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REVIEWS.

mentioned, and therefore have no personal motive in thus addressing you.-I remain,

A Lover of Justice. H.M.S. Royal Adelaide, Devonport,

August 14th, 1887. David Thomas, tollgate-keeper at Francis Wellgate, charged Colonel Paget Lestrange, at the Carmarthen Police-court yesterday, with assaulting him on the night of the 17th ult. Thomas said that at half-past eleven o'clock the Colonel, who was accompanied by two ladies, drove up to the gate and shouted for it to be opened. When com. plainant asked for the toll or ticket, the defendant failed to produce either, and threatened to break down the gate. Complainant refused to open it, on which the Colonel came down from the conveyance and horsewhipped him. Two witnesses corroborated the statement regarding the horsewhipping. Colonel Lestrange denied the assault ; but the magistrate found him guilty, and fined him di and costs.

Dr. McGlynn and his Detractors. AS MANY persons who ought to know better persist in attributing inconsistency to the opinions of this Radical priest, whose name is now so prominently before the public, we take the opportunity of giving his own words as an undeniable contradiction to their opinions :—"The Liberal and so-called Radical views which I am supposed to entertain, and recent utterances of which by me have been charged to a feeling of irritation because of my suspension and excommunication, have in reality been fully entertained by me, I may say, from the beginning of my priestly ministry. In private conversations and in discussions at conferences of the clergy I have not only not made any concealment of these views, but have very fully declared them and vigorously maintained them. I have also made known my views on more than one public occasion. I confess that I have been in great measure restrained from public utterance on these questions by prudential considerations, while my convictions were extremely clear and settled on them. I could not forget that I was a priest, and that my chief duty was to preach the gospel, to administer the sacraments, and to exemplify the charity of Christ. My interest, in questions of education, of politics and political economy, such as it has been, has always been with a clear vision, and because of a clear vision, of this spiritual and moral side of things; and my action outside of the pulpit or sanctuary, so far from being in any sense at variance with or alien to my vocation and work as a clergyman, was always prompted by an eager desire to help those spiritual and moral interests which it is the essential vocation of the priesthood to promote.”

“Madame ROLAND," by Matilde Blind (Eminent Women Series, W.H.Allen& Co.).—Madame Roland, whose life is so eloquently described in the latest production of the Eminent Women Series, was a true martyr in the cause of liberty at the time of the French Revolution. She was one of that heroic group-the Girondists—who refused to defile their cause by a resort to that frightful form of revolutionary coercion, known as the Terror, but died protesting against the butcheries of Danton, Marat, and Robespierre, and asserting the power of love over force. But what Matilde Blind brings out so clearly is that the atrocities of the Revolution were a direct outcome of the atrocities of the court and nobles in the pre-revolutionary period. Force begets force, and a state of society in which the land was in the hands of a few luxurious absentees, whose only care was for the rack rents extorted by their agents, and in which the "rapacity of the privileged classes had cast the whole burden of taxation on the people," so that "the sole business of the government seemed to be to wring ever fresh subsidies from the body of the people, could not fail to bring, sooner or later, a terrible vengeance on the heads of those who were responsible for it. And in the end, the nobles had to suffer most from that ignorance and political inexperience which they had so studiously fostered in the people. A nation who in Normandy “ lived on the grass of the field," who in Britanny “ welcomed hanging as a deliverance from greater evils,” who from end to end of France were liable to be pressed by the corvée into the unpaid labour of repairing the roads for the easier locomotion of the Grand Seigneur and the wealthy financier, naturally had but one idea after centuries of oppression and wrong, and that was to have revenge on their oppressors. But whatever cruelties they committed in 1792 and 1793, we cannot wish that a revolution had never been, which rendered to France the inestimable benefit of relieving her from a system of feudal land tenure, under which we English are still groaning.

