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LIGHT AND SHADE.
CELEBRATING THE JUBILEE. (A scare has set in among the poorest citizens of Calcutta. Some ill-disposed person has circulated the rumour that the Sirkar requires a large number of human heads for the Jubilee celebration, and there is dismay in consequence among the low caste people, wnose heads would be naturally the cheapest.
The people of each nation must
What end, O God I to serve ?
For which kings have no nerve.
If we could slightly gratify
That fell with the stones that fell,
-Dora Greenwell. GEORGE THE THIRD. (From Byron's “Vision of Judgment.") He came to his sceptre young; he leaves it old;
Look to the state in which he found his realm, And left it; and his annals, too, behold,
How to a minion first he gave the helm ; How grew upon his heart a thirst for gold,
The beggar's vice, which can but overwhelm The meanest hearts; and for the rest, but glance
Thine eye along America and France.
Yes, every day of every year
The New World shook him off: the old yet groans
Beneath what he and his prepared, if not Completed : he leaves heirs on many thrones
To all his vices, without what begot Compassion for him-his tame virtues ; drones
Who sleep, or despots who have now forgot A lesson which shall be retaught them, wake
Upon the thrones of earth; but let them quake!
A Jubilee! The word might well
Oh! Mrs. Fry! Why go to Newgate? Why Preach to poor rogues ? And wherefore not
begin With Carlton, or with other houses ? Try
Your hand at hardened and imperial sin.
A jargon, a mere philosophic din,
Would but each man, clean-souled, clear-eyed,
The Rev. J. W. Black, of Lancells Vicarage, Stratton, Cornwall, is apprehensive that the tithe agitation will have the effect of “putting money into the pockets of the landlords." To prevent this we must spread the light, and show that no one has a right to income from the land which he does not earn. The time will come, and probably is not far distant, when neither priest or landlord " will tythe or toll in our dominions."
A GOOD SUGGESTION.-A Lancashire member of the English Land Restoration League writes to the secretary:~" I enclose my subscription (25. 6d.) for 1887-8, and also a further sum of gs., which is half of the profits accruing from sales of DEMOCRAT since October last. The other half has gone to augment the funds of the Tong Liberal and Radical Association, among whose members I mostly dispose of the periodical. There may be among your members many, like myself, of limited means, and whose subscriptions are necessarily small, who would be willing to adopt this means of increasing them."
THEY who arrange our wars are those
But sit in Courts secure.
And Queenly smiles secure?
BOOKS FOR THE PEOPLE.
call to new and strange delights, while those who SOMETHING more is needed for the education of
are familiar with literature will hail it as a the people than the cheap newspaper—there is as
contribution to literature. great or even greater need of the cheap book. Professor Seeley has done more than any other This, publishers are at length supplying. It is living man to bring vividly before the public the now possible for the working man, by the expendi growth and the potentiality of Greater Britain. ture of a very small sum monthly, to get at last a We therefore welcome “Our Colonial Expansion," library of books each of which is in itself a being a popular abbreviation from the “ Expansion treasure.
of England" as a valuable means of bringing the In the honourable task of providing the people
matter before those who cannot afford high-priced with that food which cannot perish, we must give
books. But we would have valued it more had
Messrs. Macmillan made the work sixpence instead high place to Walter Scott, 24 Paternoster-row.
of a shilling. The Comelat Classics are a series of books issued by this publisher, each of them a stout book
The Health Of Nations, a review of the of near two hundred pages, elegantly bound and
life and works of Edwin Chadwick, C.B. (Longbeautifully printed, containing some of the noblest
man & Co.) This is a record of successful work
of the highest value and interest to all practical thoughts given to the world and costing only one
reformers. shilling each. The latest of these is the “Meditations of
SALISBURYISM AND COERCION V. PARNELLISM
AND CRIME, by Junius Secundus (The Gladstonian Marcus Aurelius," a book that has through the
Hibernian Union, 7 Princes-buildings, Clifton). long centuries been wisdom to the wise. Marcus
This is a brief record of Ireland's wrongs, well Aurelius is the one king who was greater than his
adapted for circulation at the present time. office and lived above and beyond it. He proscribed, it is true, Christianity, but in his days, as The A B C of A PLAN TO OBTAIN THE now, Christians had little in common with Christ, Rights of the Man, by E. W. Gracchus, jun., and he only sought to suppress the haughty aspira Cheltenham, Windridge. The plan is to buy up tions of a church for worldly dominion. A man the land at twenty-five years' purchase on the who spends a shilling in this book, reads all that is average of the last seven years' rent, and pay for it in it and absorbs it into his life, and from it models in Exchequer notes, one thirtieth part to be withall his doings, will be one of the best and greatest drawn from circulation and destroyed every year. not only of this age but of all ages.
