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REVIEWS.

It thus appears that the average was about

£54,000 a-piece, and the total personalty of “ Copit Hall; or, a Tale of the Land Laws," a | the 39 bishops over two millions sterling, this political novel, by William Cowling, is a capital | being exclusive of any real estate they inay story, in which the writer fulfils the promise of have possessed, and exclusive also of any sums the title, and shows a deep perception of existing invested in policies of Life Assurance, or evils and how they should be remedied. A shilling otherwise settled for the benefit of their families. cannot be better spent than in sending it to the This table directly contradicts the assertion of the publisher, Mr. Michael Waller, Lowgate, Hull, for Bishop of Liverpool. a copy of “ Copit Hall."

With trenchant truth the Rev. Mercer Davies The Clifton and Bristol Christian Socialists goes on to say:—“A bishop is a man who has have issued a “Preliminary Programme" in undertaken the highest, the gravest, the most which they contrast what is with what should onerous, the most responsible office which any man be. The hon. sec. is Hugh Holmes Gore, Clifton, can undertake in this world—to preach the Gospel Bristol.

of Christ, to deliver a message which he believes to :0:

have come from Almighty God, and to be the " THE BISHOPS AND THEIR WEALTH,"

great instrument of saving men's souls from

perdition, and bringing them to eternal life. This, By the Rev. MERCER DAVIES, M.A.,

at any rate, whatever other men think of Formerly Chaplain of Westminster Hospital. Christianity, this is what he professes to believe;

This is one of the most able and vigorous and it is strictly on the strength of this profession pamphlets which we have seen for many å day. that he holds his office in the Church, with all the

The Lord Bishop of Liverpool has lately said: - advantages and responsibilities belonging to it. “It is utterly untrue that the bishops are rolling | And at least there must be some relation between in wealth. ... The bishops have so many demands preaching and practice; any great discrepancy on their purses that they can hardly make both

between the two must not only be fatal to his own ends meet."

efficiency, but must even expose him to ridicule. To these assertions the writer applies the stern

The teaching of Christianity is directed most logic of facts, and refutes the bishop by tables earnestly and most unequivocally against the from the Probate Office, giving the names of the principle of selfishness : it attacks the love of bishops of England and Wales, deceased, from riches, with the consequent desire of accumulating 1856 oto 1885, with the amount of personalty

money, on all sides, and on various grounds, proved at their death:

especially as showing a want of love and sympathy towards our fellow creatures, and oftentimes

inflicting grievous injustice and suffering upon

Amount of

them,- for all these reasons Christianity condemns NAME. SEX. Vied.

Bish-
Income

Person the principle of covetousness and selfishness; and
alıy.

it enforces all these lessons by displaying the

greatest example of unselfishness, of love, of selfHon. Hugh Percy

Carlisle......
1859
4.800 90,000

sacrifice, which the world has ever seen. Whatever Jas. H. Monk G. and B..... 1856

5,000 140,000 0. J. Blomfield..... Chest. Lon... 1857

10,000 60,000

men may think about the personality or the Chr. Bethell ... Bangor

1859

4,000 20,000 divinity of Jesus of Nazareth, this at least is not Edw. Maltby.... Chich. Dur.... 1859

8,000 120,000 Geo. Murray....... Rochester 1880

denied, that His was a grand example of self

5,000 60,000 Thos Musgrave. Heref. York.. 1860

10,000 70,000 sacrifice, of voluntary self-devotion for the good of Henry Pepys Worcester ... 1860

5,000 60,000

others; and that, as such, it is worthy to be held Hon. H. M. Villiers Durham ...... 1861

8,000 20,000 J.B. Sumner... Chest. Cant... 1862

16,000 60,000 | up not only for the respect and admiration of men, Thos. Turton ... Ely ........

1864

5,500 40,000 but also most signally for their imitation. These Geo. Davys ...... Peterboro'

1364

4,500 80,000 John Graham

are some of the prime lessons and principles of Chester 1865

4,500 18,000 J. C. Wigram ...... Rochester ... 1857

5.000 45,000 Christianity, and I venture to say with great conJohn Lonsdale... Lichfield 1867

4,500 90,000

| fidence that of all the theories and conclusions R. D. Hampden Hereford 1868

4,200 45,000 Francis Jeune ..... Peterboro

4,600 35,000

arrived at in the field of political economy, of all O. T. Ligley ...... Rip. Cant.

