion until the whole of the solid is melted
116
The Heat absorbed in Liquefaction is given out in solidification
117
Liquefaction always produces a reduction of Temperature
118
Freezing Mixtures
119
Salts and Acids dissolved in Water lower the freezing point
120
Two substances mixed often melt at a lower temperature than either separatelyFluxes
121
Facility of Liquefaction proportioned to the quantity of Latent Heat required
122
The beneficial effects of this Constitution
124
The physical properties of Valors
127
The amount of Heat absorbed not the same for all Vapors
133
The Condensation of Steam by decrease of Temperature
140
The Boiler is an apparatus for forming and compressing Steam
149
Steam may be used expansively
155
PAR PAGE 187 No economy of fuel in boiling Water at a low Temperature
156
No economy in using Liquids which boil at a lower Temperature than Water
158
Papins Digester
159
The Spheroidal state
160
The Spheroidal state explains the explosions of Boilers
162
Distillation
164
Uses of Distillation
166
ExPERIMENTs EFFEcts of HEAT El Ullitrox167 168
167
Effects of Heat Evaporation 196 Evaporation
169
The amount of Vapor formed and its elasticity proportioned to Temperature
170
These truths illustrated by Experiment
171
The rapidity of Evaporation varies with the pressure In a vacuum it is instantancous
172
The amount of Evaporation of different Liquids in a vacuum at the same Temperature is unequal
173
The elastic force of Vapor in a confined space does not vary with pressure but with Temperature
174
The elastic force of Vapor in two connecting vessels cannot rise above the elastic force proper to the colder vessel
177
The rate of Evaporation of different Liquids in Air is unequal
179
The presence of Vapor in Air affects its bulk and density IS 206 The circumstances which influence Evaporation
181
Itemoval of Atmospheric Pressure hastens Evaporation and in creases Cold
183
Cause of the Cold produced by Evaporation
184
The Pulse Glass
186
Effect of Evaporation on Climate
187
The amonnt of watery Vapor contained in the Air
188
Effect of reducing the temperature of the Air upon the amount of watery Vapor contained in it
191
Constitution of Gases difference between Vapors and Gases
194
The amount of pressure varies with the Gas I95 224 Thiloriers process for solidifying Carbonic acid
196
Solid Carbonic acid 226 Solidification of other gases 198
198
226 Natterers process for liquefying gases improved by Ritchie
200
227 Evaporation of liquefied gases applied to the manufacture of ice
202
228 Carrés Ice Machine
204
The pressure exerted by liquefied gases
207
The constitution of the Globe dependent upon temperature
208
ExPERIMENTs EFFECTs of HEAT Evapor ATION 209
209
The amount of Heat in different bodies of the same Tempera ture unequal Specific Heat
210
Proof that different bodies of equal weight contain unequal amounts of Heat Method of mixture
211
Specific Heat determined by the time required to heat equal weights of different bodies equally
212
Specific Heat determined by rate of cooling
213
Specific Heat determined by the amount of Ice melted
214
Specific Heat determined by the rise of Temperature produced in equal weights of Water
215
The Specific Heat of Water
216
The Specific Heat of Gases
217
Regnaults determination of the Specific Heat of Gases
219
The Specific Heat of a body may be changed by altering its density
220
The Specific Heat of a body changed by altering its physical State
221
The distribution of temperature in the atmosphere explained
226
The Sources of Heat
232
The mechanical theory of Heat
238
THE SECOND CHEMICAL AGENT LIGHT THE NATURE of Ligiit sources REFLEction REFRAction solar SPECTRUM SPECTRUM ANALYsi...