A GOOD Suggestion." OUR CORNER," for August, contains a striking article on “ The Economic Position of Land in England," and a suggestion of remedy drawn from the writer's observation of a particular instance of land tenure prevailing on an estate at Lea Bridge. This estate, which consists of 12 acies, is divided into 140 allotments, which pay £6 rent each, and therefore about £60 per acre, and yet form a profitable source of income to 140 working men, who grow flowers and vegetables there, and spend several hours at their gardening every evening when their work in town is over. Each tenant has a cottage attached to his allotment, and not the least part of the benefit they gain is the advantage of having their houses detached from one another, and thus escaping all the evils of over-crowding. Arguing from this instance, the writer shows what an immense benefit it would be if all the uncultivated land which is lying waste, for speculative reasons, round our big cities were distributed in allotments, on which our artisan population should spend their leisure evenings and thus improve their health and their incomes. He urges that this

should be brought about by taxing land on its 1 prospective value, instead of upon its income, and

" What Do Farmers Want." is the title of a lecture now being delivered in America by President Streeter of the Farmers' Alliance. This question may be asked in England, and if the true answer were given, it would be lower rents, and compensation for improvements, no game laws, and a fine on all landowners who keep their land out of cultivation. We recommend the English Farmers' Alliance to wake up and agitate.

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thus forcing the owners of the land either to sell or | rent charge commuted at about €138. The present to cultivate up to its full value. Non-cultivation incumbent is seventy-eight years of age. After would thus cease to be profitable. The immense the lapse of some time there was no bid, and it supply of land brought into the market by the was withdrawn. Several church livings in different action of the tax would compel the owners to sell dioceses have recently been offered for sale at the cheaply. Such allotments, the writer argues, i London mart and provincial auctions have not would' inevitably feed the allottees if garden, only not been sold, but have not elicited a solitary produce were grown upon them, and it is not bid. Query. Do speculators see the “ writing on necessary that they should do more. The great the wall ?" bulk of the people would still be fed from America.

When the Agricultural Union, in 1874, first The writer points out very lucidly that the effect

began to show that it was becoming a power, a of this tax would be to give the people a share of

letter of the bishop's went the round of the papers the "unearned increment” which is at present

which drew on him a perfect storm of letters, carried off by the rich in the shape of immense ground. rents. The article shows how the thought

abusive, sympathetic, and critical. " Are the

farmers of England mad?" the peccant sentences of the age is progressing.

ran. “Fair wages will have to be paid to Walter Scott's Cheap EDITIONS. – Mr.

the labourers. If farmers can't afford fair wages Walter Scott is doing a great work in bringing so

at present, rents must come down-an unmuch good literature within reach of the people.

pleasant thing, no doubt, for those who will spend In past days literature has been for the cultured

| the rent of a 300 acre farm on a single ball or a few, and in the eyes of the Quarterly Reviewer and

| pair of high-stepping horses, but nevertheless men of that ilk, such is the ideal state of affairs.

inevitable.''-Life of Bishop Fraser, by Tom Hughes. The people, forsooth, are to wallow in ignorance and darkness lest haply they should offend the

The ABSURDITY OF PROTECTION. — Mulhall muses by their vulgar gaze. Such, indeed, was the

gives the following figures on the consumption of drift of an article contributed recently by Mr. | wheat in the United Kingdom. The amount conChurton Collins to the Quarterly Review. For our sumed annually was in the period :selves, we are no believers in an intellectual oli.

Million Bushels. garchy. Some of our greatest writers have risen

British. Imported. Total. from the people. Some of our greatest writings

1831-50 .... 102 16 118 have been written for the people. There is far less

1881 ...... 72 135 207 of pedantry and euphuism, and far more nobility

Even if the British production in 1881 had been and liberality of thought in the literature of a

the same as in the preceding period-102 million nation than in the literature of a clique. The

bushels—will anyone kindly answer the question greatest books of the world--for instance, the Bible where the remaining 105 millions would have come from and Shakespeare-are just those which can be had the foreign supplies also remained stationary? " understanded of the people," and have least real

--Our Corner. need of a commentary. And it is one of the best signs of the age that so much literature is daily coming within reach of the growing intelligence

How to Raise Wages. of the English people. Our Education Act is one

A DIALOGUE BY L. H. Berens. among what Caryle would call our “realised ideals," and its beneficial working cannot be better

Brown-Look here, Snereb, I have often heard shown than by the enormous circulation given to

you say, “Tax land values and you will raise the books before us. “Sea Music " is a collection

wages ?" How do you make that out ? of sea poetry from all our greatest singers, and

Snereb— Wages are now based upon the com. Mrs. Sharp has made her selection very well.

petition between the labourers for the means of " Early English Poetry" is also a very pleasant !

existence. Tax land values and the competition little « royal road" to a literature which we read

will be between the landowners for labour. too little." Captain Singleton" brings the public

B.- I dou't quite see it. intu touch with one of the latest productions of

S.-Have you any land? our old friend, the author of "Robinson Crusoe."