15.000 45,000 the methods proposed by men for controlling and W. K. Hamiton.. Salisbury 1869

5.000 14,000 H. Philpotts.....

Exeter
1869

correcting the evils of poverty, and the multifarious

5,000 60,000 Hon. S. Waldegrave Carlisle..

4,500
20,000

difficulties of social existenco, this great principle J.P. Lee.... Manchester . 1869

4,200 40,000 of the Gospel, the principle of unselfishness, of A. T. Gilbert Chichester ... 1870

4,200 12,000 Lord Auckland B. and W. ... 1870

brotherhood, of love, is not only the most elevated, 15,000

120,000 T. V. Short St. Asaph...... 1872

4,200 14,000 | but it is the most effectual, the most indispensable. S. Wilberforce ... Oxf. Winch. 1873

7,000 60,000

Without this all others must inevitably fail.
C. R. Sumner Winchester... 1874 | 10,000 80,000
Con. Thirlwall....... St. David's ... 1875

4,500 16,000 “Such is the constitution of the world, and of G. A. Selwyn N.Z. Lichf. ... 1878

4,500 16,000 Chas. Baring G. & B. Dur. 1879 23 8 000 120,000

man himself as much as any other part of it, that A. O. Tait... Lon. Cant. ... 1682

15.000 35,000 some individuals will always be stronger than Alf. Ollivant......... Llandaff ..... 1882

4,200 80,000 Rob, Biokersteth

others, more powerful in frame of body, or in Ripon ..... 1884

4,500

25,000 W. Jacobson... Chester

1884

4,600 65,000 intellect, or in shrewdness, or in having a better John Jackson Linc. Lon. 1985

10,000 72,000

start in life, and these favoured individuals, if they C. Wordsworth

Lincoln
1885

5,000 85,000
Geo. Moberley ......
Salisbury .... 1885 16 5,000 29,000

choose to push their own advantages, and to use Jas, Fraser

Manchester
1885

4,200 85,000 | them for their own selfish ends, must always be J. R. Woodford ... Ely

1885
6,500

able to oppress those that are weaker, in spite of

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any human laws to the contrary. The true most truly and most daringly, is he who approremedy is to govern and rectify the hearts of men; priates to his own personal indulgence and and there is no power that has yet been known in aggrandisement the proceeds of a rich benefice, the the world more able to do this than the faithful funds which have been dedicated to the service of preaching of Christianity.

God, of His Church, or of the poor; funds which “Men and women are living and dying by are urgencly needed for all these important objects. thousands in the midst of poverty, hardship, | The offence indeed is common enough, but I do not suffering, and misery, which might be remedied; think it will escape condemnation on this account." the existence of which is a disgrace to us as a pro- ! It is scarcely necessary to say that in the fessedly Christian nation.

cpinions thus ably expressed we cordially concur, “One stirring sermon preached in the heart of and earnestly commend the pamphlet to the this metropolis, preached with earnestness, preached attention of our readers ; every page will amply with the power which goes only with perfect repay perusal. sincerity, preached by the Church's chief minister The publishers are the Southern Publishing and representative,-such a sermon would be company, 160, Fleet Street, and it is issued at the listened to and remembered ; such a sermon, or a moderate price of 2d. We trust that it will few of them, if they were indeed worthy of their obtain the circulation which it deserves. subject, would produce an effect on the public

:0:mind, a lasting and practical effect on public religion and morals. But when has any such

CORRESPONDENCE. sermon been preached on the subject of riches and covetousness, on Christian brotherhood and

WHERE IS GOOD TRADE TO COME unselfishness? Who has ever heard it, or even

FROM ? heard of it ? No; the thing has been impossible, and for the simple reason that the bishops them

TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT. selves, with very few exceptions, have been among

SIR,- In the article under the title “Where is the greatest offenders against these very principles

Good Trade to Come From?"contained in your which it is their bounden duty to enforce. Their

| issue of this month, it is recommended that the tongues are tied, their lips are closed upon such a

hours of labour be shortened in proportion as the topic; the words which ought to be heard would

improvements of machinery enable more work to verily stick in their throats if they attempted to

be done in the hour, so that the work to be done utter them.