246
The sources of Light Solar Light
247
Electricity a source of Light
248
Exposure to the Suns rays and to Electricity a source of Light
249
The reflection of Light 25
250
The refraction of Light
251
The double refraction and polarization of Light
252
The compound nature of Solar Light The illuminating rays
253
The number of vibrations required to produce the different col ors of the Solar Spectrum
256
The Chemical rays of the Solar beam
258
The range of the Chemical rays in the Solar Spectrum_Fluor escence
259
PAR PAGE 289 The dark lines of the Solar Spectrum explained
272
289 The Solar Specturm sometimes crossed by bright lines 27
275
292 Spectra of the Nebulae 293 Spectra of Comets
276
Effects of Light on Vegetation 291 Summary of these 277278
277
The effects of Solar Light on Chemical compounds
279
The Daguerreotype process 294 The Photograph 280
280
The Photographic Camera
283
Photographs are produced solely by the Chemical rays
284
Practical importance of distinguishing between the Illuminating and Chemical rays of Light
285
All surfaces are affected by the Suns light
286
The relations of the rays of Heat Light and Chemical effect in the Solar Spectrum
287
THE THIRD CHEMICAL AGENT ELECTRICity st ATICAL ELECTRICITY GALVANIC ELECTRICity ELECTROMAGNET 18M MAGNEToEL...
289
The nature of Electricity
290
The sources of Electricity
291
Electrical attraction and repulsion
292
Two bodies similarly electrified repel each other
293
Conductors and Nonconductors Insulation
294
Vitreous electricity cannot be produced without a corresponding amount of Resinous electricity and vice versa
295
Induction of Electricity
296
The intervention of solid matter no obstacle to Induction
297
TA3LE OF CONTENTs PAR PAGE 312 The theory of Induction
298
Electricity confined to the external surface of bodies
299
Theories of Electricity
300
Development of large quantities The Electrical Machine
301
The Leyden Jar
302
Mode of charging the Leyden Jar
304
The Electrophorus 305
305
The HydroElectric Machine
306
The effects of Electricity
307
Galvanic Electricity T
311
Discovery of Galvanic Electricity
312
131
313
The Voltaic Pile
314
True theory of the Pile
315
Chemical constitution of the substances used to produce Voltaic Electricity
316
Proof that Chemical decomposition is the source of Galvanic Electricity
317
The decomposing plate is the point of departure of the Electrical current 3 18
318
Mode of transfer of the Hydrogen
319
The part played by the Copper plate
320
137
321
Proof that a state of electrical Tension exists in the plates before the actual passage of the current
323
The energy of the current proportionate to the Chemical activity
324
The direction of the current dependent upon the direction of the Chemical action
325
Direct metallic connection between the generating and conduct ing plate not necessary
326
143
327
The Galvanic Battery
329
TABLE OF CONTENTS xxi
330
Improved Batteries
331
The Sulphate of Copper Battery
332
150
333
Groves Battery
335
Bunsens Battery
336
Sinces Battery
337
De Lucs Pile the dry Pile
339
Proof of the similarity of the electricity of the Battery and that of the Electrical Machine
340
The difference between Galvanic and Statical Electricity 3 11
341
Heating effects of the Galvanic current
343
Luminous effects
344
Duboscqs Electric Lamp
345
Discovery of the Electric Light
346
The properties and intensity of the Electric Light
347
Heating effects are best produced by batteries of Quantity
348
The decomposition of Water by the Battery
349
The decomposition of Water is effected by the polarization and transfer of its component elements
350
The decomposition of other compound Liquids
352
The decomposition of Metallic Salts in solution
353
The Glass Cup with porous diaphragm
354
Secondary decomposition
355
The experiment of three cups connected by Syphons
357
Sir H Davys experiment in which the Acids and Alkalies under the influence of the current seem to lose their ordinary affinity
358
The successive action of the same current on different vessels of Water
359
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAR PAGE 376 The successive action of the same current on vessels containing different compound Liquids
