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dance of food. The additional twelve have no right to give. Their powers are hundred thousand would thus become limited to making just and equitable customers of the working people engaged regulations which bear equally upon all in manufactures instead of being com classes of the community. petitors with them for the work to be done. It is solely by the authority of governThis would make all the difference in the ments that landlords stand on land and rate of wages.

say that no one shall cultivate or build If our agricultural and building indus unless they are paying them so much. tries were freed from present restrictions, Landlords thus get something for nothing, who could place a limit to the amount of and the public is defrauded. We say the employment which would be open to all ? public is defrauded because the value of At present an idle landlord can say to an land is created by the community, and industrious builder, you shall not put bricks belongs to the people. Governments have or planks together until you have agreed no more right to give to individuals the to pay me so much a year and bound rent of land than to hand over to private yourself to hand over the whole proceeds persons the proceeds of the income-tax. of your industry to my successors a few It is not the man who pays rent that years hence. As if this audacious injustice is defrauded, but the community to whom were not sufficiently repressive of industry, that rent or value belongs. Wherever the Legislature not only enables the land men congregate, there value is imparted to lord to make this atrocious exaction but land, the occupation of land at or near it says to the landlord, if you succeed in that spot becomes a valuable privilege. extracting from builders a share of the It is a privilege which only governments proceeds of their industry, which is worth, can grant, and governments are bound to say, a thousand pounds, you shall pay no grant it only on terms which are equitable rates on that value, and the taxes thereon to the community who have created the shall be limited to the income-tax, so that value. To allow any individual to usurp your total taxation on a thousand pounds the powers of government and to grant the of your stolen property shall be under use of land for payment made to himself twenty shillings per annum, whereas upon is to commit a fraud. the industrious builder who obtains no No action of former governments can value except by the exercise of industry, justify existing governments in permitting he shall pay in rates and taxes at least the continuance of land frauds. The value twenty pounds per annum for every of land to-day is the result of the industry thousand pounds of value which he of to-day. Let industry cease, and the land creates. Unjust legislative restrictions becomes valueless. The fact that landupon agriculture and building are alone lords robbed our fathers hundreds of years sufficient to account for bad trade, want | ago, or that they helped themselves of employment, low wages, and the con yesterday to the produce of our industry, sequent destitution of the industrious is no reason whatever why they should be classes.

allowed to partake of the results of our Let us now attempt to form an esti industry to-day or to-morrow. Every mate of the amount of which the working farthing demanded by a landlord for the classes are robbed by unjust legislation. | use of land, whether for agriculture, The principle upon which we propose to building, or money, is a fraud. form this estimate is one which we think Landlordism is a fraud, only a fraud, must commend itself to every thoughtful and that continually. and fair-minded person. Industry is the We may now form some opinion as to sole source of wealth. If a man under the amount to which the industrious classes any circumstances (except as a gift) gets are legally robbed by landlordism. The the value of a sovereign for nothing, agricultural rent of this country is about it is clear that some worker or workers £60,000,000 per annum. No statistics must be defrauded or unpaid. We show the value of ground rents, or rents have said " except as a gift.” The man for building land, but the amount cannot who creates a value has a right to be less than another £60,000,000. give or to bequeath it to others. But Then we have mineral royalties, fines governments are dealing with the money for renewal of leases, the increasing value of the people. They are trustees and they of building land which landlords usually

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realise without even paying income-tax, large. In connection with all Government and these items at a moderate estimate i work, local or imperial, we give enormous are equal to ť 30,000,000 per annum, thus salaries to the privileged classes and cut making the total legal robbery of the down working class salaries to the lowest industrious classes for the benefit of land. point. We pay no less than seven millions lords £150,000,000 per annum.

