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relation to my friend, Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace:- went to the State that excess need not be drawn “ There is no reason to suppose that Mr. George from us? secured this Irish backing (nearly 700,000 votes)

No rent would be taken from any man except hy any personal huckstering with the friends of Mr.

for the privilege of occupying land, and for this Blaine, though I observe that he was openly

he ought to pay what it is worth, the privilege and charged with this by the English Socialist, Dr.

charge would be £40,000,000 par annum in excess Alfred Wallace, at a public meeting in New York a

of expenditure, or more than sufficient to give £10 few days before the election.” Now, all persons

per annum to every person over 60 years of age, who know themselves essentially, and as their lives

which would secure to aged working men some comevince if they are not traitors to their conscience

pensation for the injustice to which they have been and religion, must see that they are Socialists, but

subjected. that word is now especially applied to those who advocate State Socialism generally, which most

Q. Under whose reign did the system of paying assuredly Dr. Wallace does not. His prominent

rents to private landowners commence, and when advocacy of the full use and rental of the land

did taxes first commence to support the State being restored to the nation not only does not

instead of land rents doing it ? favour State Socialism, but it is the essential A. The question is too complicated to be fully reform to disarm the Socialistic agitation and dis- | answered in a single article, but to treat it popuposition to violence as the only efficient and per-| larly we must remember that in early times there manent relief to the increasing destitution by was but little coin in the realm, and trade was incomparably promoting prosperous employment of carried on principally by barter. In granting land the masses and the natural diffiision of wealth. the Crown usually stipulated for a service or reddit,

Let me finally quote a passage from a letter I i.c., rent for State purposes. The granter, or tenant have just received from Dr. Wallace in reference to | in chief, was required to provide a certain number Mr. Henry George and the speech referred to:- of knights, fully equipped, with their men-at-arms “I forge: whether I told you in my letter from and other attendants, to make up an army, and New York that I had met George, and attended one

some pecuniary tribute as well, or its equivalent in of his election meetings, and spoke in his favour.” | kind. The grantee, in turn, let his surplus land to I may add that nothing is better known by those sub-tenants, who paid in “days-work," or contribuwho are acquainted with Mr. George than that he tions of ploughs, waggons, horses, oxen, rakes, &c., is as much opposed to State Socialism as Dr. in harvest time, and a few pence in coin, or something Wallace and your obedient servant,

in kind. The grantee or lord kept the mill and A C. SWINTON.

levied toll or cash from all his sub-tenants, who Upper Norwood.

were compelled to grind their corn at his mill under penalty. It was good policy to secure the lord's

harvest first, because his tenure being dependent :0:

on the efficiency of his knights, it might be for

feited if they deteriorated, and he would naturally ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. provide necessaries from his store if their harvests

were spoiled. 1. What is the amount of rent collected by the

In the reign of Henry II., as coin increased and landlords of the United Kingdom ?

commerce spread, personal reddit or rents were For agricultural land the rent paid is £65,000,000

advantageously commuted for money payments. per annum; for mining royalties, £10,000,000.

Knight services were thus converted into taxes, The annual value of building land in the metro

called scutages, from the Latin scutum, a shield. polis is estimated at £16,000,000, and if it amounts

Over and above the fixed reddit the king expected to one-half as much per head for the remainder of

| “aids” in money from his tenants under innuthe population the annual value of building land in

merable pretexts, and they retaliated on their subthe United Kingdom is £64,000,000. Building land

tenants until the exactions were resisted and increases in value at the rate of £60 for every unit

restricted by law. Then Parliament granted added to the population. And from this source

“subsidies," "poll-taxes” (made memorable by landlords benefit to the extent of £18,000,000 per

nt of £18,000,000 per | Wat Tyler), * tenths," "fifteenths,” “benevo

98 | lencies," “ tonnage and poundage,” &c. for renewal of leases and sale of land for building upon which no income tax is paid. The total

No grantee could get rid of his land without f owners from land cannot be less than 1 paying for a licence to do so, otherwise he might £100,000,000 per annum.

put a very indifferent State servant in his room.

“Marriages” (of wards, male or female) were Q. What is the amount of taxes the Govern- | saleable. “wards and liveries," "forfeitures," ment requires from the people for State purposes ? “ felons' goods," were fruitful sources of revenue - A. In round numbers, the cost of the Imperial

until Charles II. abolished nearly all, and imposed Government may be taken at £70,000,000, and of a tax on “ the poor man's beer" io make up for the local government at £40,000,000 per annum.

