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we have the distinction paramount. Hav But the fact remains that the arrears ing quite rightly put the landlords, in have not been touched by the Land Bill, virtue of a real distinction between land and that by the time the winter comes and all other means of produce, on quite we shall probably be in the middle of a different footing from all other creditors another crisis. Under these circumso far as the future goes, they suddenly stances-in face of the extraordinary assert-just when the pressure of the obstinacy of the Government—the Irish said landlords makes it convenient—that will be compelled to walk in the same their “fundamental principle" all along | paths as they are treading at present and has been to put all creditors on the same to apply the Plan of Campaign whenever footing, and on the ground of that false. it may become a necessary protection hood refuse to make any distinction in against unjust eviction. But for the Plan respect of the past. This illogical | of Campaign many more evictions would obstinacy was supported by Lord Hart. have taken place in Ireland last winter, ington and Mr. Chamberlain, and because and with this additional difference, that the Irish refused to accept the “funda. the evictors would have worked in the mental principle,” Mr. Chamberlain | darkness which they love and would threatened to tell everybody in Ulster have avoided that publicity which is now that they alone were responsible for the making eviction so expensive to the omission to deal with arrears. The Government. The actual horrors of Irish were quite right to refuse to accept Bodyke and Glenbeigh were a sufficient the compromise. If adopted, it would answer to the ideal atrocities of Parnell. have reduced all credit in Ireland to a ism and Crime, and it is needless to point chaos. The landlords would have got out which have produced the greatest their rent at the expense of the trades- impression on the electorate. Therefore, men, the unproductive would have been the same method will have to be employed fostered at the expense of the productive in the coming winter in those cases where classes. Indeed, it was a principle so tenants are threatened with eviction for fatal to all social well-being that we can non-payment of arrears, and if the Irish not believe that the Government seriously are sent to prison they will go in company. meant it, but prefer to suppose that it was We wish that English tenants would put forward as a blind, especially as it unite in the same way and go to prison was discovered so late in the day. If it in the same cause. But the evils of land. was meant, it was a dastardly attempt on lordism in England are palliated and the part of the Irish landlord party concealed by our great manufactures. “Abercorn and his lot,” as Sir William They exist all the same. Harcourt called them – to reverse the whole tendency of land legislation since Nobody has yet attempted to explain 1881—which is, to deal with land as a why what is impossible this year will be peculiar commodity and landlords as found possible next year-in other words, peculiar creditors—and to reassert the why the Government measure of Land old claim of the landlord to a sole pos- | Purchase is timed just to appear next session of the land in the same sense as year and cannot appear before. For our the tradesman has sole possession of his part we cannot conceive whence the commodity. The “fundamental principle" Government intend to derive the credit of the Government has been dead these six for purchasing the land of Ireland. Mr. years. But that is generally so with the 'Gladstone's Bill is discredited, and with it "fundamental principles" of Tory Govern the imperial exchequer as a source of ments. Their devotion to dead objects is credit. The Irish exchequer is the pecureally touching. We wonder sometimes liar tenet of the Home Ruler, and is whether they will ever meet these dear entirely anathema to the faithful Unionist. old “fundamental principles " that are What other source of credit remains ? It passing away-such as landlordism and seems to “ pass the wit of man ”to devise hereditary privilege-in another and bet. one. And yet everyone seems to take in ter (?) world. Like Aies to like. In what sober earnest the hypocritical assurance ever world the meeting takes place, it will of the Government that they will bring simply be a "readjustment of environ. in a “large measure of land purchase ment."
What is more serious is that tenants roth, a great meeting at Bolton, at the invitation of
a local committee of working-men. The outcome are buying, in many parts of Ireland,
of the lecture has been the formation of a branch under Lord Ashbourne's Act, which
of the League in Bolton. Miss Helen Taylor will does not differ in principle from Mr. shortly lecture, under the auspices of the branch, in Gladstone's. £5,000,000 has already been one of the largest available halls in the town.