annually in pensions under systems which It would be difficult to ascertain the have been framed especially for the benefit value of the privilege conferred on capital of the privileged classes. ists by handing over to them the control While, therefore, we cannot make a of our currency. It probably enables | detailed statement of the amount, we them to rob the public for their own | think that if we estimate 20 per cent. of benefit to the extent of a hundred millions our Government expenditure as taken from annually, as it places the control of the industry for the benefit of the privileged money market and the consequent com classes, we shall be a long way within the mand of speculation in the hands of large actual fact. capitalists, who thus take the cream from There is no statement of the value of industry with very little effort on their charities and endowments which have own part. This subject must form the been diverted from the poor to the rich, topic of a separate article. We are deal. and great pains will be taken to make it ing now solely with the amount which impossible to prepare such a statement, unjust legislation confers directly upon which would be a crushing condemnation the privileged classes at the expense of of our system of government. In the list the community

of robberies, we cannot, however, omit The Government ought to provide a the diverted charities, and if we take the national currency, which would be required amount at five millions annually, no to the extent of at least two hundred reasonable person will think that we have millions, and the profit on which would made an exaggerated estimate. not be less than five millions annually, To recapitulate the list of legal Of this sum the public are now defrauded. | robbery, the total is as follows :Our national expenditure for imperial

Per annum. and local purposes may be taken at Landlordism ... ... £150,000,000 £125,000,000 per annum, and this is per Currency ...

5,000,000 head for the population about two and a Diversion of charities ... 5,000,000 half times as much as is spent in Re. On Government expendipublican countries where the interests of ture

25,000,000 the community are regarded. A very large proportion of this expenditure goes

£185,000,000 directly into the pockets of the privileged classes in the shape of excessive salaries, This sum of £185,000,000 per annum sinecures, or pensions.

is directly taken from industry for the For more than double the expenditure benefit of idleness, and, enormous as it is, we do not obtain anything like such an the amount does not nearly represent the efficient government as that of other whole of the loss which industry sustains countries. In the United States and in as the result of unjust legislation. It will Switzerland the work done for the com be easily understood that those who obtain munity by the governments is far greater these revenues without labour, are in a than in Britain. The difference arises position to control our political and social from the fact that while in these countries arrangements, and it is natural that they the government is really by the people should do so with a special regard to their and for the people, in this country the own interest. government is by the privileged classes We have seen how the control of land and for the privileged classes.

enables them to keep down wages by While it would be impossible to make | forbidding working men access to the soil, a detailed estimate of the amount of Legislation has been unblushingly directed which the public is defrauded, for the to the same end, but not so easily of late benefit of the privileged classes in con years as formerly. A national church nection with Government expenditure, | has been supported for the express puro it is clear that the sum must be very | pose of teaching people to be content with

injustice, and national schools have been the privileged classes fasten themselves maintained in order to teach the poor upon the public revenues, and so mani. humility and submission. A very small | pulate matters that in taxation they pay portion of the £185,000,000, devoted to twenty shillings where the industrious political purposes, secures the supremacy classes pay twenty pounds, and in the of the privileged classes in the legisla matter of salaries they get twenty pounds ture.

where the real workers are paid twenty The hereditary privileged classes have shillings. taken care to unite themselves with Under these circumstances the robbery capitalists and men of high education and of the poor by the rich is not limited to ability, so as to ensure their support. | the £185,000,000 per annum, which are That support is naturally given to those actually taken out of the pockets of the who can pay for it. Barristers and press poor ; at least an equal amount to that writers must be paid for their work, and which is taken out of their pockets is inthe rich only can pay them. Thus the tercepted before it comes to them. But for press and the law courts are devoted to the unjust legislation, the working classes service of the rich. With the control of would not only retain the £185,000,000, the land, of the legislature, of the law which is now taken from them, but courts, and of the press in the hands of they would receive in wages at least the privileged classes, what chance have £185,000,000 more than they are now working men ? What wonder is it that I paid.