If the whole value of land were not taken by the King William III., perceiving the injustice of State the difference, which belongs to all, would be exemption and being straitened for means, re-im: given only to occupiers of land. Is it not a fact | posed a land tax of four shillings in the pound. It that whatever the rent may be in excess over the this were honestly paid now it would ease the burthen taxation under the present system, if the rents on the British tax-payer.


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No sooner had the elder of the two ferrymen set his It seemed an insult to the great powers of silence foot on deck than a young man, who had been watchas the Glasgow stean boat came pufling up the High. | ing his progress from the shore almost with feverish land loch. On each side rose great hills with almost eagerness, grasped his band and whispered - Is he cheer ascent from the deep, calm water. Only at rare dead ?" intei vals did a bird utter its piercing call. Even the The boatman paused, and across bis worn face tourists, a garrulous and restlees folk, were hushed there came a not unkindly look as he glanced at the into quietude. Perhaps it was only a physical im- young man and answered, with the somewhat round. pression caused by the greatness and the silence. about language of Highlanders, “Oh, I'll no be safperhaps it was one of those deeper thoughts that at ing that, Robin Maekinnan.” tines speak to the very commonest hearts and tell

Is hé better, then?” them that man with his self-glory, bis self-worship, “I widna' go so far as that, but I doubt na' he'll be ard self.carefulnees, is but a little and a futile thing | the better o' seein you, for eore he has wearied for wben he stands in the presence of Nature. What your comin:” And then at a call from the impa:ient matters it about what us men think in these quiet captain the ferryman went about his business. and solemn moments; we may go and be forgotten, The young man had not much luggage to collect, and the same hills, streams, and lakes will give to and he was econ seated in the ferry-boat. To him it another race the same haughty tolerance they afford was a bitter home-coming. A few years before he to us. If these silent ones, these inscrutable high and his only sister had gone forth from the dwelling hills, hare in them the power to feel and think, they of their grandfather, the one man living who was of may muse of the yesterday when we were not, and of the kin to them, and who had spent on them the whole to-mcrrow when we shall disappear and be forgotten. little savings of his life. They had been fairly prosAnd if among these tourists be some who know and perous, although very young as yet, and it was their understand the strange relationsbips of men, they highest pride to keep in comfort, and in such luxury

Ineditate balf with sorrow and half with laughter as be would use, the old man on that lonely loch. that in these solitary deserts there should be the Suddenly a blow fell upon them that killed the grand. oppressed and the oppressor, when both play so short father and left the children, for a while, brokenand so mean a pait amid the great powers of Nature hearted. A new man, a Mr. Norman Firebrace, had that are all about them.

bought the estate, and being filled with a mapia for As the boat advances the character of the country "improvements," one of his first acts was to eject changes. The hills rerede and appear more broken. I the old man from the little farm that the Mackinnang From amidst a comfortable wood gleams the white had tilled from times long lost in the mists of tradi. walls of a noble country seat. Further on is a tion. It was an atrocious act, it was murder, for the straggling savage village. A boat is pushed from the noble old patriarch of the strath was dying. So old shore and is rowed by two lean and hungry patives to a man can hardly be uprooted from his native soil where the steamboat now rests motionless upon the and live. A jury of men would have said that he waters. The natives come on board. They are ill. died of old age; a jury of angels that he had been clad for that wilà, north climate, and you wonder fairly murdered by Norman Firebrace. A few days how long their poor garments have lasted. You may before Robert Mackinnan's sister had hastened to the be certain that, no matter how old they may be, they old man, and now he, too, has come. have still long work to do. Those who wear them! As he sits in the boat, full of his own bitter could no more purchase rew garments than they thoughts, he does not notice that two very lovely could afford to spend a threepenny bit on their dinner. | girls, evidently lady and servant, had entered it also. They have a gaunt and dejected look, these two Probably the fine carriage and the beautiful grey Eavages of North Britain. Last week the food of horses at the rude landing-place are for them. The their families was a few potatoes and turnips; this girls, who are somewhat haughty of eye and bearing, week their food is stone. The autumn rains, too, survey the young man with a calm and discriminating have been heavy, and the small harvest of their tiny scrutiny. His clothes are very rough, and his hands fit lds looks black and Ecdden. They have worked are rougher, but his face, with its suppressed feeling from dark to dark all the summer days, but still the and bitter thoughts, looks very noble. “Genusum they have laid by for their rent is not enough. workman ; species--intelligent; sub-species-stump These sa vages have some peculiarities that mark them orator, I shouldn t wonder, minks the you