The secretary lectured twice at the end of July voted for carrying out that Act. To the
in Abercarne, Monmouthshire. Both lectures were extent of £5,000,000, that is to say, the
delivered to large audiences in the Market Place, English taxpayer is being mulcted to fill the subjects being “ Landlordism, the Cause of the pocket of the Irish landlord. This Trade Depression," and "The Bible and the Land must cease. If the Government put their
Question." Other lectures in the district are
being arranged. scheme of land purchase in the insidious
The Rev. Stewart Headlam, who has been form of an extension of Lord Ashbourne's speaking as Warden of the Guild of St. Matthew Act, the English people must not be among the Tyneside miners on the moral and deceived. It will be nothing more or
religious aspects of the land question, gives a
most encouraging report of the state of feeling in less than Mr. Gladstone's Bill traitorously!
Northumberland, where the exactions of landrevived by those who condemned it most. | lordism, especially in the matter of mining royalties The reduction of prices has almost ob- ! and wayleaves, have brought the question to the literated the natural value of Irish land. ! front.
The executive have not lost sight of the resoluTherefore, the very basis of purchase is
tion which was passed at the annual meeting cut away.
(May 18th) urging the formation of a “ special committee of members of the League and others
" for the purpose of bringing into greater The English Land Restoration League.
prominence the question of the taxation of ground The Summer months—especially during such a values." Important negotiations are being carried Summer as we have had this year-are not favour. on, and it is expected that within a few weeks the able to that kind of work which takes the form of
executive will be in a position to make announcepublic meetings, but the English Land League has ments of a very satisfactory character with regard been by no means idle since its annual meeting in
to the committee. There is every prospect of a May last.
very active agitation during the next winter, and In some respects the Summer is a very favour Mr. Gladstone's recent declaration on the ground able time for the distribution of literature, and this rent question seems to show that in this agitation has been carried on to a greater extent than ever the Liberal and Radical party in the metropolis before during the past three months. The League will be actively engaged on the right side. took advantage of the Jubilee craze to issue a
Active workers and increased funds are necessary leaflet, entitled The People's Jubilee, with which our if the League is to make in the future the same readers are already familiar as it was reprinted in rapid progress as in the past. Every reader of these columns. The demand for it has been very the DemocRAT, who is not already a member, great, and its continued circulation would be
should send his name and subscription at once to useful, as it deals with the objections often urged
Mr. Fredk. Verinder, the secretary, 8, Duke-street, by earnest religious people against land restora Adelphi, London, W.C. tion. Two other leaflets have since been issued in large quantities. The tract by Mr. Arthur O'Connor, M.P., on “Landlordism, the Cause of A LADY in business in the suburbs of Cork writes Trade Depression," completely disposes of the to us:-“The spirits seem completely crushed out absurd idea that the land question is wholly or chiefly of the people, and they have just cause. The law an agricultural question, showing as it does that in Ireland is made for nothing but for trampling landlordism paralyses not only the agricultural, but on the people and for making them abject serfs. also the mining, manufacturing, and commercial Can anything be done to improve this state of industries. It might be circulated among the things? I fear not while we have a government of members of trade societies with great advantage. landlords. May God help Ireland." “ Punch's Catechism for Londoners," has been re The recent rejection of the scheme of the printed (by special permission) from Punch, and is Charity Commissioners respecting the Dauntsey the first of a proposed series on ground rents. Charity has not been without its influence. Sir
It is hoped that Welsh leaflets on the land W. Hart Dyke said, in the House of Commons, question may shortly be prepared and issued, and that: “So far as the Charity Commissioners were subscriptions will be gratefully received from concerned, they were aware that there had been a Welsh friends who may wish to promote this considerable change in public opinion, and in the object.
future drawing up of schemes they would frame The following societies have become affiliated to them, not only with regard to that change in public the League since the annual meeting :--The Henry opinion, and the question of the payment of fees, George Institute (Glasgow), Peckham and Dulwich but especially with reference to the report of the Radical Club, the Waterhead Reform Club committee. Moreover, these schemes requir (Oldham).
ratification by the Vice-President of the Council, Beside numerous lectures delivered in the and as far as he was concerned, in any scheme London clubs, some important provincial meetings presented to him for confirmation, he should have have been held.
regard to the recommendations of the committee. The Rev. Stewart Headlam addressed, on July | (Hear.)”