THE TITHE WAR. The Welsh have always enjoyed the expected, every preparation is made to reputation of being a law-abiding people, repel the invader. On the tops of the hence it is not difficult to convince the hills flagstaffs are erected, while watchers majority of Englishmen that there is real are ready to hoist the signal which will cause for the recent outbreaks that have bring hundreds of men together should taken place in the Principality.

their presence be required. Before being And cause there is indeed. The State driven to the farms under distraint, Church in Wales is a crying scandal, a strangers have had to give an assurance burden on the Welsh people too grievous that they have no part or parcel with the to be borne. Wales has declared by an enemy. overwhelming majority against an in In one district of Denbigh the farmers stitution alien to the political and to the whose cattle have been seized are all religious sentiments of her people, but the Dissenters, and yet, in spite of the House of Commons has refused to listen terrible trials which Welsh agriculturists to the voice of her representatives, and have had to go through, the Ecclesiastical the inevitable result has ensued. One of Commissioners to whom they were paying the most demoralising lessons aristocratic tithe refused a reduction of 10 per cent. government has taught the people of the The farmers then declined to pay anything, United Kingdom is that Parliament, while and meant to fight to the bitter end. After refusing to give ear to reason, is ever ready the scenes that had taken place in a neighto yield to force.

bouring district, the Denbighshire police It is scarcely possible for any except had declined to attend tithe sales unless those who have visited the scenes of the accompanied by a military force, and recent tithe disputes to realise the feeling here were honest industrious citizens, that has been aroused. It is not a few | awaiting the arrival of men armed with recalcitrants that have to be reckoned bayonets to seize their property in the with, it is a people animated by a sense name of the Lord Jesus Christ! Small of burning wrong and a passionate hatred wonder then that they speak with bitter of tyranny and oppression. In the scorn of the right reverend father in God, districts where the tithe owners have the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the seized the cattle of farmers, the whole bishops of the English Church, who form country-side has been ablaze. In the the majority of the Ecclesiastical Comneighbourhoods where sales are being ' missioners. On the day on which the tithe

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falls due, the representatives of this rich farmer, who is much respected by all his alien corporation swoop down like wolves neighbours and who has given the greater on the farmers of Wales, and then retire part of his life's industry to the improveto their lair until the tithe once more is ment of his farm, took an active part in due. Throughout the country a Welsh the anti-tithe movement at its commenceleaflet is being circulated giving the ment. His landlord gave him notice to salaries of the archbishops and bishops, quit, although a better tenant never with appropriate quotations from the existed. This action has caused the utterances of the Founder of the Christian widest indignation, and the eviction, for religion. These Scriptural allusions the eviction it is to be, will not be effected people can appreciate. There is much without a struggle. The scenes that have of the old Puritan spirit in Wales, and taken place at Bodyke are likely to be reunless the wrongs of the Welsh people are enacted in Wales, and the Welsh are far speedily attended to, the Government of more stubborn and determined when the day will find themselves face to face their blood is up than their Irish brethren. with a force akin to that which drove a The Duke of Westminster is a familiar Stuart king from the throne, and established character as one who has amassed great a Republic in England.

wealth at the expense of the industry of The military have been called in to | London. In Wales he has appeared in a aid in injustice in Wales as they have new light. His tenants have received aided in injustice to Ireland. Such a intimation that at the next rent collection spectacle is new to the Welsh people, but they must produce their tithe receipts. it will only tend to bind them closer If this is not done the result may be easily together, and fire them with fresh deter guessed. Despotism of this kind will mination.

inevitably tend to swell the growing Inseparably bound up with the Church indignation that exists in Wales against question in Wales is the question of the an alien Church and an alien aristocracy. land. Here again, unlike the majority It will be strange indeed if the descendof the English farmers, the Welsh agricul ants of the men who again and again turists take up a Radical position. The hurled back the foreign invader will Welsh farmers have again and again tamely brook insults such as this. demanded drastic legislation, but their It may be said that there is more room cry has been unheeded. The secretary for feeling against the landlords of Wales of the Anti-Tithe League states that the than against the Welsh clergy. The Welsh farmers are in a deplorable con- | parson does something for his money, the dition. Rent and tithe have been paid i landlord nothing. out of capital, and ruin is staring many In Wales, however, it must be rein the face. And so the delay in dealing membered the clergy conduct the services with Church and land is developing a of a Church which the mass of the people feeling among many of the leaders of hate. There is, and it is to be Welsh public opinion in favour of far deeply regretted, the greatest antagonism stronger remedies than they would have in Wales between Church men and Disdared to think of a few years back. The senters, and for this the supporters landlords have recognised this, and many of the tyranny of the State Church are of them are straining every nerve to bring responsible. the tithe disputes to a conclusion. Some Lord Salisbury's Tithe Bill, if it have paid their tenants’tithes, intending to becomes law, will transfer all the feeling collect the money at the next rent day, which exists against the Church to the others have adopted the plan of coercing the landlords and will tend to hasten the farmers who have taken part in the anti agrarian struggle which sooner or later tithe agitation. Notices to quit have must come. been served on some, while whole districts The resistance at tithe sales in Wales have been threatened with like conse is a sign of the times. The neglect of quences unless they quietly submit to the Welsh interests which has developed fleecing to which Mother Church subjects resistance to unjust laws will lead to an the flock committed to her charge.

