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THE MANDATE. But when He saw the multitudes He was moved with compassion on them, because they fainted and were scattered abroad, as sheep having no shepherd.--Matthew ix., 30.

one “ They were tired, and lay down," it says in the Who hath a mandate, and decisive knocks margin. But sheep lying down, even if somewhat | With warrant of admission-nought to beg tired, do not necessarily form a scene of pathosmore likely a scene of rural peace and prosperity.

And nought to bargain, but set task fulfil. But Jesus looked upon these human sheep as taking | For, that the time is ripe, and the occasion only snatches of rest, just as they had been able to take only snatches of food. There were human

Pairs with the utt'rance—as nothing haps, wolves about to harass and to prey upon even the But by strict sequence of all things forepast; smallest accumulation of wool or of flesh. There's

here So, of long yesterday's come I to-day,

of long yesterday's come I today is no mention here of wolves-only of sheep having no shepherd. But where no shepherds are there will Not of myself but of necessitybe wolves.

Law to itself supreme, whose essence still The function of the shepherd is to cherish, to ar

Works remedy from wrong, draws good from range matters so as to favour accumulations of material, of moral, or of mental wealth. His function is to provide health and strength, to oppose

And so I greet you, and herewith my scrip! waste and disease ; to protect and comfort what produces milk and a fleece; to suppress the robber and to destroy the parasite.

To bid you waken-bid you cast away They were tired, as sheep not having a shepherd. The drowse of ages-bid you know yourFor want of guidance they had wandered and wan

selves dered. None, as the proverb says, go so far as they who do not know where to go.

Quicken your hearing-open wide your eyes— But the wolves of that day took the_guise of | Make swell your bosoms--biggen more your shepherds-of leaders and instructors. But their aim was to lead not to green pastures but off from

heartsgreen pastures into arid deserts ; off from the words Rouse up your understandings-stir your of God into their own mischievous traditions

minds nay, they seek to shrivel up the word into their own mischievous traditions. Look upon a sample of the To know the why and wherefore of your state ! rich herbage with which God's people were fed by | To bid you cast the cloak of custom off. the hands of Moses. “The seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou thalt not

The threadworn habits of old usage doff, do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, Essay your manacles, wrench free your hands, nor thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, ... And from your whilom

And from your whilom

fetters for

fetters forge forth that thy manservant and thy maidservant may rest as well as thou." What did this dry up to under brands; the breath of one of the human wolves of Christ's

From the dull slumber of long thraldom rise day? “ There are six days in which men ought to work; in them, therefore, come and be healed, and And then your arms for doughtiest emprise ! not on the Sabbath day.” The fourfooted wolf is To bid you be no longer semblances an insufficient type of these human destroyers Loc.

er's Of what as yet you are not, but, again These make havoc in flock and pasture both,

Let Governments change as they may, the real From half-enfranchised helots, call forth men ! change, the real alternation is between the shepherd And with new eyes, arms, hearts, aim, nerve, and the wolf: between the cherished and the devourer of those who add to the world's wealth,

endeavour, between the guardian and the destroyer of public Stand full emancipate-henceforth, for ever. and domestic comfort. We say comfort, rather than order, because order under some constructions

J. H. DELL. and some administrations would mean that the strong were to oppress in silence and the weak to submit in silence.

But no, it is not correct to say that all Govern. It is seldom that snobbery is so openly and ments range under the type either of the shepherd undisguisedly admitted as by a concert-giver at or of the wolf. There is a third type, that of the Homburg last week. The price of the stalls was hireling, who seeth the wolf coming and who does five marks each, but the programme contained the not shoot him, or close with him, or force him to following notice: "His Royal Highness the Prince

of Wales having reserved the first row for the The acme and essence of perfect Government is matinée musicale on Wednesday, August 18th, the to cause that every man shall lie down under his stalls on the next two following rows will be sold at own vine or fig tree, none daring to make him ten marks each." Double prices for the honour of afraid,

sitting near a R-y-l p-rs-n.ge! - The World,




Vol. IV.-No. 95.

OCTOBER, 1886.


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The Conflict.

nothing in return. This is what the GovernNot a single Tory member was unrepresented

ment insist shall be done, and declare that if in the division on the motion of Mr. Parnell,

the amount is not obtainable in Ireland it must and thus every Conservative has made himself

be made good by the British taxpayer. With directly responsible for the unjust and inhuman

such a policy how long will the Tories remain policy against which Mr. Parnell's motion was

in power ? Or, rather, how long will British directed.