The notes to be legal tender in payment of rent to From the same publisher we have the last
the State. volume of the “ Canterbury Poets.” Of these all THE WRONGS OF MAN, their ORIGIN AND can be said that has been already said of the Remedy. Two lectures by Thomas Garbutt, of Comelat Classics. The price also is a shilling. Attercliffe. It is seldom that the advocates of This month the volume issued is a selection of the Socialism state their plans, and the wisdom of best English translations of Heine. Those who reticence is shown by the dangers which arise love the sweetest melancholy set to the loveliest when details are described. Mr. Garbutt has music must love Heine. He is a poet's poet. His not hesitated to explain his system. He proposes song is the sweetest that man ever sung. And to create a circulating medium of two thousand here in this little volume we have the best and the millions sterling, buy up the interest of existing sweetest of him exquisitely rendered in musical capitalists in everything, and repay the capitalists English.
nine hundred millions a year for fifty years. Letters are the mirror of history, and those know the life and progress of a nation best who are best acquainted with its literature. But to
A CORRESPONDENT who contends against the
Disestablishment of the Church, and maintains the know what has been written, to enter into its
claims of the landlords, argues that “the State has subtlest essence, we must know the writers. Thus
the power to break up everything in whatever way in publishing in a cheap form their “ English Men
it has grown into existence." The power of the of Letters," Messrs. Macmillan and Co. are doing a national service. They are providing a shilling
State is necessarily supreme and unlimited, but
we contend that this power should be exercised university. We can well understand with what
in accordance with wisdom and justice. Surely the joy the vast growing crowd of those who have a
“ way in which a thing has grown into existence" love of knowledge will month by month spend
would be an important consideration in reference their shilling and get an acquaintance with the
to its future treatment. If a man makes a picture men who have built up our nobly monumental
or builds a house, the fact that these have grown literature.
into existence by the exercise of his industry would A complete life of Goldsmith, by William have to be taken into account. When manna in Black; of Johnston, by Leslie Stephen; of Scott, the wilderness grew into existence by falling from by R. H. Hutton; of Gibbon, by j. C. Morison ; the clouds or rising as dew, the method by which of Hume, by Professor Huxley ; each interesting, it grew into existence would be taken into account, each complete, and each one shilling. As in the
and if a Duke of Westminster demanded rent for . Comelat Classics, we again wonder at the advance hundreds of acres of manna, his right should be of the age.
questioned, even if it had been exercised for We are glad to see John Morley's late address centuries. Governments confiscate the rights of on the “ Study of Literature" republished by the the people whenever they allow private persons to Messrs. Macmillan in a neat and cheap form. charge rent for land. They have not only the For those to whom the paradise of literature is power to stop this confiscation, but wisdom and unknown and unopen, this address is a trumpet | justice demand that they should do so.
respectable-looking couple drove their own nice
horse and four-wheel to our church door. “You To the Editor of THE DEMOCRAT.
see that?” I said. “Yes.” “Fourteen years ago SIR,-I have lately returned to England after that man was a labourer on my farm.” “Never!" thirty-five years' absence. Six of those were spent he exclaimed. “He left me to go on land bought in Adelaide, South Australia; six in Nelson, the with his wages. Sent home for his father, mother, northern town of the southern island of New three brothers and one sister. They all worked Zealand; and the last twenty-three on the sea border together for a few years; now the brother and of the vast Canterbury Plains, which occupy the sister are by themselves, and as well off as I am." middle eastern part of the south island. You have Just contrast this account with what follows. A few asked “ What are your comparative impressions of days ago a very intelligent Wiltshire woman was England and the Colonies ?".
giving me an epitome of her history-telling me There is a great charm about your unrivalled how she and her husband had worked early and combinations of art and nature, &c., &c., but the late—how each one of her children had to do squeeze, the fret, the rub of your social state, the their work before and after school-how she galling poverty of your labourers, and the bitter had tended all the young stock ever since ness of your east-wind winters is detestable.
she had a home of her own, &c., &c. " And how Let us take hold of a few facts. The north and much land have you ?" I said. “Eighty-five south islands of New Zealand are about equal in acres.” “Your own, of course?" "My own! size to England, Scotland, and Ireland-our popu. no fear!” Now, what prospect is there for that lation is only 580,000; therefore our proportion of truly deserving family? They must just drag land to people is 114 acres to each man, woman, and their lives out to make up their rent, and when child-you have about two acres for each.