unmistakable demand that Welshmen Among the many cases there is one shall manage their own affairs in the land of particular hardship. A well-known which gave them birth.

NOTES ON NEW ZEALAND.

“My young men travelled for hundreds of sold. The land is to be bought by valuamiles, but like Noah's dove could find tion, and the land thus purchased is to no rest for the soles of their feet. Land be let in perpetuity in 100 acre lots to speculators have covered the face of the settlers, at a rental of 5 per cent, on the earth, like the waters of the Aood, with purchase money. In order to avail themtheir claims, and thus prevented settle-1 selves of the Act, settlers must form them. ment. They hold every available acre in selves into associations, with rules to be expectation of getting higher prices in approved by the governor. No owner of future. It is strange that with only half land who has less than 1,000 acres is to a-million of people in a country large be called upon to sell. The amount to enough to support thirty millions, land | be advanced for the land purchase is not should be unattainable. Not only farmers to exceed £50,000 per annum. but tradesman are driven away.

If this Act should become law, the “We wanted a baker in our village, Government will have to repurchase land and a young man was willing and anxious | at enormous advances on its original to come, but no one would sell him half price. The present price of land in New an-acre of land for less than £150. This Zealand is purely fictitious, and it is not he said, was more than he could afford. probable that, in the ordinary course of He offered £100, but no one would sell events, it can be maintained ; but, by the half-an-acre for that sum, and therefore operation of this Act, speculators will be we are still without a baker. These | able to keep up the price. greedy dogs in the manger who keep land It is a monstrous injustice, which will from other people do not seem to do not be much longer continued, to allow themselves much good. Many of them capitalists to appropriate the resources o have been ruined, and those who succeed nature and thus obtain undue control in making money by their blackmailing over their fellow men, but this injustice is system are not looked upon with the doubled when governments take money same respect as is felt towards men who from the people and in buying land hand have made money in some useful busi over the people's money to reward these ness.

land sharks for their action in the past, “In the meantime the colony is para and provide them with means for similar lysed, and industry is at a standstill for action in the future. want of land to work upon. Although By the proposed methods, all the risk not a tenth part of our cultivateable land of loss would be thrown on the Governis cultivated, yet men wanting homesteads ment, and all the opportunities of profit find it impossible to get them.”

go to the purchaser. In cases where This is the description of New the present high price is not in future Zealand given by one of the earliest maintained, the land will be thrown back settlers. It seems that capitalists now on the Government; in those cases where take the place of conquerors, and that the value increases, all the profit will go mankind are as much under thraldom to to the private owners. It seems clear those who have bought land, and thus that the proposal is made solely in the secured the power to control their fellow interests of land owners, and not for the men, as they ever were to those who benefit of the people. obtained control by means of conquest. If the object of the Government had Both in old countries and in new the been to make land more available for people are deprived of their rights and settlers, this purpose could be obtained liberties by men who claim the resources by the just and righteous process of taxof nature and exact tribute from the ing land values. If a tax of so much per industry of hard-working people.

cent. were placed on the increased value Recognising these evils and the neces. of land beyond the price at which it was sity for opening up the land, the Stout sold by the Government, the present Vogel ministry have introduced a owners would soon have to sell, settlers Land Bill to enable the Government to would find abundant opportunities for repurchase the land which they have | investment, and the public revenue would

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