may employ a sufficiently enlarged number of "If there is any manifest inconsistency between

people to cure the present deficiency of employthe two, the preaching and the practice, then the

ment. inevitable result must be to cast a suspicion, not

The writer of that article appears to have foronly upon their own integrity, but upon the truth

gotten that in order to our obtaining the supplies of that message of which they profess to be the

of food and other necessaries which we require authorised bearers. And the world has seen so

from abroad we must export largely, and that in much of priestcraft, so much of lying fables told

order to our exporting largely we must be able to in the name of religion, that there is indeed no

compete in every way with other nations. The small excuse for men, if, in doubtful cases, they

only way in which shorter hours, i.e., diminshed prolean rather to the side of incredulity than other

duction per individual and the consequent spread

ing of the work over a larger number, could benefit "A man who is covetous, or who accumulates

| the working classes would be by enabling them to large sums of money, is as much disqualified for

obtain a rate of wages so much higher per hour the office of a bishop, as one who is a winebibber, a

than at present as would make the earnings per passionate man, or a polygamist.

individual at least equal to what they are now. "I do not hesitate to say that a man who was But how is that to be done? If we have at prereally possessed of a proper Christian spirit could

sent a very hard fight with other nations whose not keep these large sums of money in his own scale of wages is lower than ours, are we likely to possession; he could hardly do it in any sphere of win in that fight if we increase our cost of produclife; least of all could he do it as chief pastor and tion? It must be very evident that if the proposed shepherd of Christ's flock. Seeing all the distress higher cost of production resulted in the loss of and misery existing around him, and which, as a

part of our trade, there would be less to divide bishop, it is his duty to see and to care for, so amongst the workers. How is that loss to be much suffering which is undeserved, so much which avoided, and who shall say how great it would be ? might be at once effectually relieved by a small It is a matter in which we cannot safely experidonation from his own purse, the mere crumbs ment. We should not know the result of the from his own rich table ;-I say a bishop who saw experiment until the loss had occurred, and it all this, and possessed but a reasonable measure might not be possible, even by a reduction in the of humanity and true Christian charity, would

cost of production, to bring back trade once parted never be able to keep his purse strings closed. with, and the mere agitation of this idea is enough

“Will a man rob God ?_This is the question to disturb the current of trade to the prejudice of which is sometimes applied to those who resist the this country, and consequently of the very parties payment of tithes and other ecclesiastical charges who produce the agitation. In 1874 the advance for purposes which they do not care for, or do not of prices in consequence of the dearness of coal approve of. But I think the man who robs God ) and other effects of the great increase in the

wise.

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volume of trade which took place in 1872 and order that everything should be subservient to 1873 rendered it particularly desirable that no them? Why are there such stores of coal, of iron, foreign business should be lost, more especially as of tin, and of lead in this country, and why have symptoms of a change were beginning to show its inhabitants such an aptitude for the use of themselves, but the danger of strikes was so great these things? It surely could not be in order that that our manufacturers did not dare to undertake the phenomenal multitude of inhabitants provided contracts with stringent limitations of time unless to use these gifts should be prevented from availthey contained a strike clause. At that time the ing themselves of the benefits they can confer in great competition of Germany, Belgium, and employment and advantage, because a certain class France with this country in the delivery of railway of men, who are not even the nominal owners of plant had not been fully developed, and we still them, assert their right to make such compacts as held possession of the market for countries where shall limit their use notwithstanding that starvarailways were comparatively new, and there were tion may be the consequence. And it is not only many such orders stirring, but time was so great in the provision of materials for industry that a an object that our strike clause could not be higher power has given the means of subsistence admitted, and the orders went past us. How and comfort to this crowded population. Harbours many millions of wage-paying power were then, and the disposition to a maritime life have given us and have been since from similar causes, lost to the command of the seas, so that the produce of this country none can say, but the amount has the industry of our beehive should be dispersed been enormous. Foreign establishments have been over the markets of the world. The efforts of these created, the influence of which upon our industries monopolists and exclusivists should be, and ineviwill continue to be most unfortunate for us, and it tably soon must be, as ineffectual as was King is because of them that we have not now employ- Canute's chair to keep back the rising of the tide. ment enough to keep us going full-handed. But The starvation of the people by whomsoever in what manner do they operate ? Simply in the effected can but last for a time, and the tide of an cost of their productions. And why are they increase of 400,000 per annum in our population enabled to produce cheaper ? Because their wages will ere long sweep away these restrictions, whether are lower and they work longer hours, and conse aristocratic or sham democratic, as effectually as quently cause their plant to be more fully occu the tide, though we may have first to pass through pied. The trades unions of this country propose privations and losses still greater than those to to meet this by increasing the cost of our produc which we have been getting accustomed. tions, both in wages and the diminished use of the