LETTER TO HENRY GEORGE. MY DEAR GEORGE,
go by the board as soon as the fact is recognised Many things have happened since you stood in that the doings of Parliament are subject to revision front of the Royal Exchange and warned the
in order to make them consistent with justice votaries of Mammon that their gold and silver
and common sense. would canker so long as it was obtained by injustice Government Concessions AND GOVERNMENT and robbery. That warning was not given in vain.
DISHONESTY. It has had a decided influence on British politics,
It must not be supposed that this tremendous and this influence increases every day. The last indication of its effect is found in the language of
concession was proposed by the Government or Mr. Gladstone at the Memorial Hall a few days
was willingly adopted by them. It was a concesago, when he recognised and emphasised the fact
sion wrung from them by the Irish party assisted
by the Liberal leaders and the Unionists. The that our great London improvement, the Thames
Irish Land Bill as it came from the Lords conEmbankment, was made at the cost of working
tained no such provision, and over and over again men and tradesmen, and that the landlords who benefit by its construction were not called upon to
the Government declared that the idea of subjecting
the judicial rents to revision could not be entercontribute to its cost. This statement contains
tained. But the Irish were firm, the Liberals were the germ of the principles for which we are con.
firm, the Unionists were firm, and Lord Salisbury tending, and it will germinate until the whole body politic is pervaded thereby and our land
gave way, yielding as he said not to conviction, but
in order to continue in office which otherwise he teems with life and happiness.
must have surrendered. To the astonishment and Cheering Prospects.
disgust, however, of all honest men, the GovernThe present condition of our politics is a puzzle ment, after having agreed in the House of to many on this side of the Atlantic, and it must Commons to refer judicial rents to the Landbe still more incomprehensible to those who are Courts, altered the arrangement in the Lords, and three thousand miles distant. The people's limited the reduction of these same rents to the prospects were probably never better than at proportion in which prices have fallen. This is in present. The triangular condition of political itself absurd, as we do not want the commissioners parties is favourable for Radical influences. to arrange for a percentage reduction, and it is Tories, Unionists, and Liberals are competing for also entirely unpractical, as prices do not alone popular favour, which throws the balance of power govern the situation. For instance, during the into the hands of the Radicals, and they already last two months the want of rain has reduced the exercise a predominating influence. The new quantity of butter produced by one-half, while it Irish Land Act is an indication of this. When
has raised the price perhaps 25 per cent. Thus the Lord Salisbury came into power he declared that half-ruined farmer will have no reduction for the judicial rents having been fixed by a Parliamentary short quantity, and the rise in price will tell arrangement were inviolable, and the farmers, against him. therefore, must pay them whether the land pro On one point the Government have really been duced the rent or whether it did not, and if the “ firm." They refused to concede the demand farmers did not pay the ratepayers must be called made by the Liberal party that the reduction of upon to make up the deficiency rather than tamper rent, found to be just and necessary, should be with the stability and permanence of Parlia applied to arrears. Even this demand they would mentary action. This is always the kind of have yielded but for Lord Hartington, the Unionist argument by which every sort of legal injustice leader, who, in spite of remonstrance from his is supported, and hitherto it has prevailed. lieutenants, Mr. Chamberlain and Mr. T. W. But a change has come. The very Government Russell, encouraged the Government in claiming who made the declaration which I have quoted in all arrears. We shall, therefore, continue to have the autumn of 1886, has in the summer of 1887 the edifying spectacle of armies of soldiers and abandoned the position; and both Houses of policemen employed at the public expense to Parliament have now passed an Act by which enforce claims on behalf of landlords which are judicial rents, fixed previously to 1886, will be admittedly unreasonable and unjust. revised and reduced. This proceeding removes the The folly, the meanness, the injustice of prop and mainstay of landlordism, which is based spending pounds of the public money to recover op nothing but Acts of Parliament. It can find no shillings for harsh landlords, will be continued. support under an appeal to natural justice, it can Men, women, and children will be hurled from not stand the test of utility, and it must, therefore, their homes, and the smoke of burning thatch will again darken the blue sky. But every foul blow | ha'p'orth at a time. Penny or two cent dinners thus struck on behalf of landlordism now resounds would make them ill so small is their capacity for throughout the world, and, thanks to Michael | digestion through having so little to digest. Davitt, the victories of landlordism turn upon Our political economists still protest against those who attempt to crush them, and instead of free dinners, even at so small a cost. They conmeekly crawling out of their houses, offer all tend, perhaps rightly, that people are demoralised “ reasonable resistance" to the oppressor.