they cannot work they will have nothing to call Against our advantage in land, we have in New their own. Verily, in Britain, " the destruction of Zealand a national debt averaging £100 per indi. the poor is their poverty,” but one good dinner vidual, the national debt of England averages but given to them in the year, and one flannel petticoat, €22. And instead of nearly a free port, as you are supposed to atone for all oppressions. have here, we have cruel custom duties. Happily But what disgusts me most in England is to we have no tithes. All churches, of whatever hear the way in which the labourers' families are denomination, are supported by voluntary contri. spoken of. * Poor as poor can be, and ten children, butions, and right marvellously our people do con of course!" is said with such a tone and look of
disgust. Who is it that multiplieth them greatly? Drapery is much cheaper here than in New Him to whom the landlords bow on Sundays, but Zealand. We have plenty of wool and plenty of in their ways they deny Him all the rest of the woollen manufactories, but the latter can scarcely week. Things must be greatly altered since the keep along for want of cheaper labour and more times of that heaven-taught king, Solomon :-" He buyers. However, we have great comfort in know could rejoicingly say, in the multitude of ing that when we buy our Colonial fabrics they people is the King's glory.” Verily the poor are are all wool. We have not yet imported cotton now separated from their friends. If one ventures wherewith to mix and spoil the articles we wear. to make any comment on their poverty, one is told
No clothing is so suitable as woollen for our with a sneer, " They find money to go to the publicchangeable climate, but of course our maid-servants, house!” But are their landlords abstainers ? with their £30 per year, want something more And when their labourers are toiling in their fields, fashionable.
do they not teach them to drink intoxicants by The last accounts say that we are to have an providing them with no other drinks? Much food extra tax of id. in the pound on all property is in the tillage of the poor, but the unjust eat it, exceeding in value £2,500. “How came we to get and, not content with this, they destroy it to gratify so deeply in debt?" Whilst our rulers were their own craving for strong drink. flattering our pride, their hands were in our The time shall come when riches gathered, but pockets. Sir Julius Vogel has been our William not by right, shall run through the holes in their Pitt. But although our people have been robbed bags, and when he that gathereth by labour s hall right and left by our Governments, they are nothing I keep the increase. like so miserable as yours. Take one instance of ! As a rule the earnings of our small farmers are the state of things amongst labourers in Merry! “not treasured, nor laid up; our merchandise is England. A man who had worked remarkably for those who dwell in our families, to eat sufficiently faithfully for one family for fifty-seven long years and for durable clothing;" but, Mr. Editor, if I was allowed to drag out the remaining nine of his could just bring before you one of these houseexistence upon is. per week and one loaf of bread holds of thirteen children, if you could see the from the parish. Oh, England, for shame! “Why stalwart elder laddies, with their blooming sisters, didn't the fellow put by something for his old age ?" and all sizes down to the treasured little tot, most says Britain. How could he ? Although his value to consequence of all, the sight would do inore his employers must have been fully Zi per week, than anything else to convince you of the truth of he only received 8s. or gs. “The family' were my statements. Many came to our land twenty or very wealthy—the man who earned so much for thirty years ago, bought sections which turned out them was allowed to pine in dearth. Miserable lucky, and in a few years they woke up and found offenders are your selfish farmers and landlords ! themselves rich-some of these went on getting ** Do labourers in New Zealand do better?” I “ their pockets full, without a counterbalance in should hope so! With scarcely an exception, all the skull." One generally hears a man of this the men who worked on my farm at Tai Tapu class spoken of as " Old Brooks ” or “Old Piper," for even two or three years, went off to land and their families seldom turn out well, whereas of their own. A gentleman, lately arrived from men who bought a little rural land, carefully England, was standing by my side as a very | cultivated it, and paid at the same time great attention to the education of themselves and their
BARON BRAMWELL. children, are universally respected.