But it may be said that I have dealt more with a plant. They would thus destroy our export trade,

question not asked by the article referred to, namely, and enable the foreigner to compete more than he

with the prevention of greater evils than we now now does for the supply of our home wants also. The effect would he that the unions must further

suffer from than with the question asked. I limit the hours of artisan work, and thus further

believe we may not only avoid the further evils I

have ventured to sketch, but also bring about increase the cost of their productions and the competition of the foreigner in our home markets until

prosperity of a more solid character than we have

over, as yet, enjoyed, by considering ourselves as we become exhausted and unable any longer to pay our workmen artisan wages.

one people having one great general interest in

making the most of the advantage we possess and But whilst this process was going on, what would

insisting that all members of the community shall

insisting that all member of become of the other working classes, and especially

take their part in the effort. At present we allow of that portion of them whose employment de

land to lie in a condition which is not beneficial to pends upon the artisans. They cannot live upon

anyone, much of it needing drainage and otherwise such wages as they must receive for diminished

furnishing with what is necessary to its successful hours, and their numbers are continually increasing, cultivation. The landlord alone can do what is for they cannot keep them down by regulations such needful for it, for he alone can borrow upon it, as prevail amongst trades unions for the purpose of

indeed, the law does not give compensation to producing a scarcity of skilled labour. It must be

tenants for substantial improvements in England, evident that great distress would prevail, and that although it does in Ireland. But the landlord as a an agitation must eventually ensue against this rule will do nothing unless he is compelled, and the monopoly similar to what is beginning against that law must be made to step in and compel him just treatment of land whereby the labouring class is

as it does with the owner of property in a town, deprived of the employment which naturally should

The importance of this will be understood when it be derived from it. The population of the country is considered that we import never less than is continually increasing at a rapid rate, and if

£110,000,000 worth of agricultural produce in a neither the work upon the land nor that connected

year-it was £131,000,000 or upwards in 1883, and with artisan employments may be increased, but,

that with proper drainage and provision of facilities in fact, must be diminished at the instance of the for cattle, and for the preservation of tillage, we two governing classes—the landed and the labour might produce at least £130,000,000 more than we aristocracy, we must have emigration on a large do. That is, that we might save in agricultural scale-an impossible scale--and even with that produce alone, year by year, more than all the bank device must, I fear, eventually starve. Now, did

notes in circulation, and that this would be accomDivine Providence intend us to starve, or even not

plished by the employment of an army of workers, to progress, because any set of men determine to not by any means chiefly agricultural labourers, strangle industry and to pervert nature's gifts in but drawn from the various classes capable of doing the work, all of whom would circulate their wages. Also the following four-page leaflets at one shillas they received them. Thus every trade in the ing a hundred :country would brighten, and the artisan would No. 6. “The Right to the Use of the Earth," come in for his share. But the reform of the Land by Herbert Spencer. Laws should not be confined to the surface. There No. 7. “Land Common Property," by J. is no other country where the landowner is per Sketchley. mitted to strangle the mineral industries by royalties, No, 8. “Mining Royalties,” by J. E. Woolacott. and he has absolutely no right to them here--they There is no better way of helping the League were fraudulently seized, the grants of land having than by purchasing a parcel of leaflets, and by unbeen for service and therefore not conveying the dertaking their careful distribution at political freehold. Indeed the whole landed system is so meetings, in working men's clubs, in workshops and utterly unjust that it has no title to national factories, &c. respect or forbearance, and if trades-unionists Beside the leaflets mentioned above, the League would bestow their attention upon it, they would publishes several pamphlets at prices from a penny find quite enough to agitate for without such a to a shilling, which will be found very useful for question as the lessening of production.

propagandist purposes, and a list of which I shall Another means of bringing about better trade is be glad to supply. the most trenchant reform of the liquor laws.