orator, I shouldn't wonder,' thinks the young lady, out from other savages. The first of these is their who has quite an elegant gift of satire, and who has abiding misery. Ordinary savages have their times been taught to believe that low people who think and of wild, full joy; their feasts, their dances, their | say they have wrongs are more despicable than ceremonies, their holidays, their freedom--the High- burglars. land savages are wiihout such relaxations. They are “ Yes, Miss Firebrace," says the maid in reply to very law living and law abiding, too; even the land some whispered rt mark of her mistress, and as he lords own to that. The fathers of these haggard hears the name the young workman, for Mackinnan toatmen were brave soldiers, they themeelves woulu, possessed the proud privilege of gaining his daily without a murmur, die for their country. The bread by the toil of his hands, started and looked prayer and The psalm go up at night from their suddenly and intently at the lady. She, on her part, iniserable cottages; on the Sabbath inorn they take met his gaze with a cool and contemptuous glance. the road and trudge for many a weary mile to hear For this was a very self-possessed young lady and the Gospel, and on that holy day they would not cast feared no look of man or woman. The workman was A line or net into the water although they had fasted not so well tra'ned, for his eye fell and his cheek all the week. No people ever served God as these reddened. But the red soon passes and his face have done, and no people at any time has God in His grows more bold and pale than ever. The name of inscrutablo judgments so oppressed and so allicted. Firebrace has awakened the very devil in his heart.

The boat grounds, the two girls are helped ashore, did me this great wrong, and you, my grandson, whom and step daintily to their carriage, and the young I have trained and loved as my own son, must workman hastens through the miserable village. He promise that you will forgive him also." The young seems to be well known there, for although he never man blushed deeply as the calm, clear eye of his grand. pauses to give or take a greeting, all who see him father fell upon him. “ My son," continued the old turn to look after him, and their saddened faces be- / man, “I read what is in your heart. Vengeance will come more sad. For about half-a-mile he continues fall upon Norman Firebrace, and God knows I have his rapid pace, and then he pauses, after which he no pleasure in the thought; but it must come from proceeds very, very slowly. At last he stops, just in another hand than yours. Do you promise me tha: ?sigbt of a small whitewashed house. In the ordinary "I promise, father." affairs of life he is not a very emotional young man "Then I die content and happy. I see-for a dying in fact, is rather stolid, and has been pronounced man sees far and clear--that not always will the heartless. But here and now emotions seem to oppressor oppress this unhappy country. Some day master him, aye, and the big tear yolls down his there will come deliverance. And as for you, my cheek. All he loved on earth were within that cot- children, I see that you will both be happy, although tage, and death, too, bad come unbidden and unwel. ye think not 60 awhile, and iny blessing will not come. At last he advanced through a little vegetable desert you. Now I will sleep a little." garden, with a plot or two of flowers in it. He did That night the old man died. Another spirit had not need to knock, for at the sound of his footfall a gone to plead before the tribunal of Eternal Justice, young woman opened the door, and although her eyes avd some angel sighed as he wrote in his book the were very red, she tried to smile as she held out to beginning of the doom of Norman Firebrace. him her hand. She does not kiss him, and to an

(To be Continued ) Englishman her greeting of this much-loved brother

-:0:might have seemed very cold and strained. But the Scits are not a demonstrative people, although their

RECEIVED. emotions lie deep, very deep and hidden. The brother and sister went in together to a large

GREAT BRITAIN. kitchen, with a great fire burning in it. A few prints

Kent and Sussex Times, Oban Times, Northern hung on the brown walls-Christian at the Wicket Gate, portraits of John Bunyan and Mr. Richard

Ensign, To-Day, Christian Socialist, Highland Cobden, The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers - not

News, The Radical, Weekly Bulletin, Scottish very artistic, perhaps, but meaning very much to

Highlander, Richmond Herald, Christian Commonthose who looked upon them ; a hanging bookshelf, | wealth, Berkhampsted Times. too, with books that were all about the Covenant and

AMERICA. the Martyrs, with Blind Harry and Buros and John

Daily Star (San Francisco), Day Star (New Milton. In a large, deep armchair, tinted like a gipsy | v

| York), Weekly Star (San Francisco), Carpenter

b . cart, sat the man who was dying. Ilow shall I

(Cleveland, Ohio), Industrial News (Toledo, Ohio), describe him and the type of him? Years ago the