when they get something for nothing. This may The Furious DUKE.
be sound doctrine, but they apply it to the wrong The Duke of Argyle is furious. He tells us end of the social scale. Our landlords get half a that "fair rents" are an encouragement to idleness.
million sterling every working day from the people, By revising rents instead of evicting tenants we
and they are certainly demoralised thereby, but lose an opportunity of screwing more labour | until you appeared no political economist proout of the people. He declares that it is a Bill tested against this state of things. As matters for “protecting not the native industry but
stand we cannot do much harm in returning to our the native laziness of Irishmen." During the children and old people a small fraction of what reign of Queen Victoria the “native laziness" the landlords take from them, therefore we may of Irishmen has produced from Irish soil and safely advocate free dinners for the young and a paid to idle landlords no less a sum than from
small pension for the old as compensation for the 600 to 700 millions of pounds sterling, for injustice to which they are subjected. which the aforesaid landlords have done nothing
WHAT YOU SAW IN WILTSHIRE. but abuse their tenants and burn their dwellings. But while we rejoice that public opinion is The Duke, after denouncing the Bill, declared advancing and that we are learning how to checkthat it “must be accepted from the necessities of mate landlordism by Plans of Campaign, we must the political situation." It is interesting to enquire | acknowledge that but little has yet been done what it is that has made it necessary for the proud towards redressing the tremendous balance of Duke of Argyle and the mighty Lord Salisbury injustice which weighs upon the people. to strike their standards and yield to the situation. You will remember the uncultivated land near To John Dillon and Michael Davitt belong the Devizes, belonging to Watson Taylor. It is of honour of having compelled this surrender. excellent quality, and each five acres would But for the
support a family in the greatest comfort. It is PLAN OF CAMPAIGN
uncultivated because the owner refuses to give a no concession would have been made. It is the lease, and although he would let it at 155. per acre Plan of Campaign which has demonstrated to to a large farmer, he demands from small working haughty Tories and heartless landlords that they farmers £3 per acre per annum. The land has can no longer ride rough shod over a patient and therefore been out of cultivation for several years, industrious people. Landlords see more quickly while many hard-working industrious men look at it than the people that resistance to oppression makes with longing eyes as a certain means of relieving oppression impossible, and all that British land themselves and their children from destitution, lords can now hope for is to appease for a time the and wonder that a "paternal government" con. spirit of resistance, for if it be further provoked tinues to stand between them and the means of and developed they will be in the same position as living which nature has provided for their use. the coppersmiths of Ephesus. All hope of their
THE NATIONAL LEAGUE PROCLAIMED. gains will be gone.
As I write, the intelligence is telegraphed that The blessed truths which Dillon and Davitt are
the National League is proclaimed. The effect of so effectually teaching in Ireland are being learned this no one can foresee. It is doubtless intended to in England and Scotland, and the time is not far provoke the Irish people to violence and thus distant when demands for unjust rents will be met justify the Coercion Act. If the people are wise by such active and passive resistance as will make
and can exercise self-control under most difficult impossible all attempts to collect them.
circumstances they will not resort to violence. Free Dinners.
The proper answer to the proclamation would be In other ways we are advancing. Mr. Mundella, to declare No Liberty, No Rent! Let the pay. in the House of Commons, has advocated free ment for land rent in Ireland be suspended, all dinners for the children of board schools. These attempts to enforce it steadfastly resisted, and the dinners are to cost the magnificent sum of one Government would in three months be on its back. cent each. In this wealthy country thousands of | Many Englishmen will now join the Irish National children are kept so near to starvation that when | League in order to afford to its leaders moral and food is provided for them they can take only a | material support.
THE ALLOTMENTS Bill.