I remain, Sir, yours faithfully, The tendency of these laws is to diminish both the FREDK. VERINDER, Sec. E.L.R.L. production and the consumption of everything | OFFICES, 8, Duke-street, Adelphi, London, W.C.useful; but the aristocratic and other wealthy

Sept., 1886. classes will never take steps to reform them unless compelled, for by means of them they squeeze out

RESUMPTION. of a demoralised population those taxes which their

To The Editor or THE DEMOCRAT. own wealth should bear by means of them, and they render the people unable successfully to con Sir,- It is of good omen that the Trades Union tend with the varied oppressions they suffer. Congress has entertained the vital land question,

There is still another source from which good the root of social calamity. But one London delegate, rade would eventually come. Why do we treat however, by conjuring up imaginary difficulties our emigrants with indifference? We have since attending the expense (!) of land nationalisation, 1815 allowed more than two-thirds of them to drift betrayed an utter ignorance of first principles, and of unheeded to the United States, there to compete English history. The constitutional method of rewith us instead of rendering our own colonies the sumption severs the Gordian knot most simply. source of strength and profit which they might It is hopeless to extricate those from the meshes have been. Nothing could more clearly show the which landlordism has been for centuries weaving incapacity which has characterised our Govern- | around them, who will not take pains to master mental departments than the way in which this elementary truths and to examine the nature and very important subject has always been treated. | essence of law. The practical acuteness of trades-unionists might Law is nothing more nor less than fashion, and with great advantage have been directed to this just as mutable. When Coventry ribbons were in and all the subjects I have named ; if they had been fashion people invested their money in factories, treated with common sense and common honesty,

and paid for the goodwill of established businesses; we should not now be asking “Where is good trade

fashion changed and the trade was ruined. Had to come from ?," for trade would never have been

the British tax-payer to compensate them ? People bad.

also invested their money in land when the fashion

was at its height of worshipping and maintaining Hull, 13th, Sept. 1886.

J. A. WADE. a set of idle ornamental vultures. When the

fashion is going out are we to compensate the vul-:0:

tures who fail in their design of preying upon us ?

Landlordism, by abusing trust, robbed us of our POWDER AND SHOT FOR LAND

land; had it paid the State compensation would RESTORERS.

have been just, but of its own arbitrary will it

created a position for itself which others eagerly TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT.

paid money to occupy, in the belief that the endSIR.-So many inquiries have reached me lately less masses would remain ignorant, and that fashion from readers of THE DEMOCRAT with regard to the would never alter. Surely they have no claim on publications of the English Land Restoration the British taxpayer, they should ask the vendors to League that I hope you will kindly allow me to return the purchase money ; but from unrestrained make a general reply through your columns. habit the privileged class regard the public purse as

The following two-page leaflets are now ready at ready to pour out gold for them on any pretext. sir pence a hundred :

Look at the votes of the people's(?) representatives No. 1. Manifesto of the E. L. R. League.

on Mr. Labouchere's motions for docking extravaNos. 2 and 3 (on same sheet). “ Progress and | gant salaries. So long as working men will send

Poverty," and "The Landlord's claim on So landlords and Conservatives to parliament, we must ciety."

expect to be fleeced. The matter is in the hands No. 4. “Free Trade in Land. Would it benefit of the landless massses, if they were enlightened

the People ?" by J. Morrison Davidson. enough to know that they can make law as easily No.5, “ Henry George and the Duke of Argyll." | as landlordism could. What the landed classes

Yours truly,

could appropriate by law the landless masses can

OUR SERMON. resume by law. For the sake of those who have neither time nor

"That they may do evil with both hands earnestly, the prince

asketh and the judge asketh for a reward; and the great man, he opportunity for reading permit me to quote what I uttereth his mischievous desire: so they wrap it up.-Micah vii., 3. have read in history.