Canadian Labour Reformer (Toronto), Irish World type was common to all Scotland, and it is not very uncommon pow. The great, broad forehead, with its (New York, U.S.A.), Workmen's Advocate (New thin hair, pure and white as a lamb's fleece; on the Haven, Conn.), John Swinton's Paper (New York). features a holy and a lofty calm ; a young man, a tall, Spread the Light (New York), Workmon (Grand thin, un handsome probationer of the Church of Scot. | Rapids, Michiga.l), Daily Courier (Evansville, Ind.), land, all of whose beauty had been take from his face Credit Foncier of Sinaloa (Hammonton, N.J.), The and put into his heart; was reading in harsh, but | Earth (New York). reverent tones to the old man, who listened with a

The Day (New York.) far-off look as if he saw more than scribe can write or tongue can speak. When the brother and sister

AUSTRALIA. entered the young man ceased, and with a kindly Kapunda Herald (Kapunda, So. Aus.), Our delicacy took leave of all, and went away with a sore Commonwealth (Adelaide, So. Aus.). and heavy heart.

PAMPHLETS AND Books RECEIVED. * Ah, Robin," said the old man, in a tone that was

DESPOTISM, by B. Judkins. BENSON, 180, Napierfaint, but very clear, " ye're welcome lad, ye're

street, Fitzroy, Melbourne. LANDON DEECROF, welcome. Katie, lass, hav' ye no bite or sup for your

by Laon Ramsey. W. REEVES, 185, Fleet-street, brother? The puir lad maun be hungry after his

E.C. THE BISHOPS AND THEIR RELIGIon, by Rev. sail.” Perhaps the old man did not quite approve of

Mercer Davies. SOUTHERN PUBLISHING COMPY., the deep emotion that his grandson could not conceal. No one can know but a Scotchman the reticence and 160, Fleet-street, E.C. LABOUR CAPITALISATION. love of reticence that are in the Scottish character.

| by Wordsworth Donisthorpe. G. HARMSWORTH So the meal was set down, and thy young man ate it and Co., Covent-garden, London. THE PROPHET while the old man looked on with a pleased and placid or NAZARETH, by Rev. A. Hood. SWAN SONNENemile. When he had finished, the brother and sister | SCHEIN & Co., Paternoster-square, E.C. sat down beside their grandfather. The old man ! THE SECRET OF THE BRITISH CONSTITU looked very fondly at them, and then spoke lodeh a | By John Thompson simple and unprovincial language, which many use RosEWELLYN CHINA CLAY LEASE CORRESPONunder the influence of strong emotion, although at I neNCE _Haard.

DENCE.-Heard & Sons, Truro. other times their speech may have strong traces of

:0:the soil. “My children," he said, “it has pleased

The common practice among the Parisian marGod to try me very bard all my life, and, perhaps, it is to try my faith that He sends me this last and | chands de iin nowadays is entirely to replace the most bitter irial of all-that men should threaten to juice of the grape by chemical preparations, which drive me forth from the place where I was born, and

enable them to set the phylloxera at defiance, and my father before me, and within sight of where all my to wink at each other when they hear of the desons lie buried But I have forgiven the man who struction of the vines.-City Article.



Vol. IV.–No. 98.

JANUARY, 1837.



in political conflicts, and the truth is especially During 1886 the progress of Demo:ratic apparent just now, when all our leaders have thought and action has been greater than in blundered and are at the end of their wits. any other year of the century. The nation. The question of the day is the same as it has practically adopted Home Rule and em- ever has been, and it is this, are “powerful phatically rejected those " concessions to interests” to be “conciliated” by fraudulent powerful interests” which were offered as privileges, or are the people to have justice? bribes to the privileged classes. The chief The answer will depend upon whether the cause for congratulation is to be found in the people so act as to become a "powerful ” fact that the people have discovered the true interest, "for might, not right, directs the secret of resistance to oppression, and are be- fire.” Jupiter helps those who help themginning to see that submission to injustice is selves. itself a wrong. They recognise the fact that they owe duties to themselves and to their children, which can only be fulfilled when they

Coal and Wine Duties. decline to hand over their sole means of subsist. When these duties are spoken of it should ence to meet the unjust demands of heartless be remembered that they are virtually coal landlords, and to give their labour for in- duties only. Our governors took care that the adequate payment to exacting employers. The wine duties should be only nominal. Coal Crofter Agitation, the Tithe War, the Plan of pays £450,000 a year, and wine £8,000. We Campaign are evidence of a wide-spread deter- still hear the same wretched twaddle that has mination to offer a passive, but a truly ef- always been used respecting taxation which fective resistance to oppression. Let every bears mainly on the poor, viz., that it is so honest man take courage.