B.-Yes ; about 100 acres about forty miles from Though not so fully deserving of popularity as his

Adelaide. Two years ago I was offered £10 an acre more famous work, this book has many of the

for it. It is assessed for taxation at {6. same characteristic ideas. It describes a life of

S.-What are you doing with it?" peril and adventure with the same realistic

B.--Nothing much ; it is all fenced in, and I let minuteness of detail and beautiful narrative style.

it to a neighbouring farmer for grazing purposes for These little books can be purchased for one

£30 a year, but it will bring in more when things shilling

improve.

S.--Now, supposing a threepenny tax upon land

values were imposed to-morrow, you would then CHURCH AND State.-" Coming events cast have to pay £7 ios. a year tax. their shadows before" is an old and trite saying, B.-Yes; then I should expect the farmer to pay and perhaps this may apply to the probable future more rent. relations between the Church and State. The S.-Ah, but you must remember there is lots other day, at the City of London Auction Mart, more land in your neighbourhood, some of which is the advowson and right of next presentation to the also held by speculators like yourself. vicarage of Chilcompton, in the county of Somerset B.—Yes, lots; some of it not used at all. and diocese of Bath and Wells, was submitted for S.-But having to pay the tax the owners would sale, and described as a very desirable investment, soon have to put it to use, and I am afraid some of the advowson comprising a comfortable residence them would invite your tenant to make use of their with a quantity of glebe land and a vicarial tithe land.

B.-Yes, I suppose they might if they did not WANTED-A COURT OF CRIMINAL put it to some use themselves.

APPEAL. S.-To put it to some use demands labour, so you see that even in your neighbourhood there Nothing could have shown more clearly would be a demand between landowners for labour.

the urgent need of a Court of Criminal B.-Well, there would then be more produced. The products from the land would more than pay Appeal in England than the case of tax and wages, and so leave a margin for rent.

Lipski, who was convicted, on what afterS.---At the present time the labourers who could produce from it are not allowed to do so at all, and wards seemed to the judge insufficient so the competition for employment is created. So

evidence, for the murder of Miriam Angel, you see the same cause which reduces wages checks production and spoils trade.

in Whitechapel, and only respited on the B. --Yes ; I know that when wages are low trade

day before that appointed for his execuis bad. The poor devil can often not afford the necessaries let alone the comforts of life.

tion. The man afterwards confessed and S.-Increased wages is simply a more equitable

was hanged. But it is none the less distribution of the wealth produced.

B.-Now, supposing you nationalised the land ? obvious that the legal means at hand for S.--Nationalising land is simply leasing it at

revising a doubtful verdict (and such such rates, or taxing it so heavily, that its mere ownership would confer no advantage to individuals. ! verdicts must occasionally be pronounced)

B.-But then it could be only held by those are miserably inadequate. The whole who are using it.

responsibility of deciding the merits of S.-Exactly; and what is more, putting it to its best use. Grazing cattle or running sheep over it

it | the case is thrown upon the shoulders of can hardly be called utilising it.

a man who may be absolutely wanting in B.-Well, no; more cattle and sheep could be judicial qualifications and is at any rate raised on smaller holdings, but of course more

without any power of ordering a new trial labour would be required. S.-But, as you have seen, each labourer would

in cases of doubt. Now, while it is produce his own wages. Now do you see where extremely important for the executive the unlimited demand for labour would come in, and to keep a firm hand on the criminal how wages would then be fixed according to a population, it is entirely impossible national law ? B.-Yes, partly. Each man would only hold as

for them to do so if any suspicion much land as he could use ; the larger undertakings

of injustice is aroused, and the sympathies would have to be carried on by co-operative of the orderly classes alienated. In order societies of labourers. But I say, do not let us talk

to prevent this it is, above all, necessary any more; you have given me enough to think about. S.-Very well ; but do not forget that taxing