The man who is doing evil which comes under When Henry IV, wanted money the Commons

the Commons the head of law-breaking may do evil earnestly, but asked him to resume the Church lands, and set

the is not always free to do it with both hands. He forth" that the clergy possessed a third part of the has to ke

ira part of the has to keep one hand free to ward off the approach lands of the kingdom, and not doing the King any of those who wish to arrest him, and to resist those personal service (i.e. paying no reddit or rent to the

who oppose him. But if either the judicial or State)it was but just that they should contribute out

executive departments of his country's Governof their revenues toward the pressing necessities of the State."

ment are amendable to corrupting influences-esThe King listened, but Archbishop

pecially if they are amendable to the desire of unholy Arundel declared “if the King deprived the clergy |

gain-then there is a means at hand by which a of their estates it would put a stop to their prayers

breaker of the law may sometimes free his hand. night and day for the welfare of the State," | (Rapin, “ History of England.") The nobles also

But this is a very temporary and superficial freedom.

To gain a deeper and more effectual release, the declared that the clergy held lands exactly as the

transgressor must alter and mould the law itself to nobles did, and if the King took the one the Commons might ask him to take the other also, to the

The W mischievous desire" of the “great” has in subversion of the realm. (Lingard's “ History of

past periods constituted itself into many enactments England.") When Henry V. succeeded, the Com

of wrong, and encroachments upon right, and as mons renewed the petition and the King observed

time rolled on, it has wrapped it up, wrapped that he might take their chattels as well as the land, without rationally discriminating between a

wrong up into precedent, into nominal order, into

a show of claim, into the substance of common law. product of labour and a gift of nature. An

It has wrapped it up, drawn into its folds the beassembly of prelates resolved to stave off the evil

ginnings and ends of many a desirable course, day by offering the King a large sum. Archbishop

P | bringing those who would have taken such courses Chicheley coming into the room at this critical

to a duad wall or to a precipice, and leaving them juncture and, learning their resolve, dissuaded

nothing but to retrace their steps; sometimes not them. He told them it would be conceding the

leaving them even that. principle and whetting the King's appetite for more.

The desire of the great must bear sway; it is both He would undertake to divert the King's attention

the raw material and the mould of the common by prompting him to revive the claim to the

law. And the mischievous desires of the great French throne. The bait took accordingly, and the

have vitiated in a large measure the substance of strain on the nobles to provide the munitions of

this law. And the confusion of things thus brought war induced them to join the Commons in advo

about will react upon these great men themselves. cating the resumption of the lands belonging to the

“ The day of thy watchmen and of thy visitation clergy, who in terror admitted that the King might fairly resume the English lands of the alien priories, perplexity will be in proportion to the number of

cometh ; now shall be their perplexity." Their because the rents were carried out of the country

the folds of that which they wrapped up. and impoverished it. (Goodwin's “ History of

The princes and judges of that time and country Henry V.") The King, on the call of the Commons

were so devoted to gain that, by working upon their in A.D. 1414, exercised his prerogative and resumed

greediness, the great man could carry out his misthe lands, without compensation (whether acquired

chievous desires with impunity, nay, even with by purchase or by gift), (Rolls of Parliament,

protection and assistance. But there are commuVol. ix., p. 22), which helped him with means to

nities where systematic robberies are carried on fight the battle of Agincourt, and Archbishop

| without any bribes being required, either to prince Chicheley, out of compunction for being instru

or to judge, because law and what is called order mental to the slaughter of so many brave men,

| are framed in consonance with these robberies. founded the college of All Souls, Oxford, for their

oir | The mischievous injustice of the great man is

The mis eternal welfare. This is the first remarkable pre

wrapped up in his country's constitution, and it cedent for a general resumption of land without

seeks to wrap itself up in the adjudications of compensation, for State purposes, and we might

creation and the planetary system; for if land carry out the “ three acres and a cow" programme

assignments, for example, have nothing to do with in the same way. John WHEELWRIGHT.

these, then what has to do with them? - :0:

But the laws of Nature are not like the laws of a ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. country; they won't " wrap it up.” Rather, it CARDIFF.- We are making inquiries, and will

would be truer to say they will wrap it up for a

while, but the time will come when they will act report fully in the November DEMOCRAT.

like a reversible engine; every fold shall be thrown MANY ANXIOUS INQUIRERS.-The monthly pub-| lication of the DEMOCRAT has been a great success.

| back, every coil shall be straightened, aud the In its present form the Democrat has, we believe,

mangled forms, crushed in the innatural com

pressings, shall be thrown open to the light. Buried a larger circulation than any publication of a similar character. We are much indebted to

horror after horror shall friends who make special efforts to promote the Start up before the pale destroyer's eyes, sale.

And testify his madness to the avenging skies.

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