trifling that it is hardly felt. Men who get showers of sovereigns from the labour of other

people cannot realise the fact that for every Lost Leaders.

penny which a poor man gets he has to labour. In THE DEMOCRAT for December we said Of all the robbery to which the poor are snb“ The Tory Party is expecting disruption be-jected the most barefaced is that which taxes cause the Leader of the House of Commons the poor man's coals in order to increase the propounds schemes inconsistent with Tory value of the rich man's ground rents. The ideas." The disruption is now a fact, and owners of ground rents who benefit by im“When rogues fall out honest men may get provements can pay for their improvements their due.”

and still increase in riches, while the poor England's battles have ever been “soldiers' suffer actual privation for every penny taken battles”; the firmness and devotion of badly- from their hard earnings. Let electors test all paid soldiers has made up for the errors and candidates by the arguments they use respect: shortcomings of highly-paid officers. So it is ing coal duties and ground rents,

The Crofters' Meeting.

Land” views. If he were to advocate the taxaWe do not envy the feelings of those half- tion of all lands, and especially town land, he hearted politicians who were horrified because would be far better employed. A small tax the real friends of the crofters require prompt

on London ground rents would produce an action. The meeting at Exeter Hall showed

income which would enable the Municipality to that there was genuine sympathy with the ill-make such grants to all the hospitals as would used crofters, and a determination to obtain jus- | suffice to maintain them at their full strength. tice. The crofters themselves are willing to make those sacrifices which are always necessary

Reform of the House of Lords. for the triumph of every just cause. But so- As a suggestion to those who support the called leaders hang on to their skirts, and “mend 'em” side of this fast-ripening question, while getting votes in their name, are acting the following extract from Monsieur Meignan's on behalf of their oppressors, and endeavour to book, “From Paris to Pekin,” may be of suppress every action which would tend to de interest, as illustrating the method of the liverance. So long as men will pay unjust “celestials” with respect to their nobility :rents, so long will unjust rents be demanded. “When a Chinese has merited by his services and to advise waiting until our landlord Legis a title of nobility, his son in due course lature passes laws to relieve tenants is virtually inherits merely the title immediately inferior, to abandon the crofters to fate. The hearty and the nobility thus descends, diminishing manner in which the meeting responded when in rank, in the family, from generation to the “Plan of Campaign” was mentioned, generation, until it becomes definitely extinct, shows the feelings of those who know where unless one of its members render some service the shoe pinches. When such careful men as to his country, and thus regain the title Professor Stuart, M.P., and Mr. Picton, M.P., originally granted to his ancestors.” We speak for the “Plan of Campaign,” and when wonder, had such a system obtained in this Mr. Labouchere supports it, timid creatures country, how many of our dukes and should stand aside and make room for their marquesses would have regained the title betters.

originally granted to their ancestors; nay, we

cannot help asking ourselves how many of Hospitals and Rent.

these same ancestors achieved their titles to Owing to the fall in the prices of agricultural nobility by services rendered to the country ? produce the income derived from the agricultural land held by Guy's Hospital has con

Audacious. siderably fallen off, and the hospital is thus The Royal Family of this happy land being hampered in its useful work. Mr. Arthur greatly given to scribbling, and the Queen's Arnold suggests a remedy. He advises the English being about the worst English extant, Governors to sell the land in small plots, and it has been proposed by some literary lickthus obtain "a larger and more settled income.” spittle to found an order of merit for authors Mr. Arnold doubtless would give all the land in commemoration of Her Majesty's fiftieth lords in the country similar advice, and a large pay-day. A literary man cannot be made a proportion would probably be only too glad to member of our most illustrious order, founded thrust their bad bargains on other people if to celebrate a courtesan, maintained to celethey could. The owners of land in towns, brate the virtues of libidinous dukes and the which have been made enormously valuable by rest of the scum that floats upon the surface of the labour of others, are now anxious to sell ; society. So authors, artists, and those others with those holding agricultural land the reverse whose names will be remembered when all else is the case. Mr. Arthur Arnold never loses is forgotten, are to get a little first-rate order an opportunity of pushing his so-called "Free | quite to themselves. The thing is marvellously

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