To the Editor of The DemocRAT. Near to my farm in Tai Tapu are four families, SIR,--Mr. Henry Dunning Macleod, of the numbering 15, 13, 12, and no respectively. They Oxford and Cambridge Club, has been telling the all live prosperously upon their small farms. readers of the Times, what the DEMOCRAT's readers " There's not a busier family in the country than know very well, viz. :--the constitutional truth ours—from daylight to dark we are at work,” is that there is no private property in land in their story. No trouble about what can be found England, and that a man can have only an estate or for their stalwart lads and blooming lasses to do. special personal interest of some kind in it, so long “ Times very bad," as “ Will Carlton " says, “all as he behaves himself properly, quamdiu se bene round the world just now;" but in New Zealand we; gesserit, or, so long as the king pleased, quamdiu can afford to wait a wee, with no landlords to dun 1 regi placuerit, in law Latin. Therefore, indisputably us out of our own holdings. All we can get is our this estate was terminable immediately the land. own.-Yours truly,
holder made himself obnoxious to the king and AN OLD COLONIST.
commonweal, and very clearly Colonel O'Cal. laghan's tenure should be forfeited for misconduct.
Our tenants are entrusted with land for the UNITY
public good, not to enable them to prey on the To the Editor of THE DEMOCRAT.
public. A crossing-sweeper has as much right to Sir,—The axiom "that truth is many sided " is! mount the horse entrusted to him to hold, and ride readily accepted by most thoughtful men in
off and sell it, as a Parliament composed of landtheory, yet only too rarely made the basis of
lords has to assume private ownership of the soil ; practical action. This infirmity of the honest
both would abuse trust, and be equally criminal. human mind has been painfully shown in the con
But up rises Baron Bramwell, in all the pompous duct of the movement to emancipate our native
importance of grizzled horsehair and flowing robes, land from the tyranny of landlordism. The
to justify the robbery according to law, and to grandeur of land nationalisation is that it offers 1
chide Mr. Macleod for advancing “pernicious a truly scientific answer to those sad thinkers
doctrines," because, forsooth, on his simple who say with William Morris
authority, landholders are de facto "absolute
owners" of the soil of England ! If so, as one of “ Dreamer of dreams, born out of my due time,
your correspondents remarked, they could sell What can I do to make the crooked straight ?"
England to the Emperor of Russia. The idea is In a word, release the land from the control of preposterous. a clique and the hideous deformities of our national Mr. Macleod has no firm grasp of his subject life are in a fair way to be straightened.
yet, and can only confute the baron by referring Yet how ?
him to Blackstone and other old law writers. It Alas! this is where the leaders of the blind would benefit both controvertists to read the themselves stumble. Some look too far ahead, DEMOCRAT occasionally, they would be astonished others are narrowly practical. And the suffering to find how accurately plain working men could multitude are the victims of these differences of instruct them. opinion. Yet differences must exist for our subject True, Blackstone and Co. were once the only is so very large.
authorities accessible to the tyro, but whence did But consider. We land emancipators want to their knowledge come? Why from the ancient give equality of opportunity to all. Only base men rolls which studious toilers can now read for them. can be against us in this desire. But many more selves and smile at the Bramwell's arrogant conceit. or less good men cannot, at present, see how I maintain that the baron's doctrine is pernicious," equality of opportunity is to be secured through inasmuch as it encourages the brutal selfishness of land nationalisation. How can we teach the latter the O'Callaghan gens. The quicker landholders while ourselves indulging in domestic strife about are taught their real position the better for them, method ?
and their teachers would prove their best friends, By all means let those who see differently in for I heard a plain man who could boast little respect to our common aim enforce their views. academic learning, though possessed of robust Truth is the result of conflict of opinion. But if common sense, discuss the question thus:the differences of opinion relate only to method, "Granting, for argument's sake that Bramwell is surely we ought not to weaken our cause by right in saying that the peer is absolute owner ventilating in a spirit of antagonism our opinions of the soil, he must have become so by dispossessing about this.
the people, then on the same principle the people "The land for the people!” This is our aim. can in their turn similarly disposses the peer." Let the cry be thundered forth throughout the Baron Bramwell forgets that laws are mutable, nation. Meanwhile, a conference of earnest land that they can be repealed as well as made, and nationalisers is, I feel, a serious necessity, in order that Parliament, as De Lolme puts it in a foot note, that the essential elements of our creed may be can do anything short of turning a man into a clearly and unitedly placed before the people. woman or a woman into a man. Therefore it But so many-sided is our great subject that I
depends entirely on the electors how soon they would most earnestly deprecate any attempt at
shall begin to work a metamorphosis on the outward union on these questions of method. privileged classes. The right to divest them being Unity of spirit in the bonds of peace ought, how in the public interest and just, is therefore stronger ever, surely to be made evident to those who are yet than the right to invest them, which was selfish and ignorant of the vital truth about the land. unjust.