"TRUTH" ON BRYANT AND MAY. A grotesque Allotments Bill is now being dis. 1 Sir, -Truth, which sometimes misleads, has been cussed in Parliament. The only good of it is that comparing the small remuneration received by the it involves the recognition by a Tory government makers of the "Ruby" match-boxes for Bryant of the principle that landlord's claims must be and May, with their large dividend. limited on behalf of working-men.
To say nothing of the purity of the motive, the The Bill proposes to provide that where allot effect of such invidious comparisons might be ments are required they must be supplied. The harmful, and democrats, above all, should reason local authority buying the land and letting it at justly. a profit to the working-man in quantities not Though the directors of the Company will not exceeding one acre of arable or three acres of , indicate from what quarter their profits come, we pasture. The humorous part of the Bill is may rely on it the "Ruby" branch does not yield that which prohibits an allottee from building , much. a house on the land. He may put up a The Company trades avowedly for profit, hothouse or a pig-sty, he may develop pigs without professing to be a philanthropic instituor plants, but if he wants to shelter his own tion, though it is one perforce. children he must look elsewhere. The Bill would Employers and employed have their own ends shovel the money of the public into the pockets of and vast numbers of unemployed would gladly landowners and lawyers and tempt inexperienced accept employment on the same terms as are given working.men to rent land at rates which they by Bryant and May, if they could get it. How cannot continue to pay. Our people are rapidly much better then to increase their chances than learning with regard to land that we must not buy to make the others dissatisfied. Even now, to our rights but take them.-Yours always truly, compete with the foreigner, the Company is comWILLIAM SAUNDERS. pelled to maintain subordinate factories abroad.
It is, therefore, short-sighted to imperil a home. TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
industry by driving away the “Ruby" match SIR,- As to the importance of technical manufacture. education there can be no question, and this im We should rather patronise the home-made portance is now more apparent than it was in the
article for the sake of our own poor. When past, owing partly to the competition of foreigners in our various industries, and also to the almost
foreign competition is overcome, no doubt Bryant universal abolition of the system of apprenticeship. and May will respond by raising their prices and In the olden time the only way possible to learn their wages, but this rests entirely with conany handicraft was to serve a seven years'
sumers. apprenticeship, but now, owing to the introduction of machinery and the division of labour, the
I am induced to write because the following system of apprenticeship is becoming almost facts show that the old firm was on our side. obsolete, and even where an apprenticeship is On emerging once from the Bow Railway undergone, nine times out of ten when the
Station, an elegant fountain caught my eye, it was apprentice is out of his time he finds he knows but little of his trade, and here comes the importance
erected by the working classes to mark their gratiof a technical training in early life. In Holland tude for the benefits conferred on them by Bryant and in Germany the State take care to teach the and May, and I dare say the match-box makers children at school the rudiments of as many handi. crafts as possible, and thus prepare them for i
contributed their mites. fighting the battle of life, and thus compete with
On walking toward the church I saw a colossal the working classes throughout the world. The bronze statue of Mr. Gladstone, erected at the Government have at last become alive to the im.
cost of Mr. Theodore Bryant, and presented to the portance of technical education, and have intro. duced a Bill, but such a Bill that anyone can see
inhabitants. Mr. Wilberforce Bryant has lately they have done their level best to prevent its being given £10,000 towards the People's Palace at the effective, except in the direction of obtaining votes East-end. at the next election. If the framers of the Bill
The relations between employers and employed were in downright earnest to benefit the working classes, they would invoke the assistance of the
were evidently cordial, then why should Truth Labour Members of Parliament who are in touch attempt to sow discord? Rumour says the prowith the people, and who know where the shoe prietor of the paper is a great financial operator, pinches, and then in all probability a measure
and there are“ bears " in Bryant and May. might be passed which would be successful in the direction of enabling the English workman to
A DEMOCRAT. more successfully compete with his foreign confrères, and the country might maintain its place in in ONCE more let it be said, this is not an issue dustrial competition with our foreign rivals. As between Mr. Brunner and Lord Henry Grosvenor the Bill now stands, it is most likely to prove a merely, but between the Dukes and democracy.shadow instead of the substance, ARTISAN. | Daily News,