Į that a man under the shadow of a capital land values is the only means by which wages can

charge should have every means of vindibe permanently increased and profitable employ- | cating his innocence in face of the prejument given to every man able and willing to work. dice which the very fact of such a charge --Our Commonwealth (Adelaide).

arouses. It is almost better that a guilty

man should go unhanged than that an Lord TENNYSON, in answer to a correspondent

innocent man should be hanged. Nothing who wrote to him about Home Rule for Ireland, set the Irish people against the law So replied that “he thought the closer the union be much as the doubt which still remains as tween every part of the Empire the better."

to the guilt of Myles Joyce, one of the We learn from the Weekly Star that at San | Maamtraşna “ murderers.” In this as in Francisco there is a popular pressure in favour of other matters we should do well to imitate the Henry George Land-Tax `Scheme. This con

the Americans, and strain a point in version has been brought about owing to the opposition offered to some street improvements which

favour of the prisoner rather than against were required, and which four-fifths of the property

him. Life is so sacred that if hanging be holders on a block favoured.

necessary at all --which we very much At the last Cork Assizes Mr. Justice O'Brien

doubt-there should never remain “a congratulated the citizens upon the practical

ghost of a shadow” of doubt as to the absence of crime in their midst. In the face of guilt of the man hanged. We should this judicial information from a Tory judge what remember that any one of us may be plea can the coercionists now allege for the carrying out of the Coercion Bill ?

falsely accused of murder some day, and

then we shall experience how slow society The law's delay is proverbial, and the Attorney. is to believe in the innocence of a man General the other night in the House of Commons, in reply to Mr. Bradlaugh, admitted that judgment

once accused of such a crime-much more had not yet been delivered in a case tried in

of a man who has been convicted and March, 1886.

sentenced.

liberty in England will fall from the frying-pan of monarchy and aristocracy into the fire of bureaucracy. We should not be faced with these difficulties in regard to our taxation, if for all our different systems-income-tax, excise, and house-rate—there were substituted one simple system of taxing land values. It is difficult to find out a man's income, but very easy to discover how much land he possesses.

VEGETARIANISM. A vegetarian dinner was given to the representatives of the press, at the Orangegrove, St. Martin's-lane, on Wednesday, August 17th. The dinner was very pleasant, but, we fear we must admit, seemed to us rather wanting in backbone. The speakers talked a great deal about the “ Jaws of nature," and prophesied a general relief from all ills, physical, social, and political, if vegetarianism were only universally adopted. It is a pity that vegetarians so much exaggerate the importance of their cause to humanity, because such overstatement serves to obscure the really cogent arguments on their side. There is no doubt that most men eat too much meat and too little fruit, and it would be a great advantage to our country population if there were a greater demand for fruit. But, on the other hand, the people know full well that a cheaper diet would mean a smaller wage. Unfortunately, the money saved would not go on pleasant comforts, as vegetarians prophecy, for there would be no money saved at all. Employers would instantly say, “ You can live on less, and therefore you shall have less.” This is precisely what happens with the Coolie and the Hindoo, and to a certain extent with the German. We want to raise, and not to lower, the level of subsistence.

EMIGRATION. From recent statistics on the emigration of the world we find that there are in England 203,000 foreigners, and about 4,200,000 of the sons of England are scattered over the world. England takes the lead in emigration. Germany comes next, with a total of 2,601,000. Strangely enough, 82,000 of these are residing in France alone, while 2,000,00) are in the United States. The other nations rate in the following order :-Italy, 1,000,000; Scandinavia, 795,070; Belgium, 497,000; France, 382,662 ; Spain, 453,400; Austria, 337,000, of whom 118,000 reside in Germany.

BEWARE OF BUREAUCRACY. The P. M. G. was quite right to protest against the aim and object of the Inland Revenue Bill brought in by the Chancellor of the Exchequer. There is no more fearful danger to the liberty of the subject-except despotism itself—than the spread of bureaucracy. The grinding mechanism of a completely centralised system of taxation treats all citizens as mere taxable units, and has no regard for the lights and shades of individual prosperity or adversity. The local tax collector on the other hand is chosen from among the people to be taxed, and from a more instinctive knowledge of their condition can adjust the burden more accurately and mercifully. The claims of Somerset House must be carefully watched, or