LEX. Faithfully yours, WILLIAM Jameson.
To abolish Poverty we want the Earth.-Dr. 57 Charing Cross, S.W.
A WORKMAN'S SECRET.
WHAT Mr. Firebrace said to his daughter when “But Robert would not seek to keep you." he discovered that it was by her means Makinnon
"No, indeed, if to make me happy he could had been warned of the attempt that was to be give his life, the dear boy would do it." made to get his secret, no one ever knew. He was " Why then, cannot you leave him?" a hard man, but he loved his daughter. Yet he
“ Don't you see?" used to her words that she could never remember “ See what?" without turning pale.
" That he is pining his very heart away for Miss The friendship so strangely begun between Firebrace." Helen Firebrace and Kate Makinnon continued to “Yes, I fear I do." grow apace. Each felt the need of the other. To “ Then how could I leave him now?" Helen the gentleness of her friend's life and its "You mean that the loneliness of his life would sweetness were a revelation of a world of which I make him miserable." before she had hardly dreamed.
“No, it is not that. Robert has too much to But as the days went on temptation in a new · do and too many things on which to think for him form beset Makinnon. He grew more and more merely to be overcome by the disease of loneliness, in love with Helen. How could he win her ?
but unless he had a woman's care about him, I There was one way. Let him sell his invention | fear that dreaminess will sit upon him, and that to the world, and he would gain such riches and his life will be more and more lived apart from the glory as would make him the equal of any woman. actual world." The Rev. Mr. Robertson once said to him,
And so she stayed with him and watched and “ Look here, Makinnon, you are as far from waited. yourself as chalk is from cheese."
Suddenly Glasgow was stirred to its depths. “ Am I?"
Norman Firebrace was dead. As the leading You know you are."
newspaper put it, “ A well-known form has dis" What then?".
appeared and will be equally missed at church “You know the cause?"
and market. To the former he gave liberally, in * Aye, but to know the cause is not to know the the latter, if we can call the stock exchange and
the building yard a market, he made a fortune “ You love Miss Firebrace ?"
large even in these days of large fortunes." In “I love her as man never loved woman."
conclusion the article said, " Mr. Firebrace's "Now do you still think that to give your in fortune is left entirely to his daughter, who will vention to the world is a wrong thing."
now be one of the richest women living in this “ I never said that I thought it wrong. I said | or in any other country." that I for one would not dare to cause so much When Makinnon read this the last gleam of suffering to the world and throw so many workmen hope seemed to die within him. out of employment."
"One of the richest women living!” he " I think that you are wrong."
groaned. “ It may be."
He had nourished, as men do, a hope, uncon" At any rate I sympathise with you, for you fessed even to himself. The last shadow of it was will not do what you even doubt to be a wrong to now gone. gain this girl."
At this time he fell ill. Hopelessness is a great And so the days went on. Sometimes he met cause of sickness. Kate, as she sat watching by Miss Firebrace. To him and indeed to others the his side, thought of a plan. She bent over him and old haughtiness of her demeanour was gone. She seeing that he was asleep went for the nurse and said to Kate
putting on her bonnet hurried out to the house "I no longer feel that I am at war with the where we have entered before to meet Mr. Fireworld.”
brace and his daughter " And did you ever feel that?"
Helen was at home sitting pale and calm and “ I did, my dear. I used to look upon all men, sad. 'She rose eagerly to receive her friend. and especially all women, as utterly selfish."
“ How is your brother?". “ Indeed, they are not."
“He is not better or worse.” * Many are."
Helen grew very pale as she said: “ He will not " But many are not all.”
die ?" “ All men are not like your brother."
“I hope not." "No, indeed; but still I know of other men who “Tell me, do you fear that he will ?” are very good."
" I fear it." "I think that I, too, see goodness everywhere." . “Can nothing do him good ? "
More than two years went by. Makinnon 1 “Yes; one thing would save him." worked hard to drown his passion. Night " What would ?" and day he sat before his models, or walked with “ You." downcast head, planning some new invention. His
"I?" sister still lived with him. She, too, had had her " Yes ; you. Oh, Helen, do you not see that he temptation. Mr. Robertson had asked her to be 1 is dying of love for you. Ah, Helen." his wife.
• Be calm, my pet, I did not know it." “I cannot," she said ; "at least, not now."
"Oh, Helen, he can think of nothing else. In “ And why?"
his very sleep he murmurs about your beautiful “ Arthur,” she said, “I cannot leave my | golden "hair. Oh, why are women born SQ