360
ElectroNegative bodies
361
The amount of Zinc dissolved from the generating plate is pro portioned to the amount of Chemical decomposition produced and vice versa
362
Electroplating and gilding 363
363
3S3 Electrotyping
364
The protection of the Copper sheathing of ships
366
ElectroMagnetism 385 Magnetic effects of the current
367
What is a Magnet
369
The directive action of the Earth upon the Magnet
370
The Astatic Needle
371
The induction of Magnetism
372
The diamagnetism of Gases
373
Oxygen a magnetic substance
374
Magnetic and Diamagnetic bodies
375
The Galvanic current produces magnetism Electromagnets
376
Molecular movements during the magnetization of bars
378
The Astatic Galvanometer
379
The Liquid part of the Voltaic circuit acts upon the magnetic needle
380
The Laws of Flectromagnetism
381
The magnetic effect of the wire carrying the current accounted for by Amperes theorv
383
The most powerful form of Electromagnets the Horse Shoe Magnet 386
386
The Magnetic Telegraph
387
Morses Electromagnetic Indicator
390
PAR PAGE 408 The Telegraphic manipulator and Morses alphabet
391
The Relay 409 M ssages sent by breaking the circuit 393
393
The transmission of messages
395
4ll Telegraphic Batteries
396
Caillauds Battery
397
The Sand Battery
398
The velocity of the telegraphic current
401
The Atlantic Telegraph Cable
403
The actual arrangement of the Cable
406
The Rate of transmission
407
History of the Atlantic Telegraph
408
Application of Electromagnetism to the production of Motion
409
The Electro motor of M Froment
410
The Electro motor of M Jacoby
412
Stewarts Electromotor
414
Electro magnetic Clocks
416
30 The Electric Firealarm
417
Electric Gaslighting
420
Progress of discovery in Electromagnetism
421
Galvanic Induced Electricity 433 Voltaelectric Induction
423
Faradays Experiments 4 25
427
Induction of a momentary Secondary current by the approach and removal of the primary current
429
The conditions of Induction and properties of induced currents
431
Induction of a Secondary current in the primary wire itself
433
Induced Tertiary currents Henrys Coils
436
History of the discovery of Voltaelectric Induction
438
MagnetoElectricity 442 Magneto electric Induction
439
Electricity induced by induced magnetism
441
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAR Page 444 History of the discovery of Magnetoelectricity
442
VoltaMagnetoelectric Induction
443
History of the discovery of the Induction of Electricity by Elec tromagnetism
444
Aragos Rotations
446
The magnetism of the Earth induces secondary currents of Elec tricity in metallic bodies in motion 4 48
448
Magnetoelectric Induction confirms Amperes Theory
449
Pages Separable helices
450
The Circuitbreaker
452
Ruhmkorffs Coil for inducing secondary electrical currents
454
453 The Condenser 454 Ruhmkorffs Coil complete 456
456
Ritchies improved Ruhmkorffs Coil
459
The management of Ruhmkorffs Coil
462
The mechanical effects of Ruhmkorffs Coil
464
The Luminous effects
466
The Light intermittent and affected by the Magnet
470
Application of Geisslers Tubes to medical purposes and to the illumination of Mines
472
Application of Ruhmkorffs Coil to Spectrum Analysis
473
Chemical effects
474
Conversion of Carbon into the Diamond by the long continued action of the Coil
477
Saxtons Magnetoelectric Machine
480
Pages Magnetoelectric Machine
483
Magneto electricity used in the Arts in place of Voltaic electric ity especially for the illumination of Lighthouses
485
Holmes Magnetoelectric Machine for illuminating Light houses
488
Wildes Magnetoelectric Machine 469 Improvements of439495
496
471 Ladds first Machine 472 Iladds second Machine 497
497
Ilifference between the electricity of the machine and battery
500
Points of resemblance between the electricity of the Machine and the secondary electrical currents induced by the primary current and by Magnets
502
359
504
ThermoElectricity
510
Animal Electricity
517
The relations subsisting between the three Chemical Forces
523
Heat and Electricity the chief agents used by the Chemist in
529
132
539
ExPERIMENTs ox GALv ANIC ELECTRICITY ELECTRoMAGNETIs M
543

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