RECEIVED. The Standard (Buenos Ayres), Greenock Herald, Irish World (New York), John Swinton's Paper, Le Proletariat, Credit Foncier of Sinaloa (Hammonton, New Jersey), National Reformer, Women's Suffrage Journal, Jus, Temperance Record, Brotherhood, Evunsville Courier (Evansville, Indiana), Workmen's Advocate (New Haven, Connecticut), Kapunda Herald, Standard (New York), Scottish Highlander, The Workman (Michigan), Highland News, Weekly Star (San Francisco), Labour Tribune, True Witness (Montreal), Carpenter (Philadelphia), Weekly Bulletin, Vincennes News (Indiana), North British Daily Mail, Social Problems (Des Monies, Iowa), Honesty (Melbourne), Age (Melbourne), Missouri Republican (St. Louis).

IDLE LAND. -From a list prepared by Mr. Arthur Pryor, it appears that in the county of Essex, out of the 21,472 acres, which is the extent of the land of the county, no less than 8,187 are uncultivated. If this is the state of affairs in one county what must be the number of acres of land idle throughout the Kingdom which, if it were under cultivation, would find an immense amount of work and thereby prevent the grim march of starvation caused by enforced idleness?

"THEY HAVE RIGHTS WHO DARE MAINTAIN THEM."

Vol. IV.—No. 107.

OCTOBER, 1887.

Price Twopence.

Peace for Ireland.

on the road to victory. In this way the battle SOME persons imagined that the existing in Ireland may be won in three months, otherGovernment, composed asitis of Tory Democrats, wise it will rage for generations. Liberal Unionists, and Old Tories, would have considered the interests of the people for the Law and Order among Employers. purpose of prolonging their lease of power. If | It is a curious comment on the everlasting cant such had been the case, the DEMOCRAT would about “law and order” to find how difficult it is gladly have become one of their supporters, for to get the law properly observed by large emnames or prejudices shall never stand in the ployers of labour. The Factory Acts, for way whenever we have an opportunity of instance, are defied on every hand, mainly supporting sound practical legislation. The owing to the lack of inspectors to force the present Government have taken good care that employers into an obedience which ought to be we shall have no such opportunity. The power readily and voluntarily given. There are not of privilege is being exerted to the utmost to more than six inspectors in the whole of Scot. crush the aspirations of the people, upon whom land, one of whom has to inspect all the factories our rulers are forcing a life and death struggle in Glasgow, and another all the factoriesfor the preservation of the most elementary numbering 4,000 in an area of 15 miles by 10, principles of freedom. “Awake! arise ! or be and a third all those in a less populous area, for ever fallen !" are words which were never 150 miles in length. In Ireland, again, there more pertinent to any period of our history than are but three inspectors in the whole country. they areto the present. At Mitchelstown has been The Government ought to remember, and commenced a conflict of which the termination doubtless do remember but prefer to ignore it, may not be seen for many a day. The right to that an Act of Parliament is useless unless there speak and the right to live are denied by the are provisions for its enforcement. authorities. The power which it is falsely said that they obtain from the people is used to

A Labour Party Wanted. exact from the suffering masses the means by | The Daily News had a very unwise article which a pampered aristocracy fatten upon the on the decision of the Trades Union Congress industry of the starving poor. How can the į to favour the formation of a new Labour Party people win, as win they must ? The victory is in Parliament, independent of the two great to be had only on one condition. The people ! English parties. “History is eloquent” against cannot be conquerors in the opposition of force | it, says this latest interpreter of the past, quite to force, violence to violence, but they can ignoring the patent facts in the history of the successfully resist all the powers which may be last seven years alone. For what gave the marshalled against them by steadily refusing to Parnellites their strength, except precisely this submit to injustice. Let not another farthing of independence of English parties? And, then rent be paid for land in Ireland until liberty is the Daily News bids us “look across the restored to the Irish people. The folly of Channel,” and see the terrible Nemesis that handing over to landlords their hard earnings overtakes such proposals. We look, and we will soon become apparent to the masses. see nothing of the kind. We see, on the conWhen they have learnt this lesson, and that trary, a remarkable absence of the evils we upon every man devolves the right and the duty mostly suffer under. Among other things, we of defending his own homestead, we shall be see a smaller army of unemployed and a larger

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