Radicals stand and see industrious families flung The policy of the Government has not only

into the road because they cannot pay unjust

and impossible rents. been clearly stated in unmistakable language, but it has been carried into effect by resolutely

Chamberlain's Mistake. exacting the uttermost farthing from Irish | Just a year ago Mr. Chamberlain was the tenants and turning into the road many hun- life and soul of the Liberal party. He it was dreds of families who are unable to pay rents who inspired hope and won the November which cannot be obtained from the land. elections. He it was who denounced the ex

Mr. Parnell has correctly described the clusion of Irish members from Parliament, and situation when he states that the “rejection of protested against the spending of English the Tenants' Relief Bill, the scarcely veiled money for the purchase of Irish land. In threats of the Irish Secretary, and the alarming these protests he was successful. Mr. Gladincrease in the number of evictions, clearly stone was convinced of his errors, and amended indicate the commencement of a combined them. If Mr. Chamberlain had then given movement of extermination against the tenant- his support to Mr. Gladstone he would have farmers of Ireland by the English Government been accepted as the champion of public rights, and the Irish landlords.” By adopting this who had successfully protested against their policy the Government are flying in the face infringement, and he would certainly have been of facts which will prove too strong for them. regarded as the future leader of the Liberal Even Lord Salisbury and Lord Randolph are party. Now all is changed. He spurned Mr. less powerful than the natural and social forces Gladstone's just concession and continued his against which they have arrayed themselves. opposition. At the last election he supported

The Government have shown themselves in- Tories. He must have been marvellously capable of realising the changes effected by the credulous if he expected from the Tory party development of causes which have long legislation in the direction of the principles been in operation. These developments have which he had advocated; if he entertained almost equalised the value of agricultural land that belief it has been rudely dispelled by the on both sides of the Atlantic, and made it simply action of the Government. Twelve months impossible for Irish farmers to hand over a since he was the active supporter of the third of their produce to landlords who provide ! people's rights ; now he does not think it worth his while to travel from Birmingham to dead machinery of Liberal politicians the London to record his vote against a policy of strength and the vigour of a living organism. exaction. His apologists contend that he feels | There is in it much snobbishness, vast bound not to upset a Government which he so flummery, amazing ignorance, but there is lately assisted to office. The plea is inad | also real sympathy, real earnestness, and, missible. No consideration is due to any above all, real unity. Never did monopoly Government, new or old, when that Govern clothe itself with so fair-seeming and effective ment fails to show consideration for the people armour. It is a society of sham liberty, sham whose interests it is appointed to protect. fraternity, and sham equality; but shams will

often catch votes better than realities. ByeThe Mayoralty of New York. and-by it will seek to enfranchise women. Mr. Henry George's nomination for the Not the working women, the toilers at a shilMayoralty of New York is an event of the ling a day, the mournful heart continually greatest consequence in the political world. It marching to the grave along a road as black is an international occurrence, whose signifi- and desolate as death itself. The indignant cance is not to be exaggerated. The great vote of these would drive aristocracy from the economist himself does not underrate it. land and drag plutocracy to the earth. They Writing me on the 13th inst. he says: “The will enfranchise the female snob. Her vote good work (the land gospel) is going on here can always be secured by an invitation to drink too. If I run for mayor, you will see it coming a farthing's worth of tea with a broken-down into practical politics. Whether I am elected countess or a decayed duchess. We do not or not the campaign will have a most important ask how Liberalism is to meet these tactics, educational effect.” About the educational because the day of Liberalism has set behind a effect there can be no manner of doubt. The dull ocean of turgid debate. But how will Vanderbilts and Jay Goulds will get such a they be met by the young, eager, vigorous lesson as they have never in all their lives re- democracy? By the opposition of the real to ceived before. Mr. George is not merely a the false, of true brotherhood to sham fraterthinker of rare penetration, honesty, and nity. The time has come for a League of the public spirit, but he understands campaigning People, containing all toilers of all sorts and methods as well as the best electioneering conditions, from the all-skilful professor of strategist in the United States. He will as- every science to the digger of ditches and the suredly be a formidable antagonist, and I sin- maimed sweeper of the streets, having all the cerely trust his great moral courage and fidelity strength of the country's workmen and all the to principle will be crowned with entire enthusiasm of the country's workwomen. The success. Such a triumph of “the masses” reply of the democracy to the Primrose League over "the classes ” would be felt wherever the will be a British Knighthood of Labour. English language is spoken. If the aura popularis fill his sail as fully as I wish it would, it

Belfast. will not cease to blow till it lands him in the To say that Belfast is in an inflammatory White House at Washington. As President state is to speak mildly. A casual stranger, of the United States he would, more than any merely passing through the town, cannot but of his predecessors, be the premier-elect of the remark a general sullenness with suggestions English-speaking world.

of slumbering fires beneath. The Lord Ran

dolph Churchill riots have demoralised society. The Primrose Dames.

Strange it is and pitiful that such a man should Primrose Leaguery is advancing with sure have so great powers of evil. The O'Donovan and silent steps. Not even the most reliant Rossa class on one side, the Churchill class worshipper of a cast-iron Caucus can now pre-on the other, these are the enemies of society, tend to despise the League. It opposes to the They are Anarchists without the Anarchists' plea.


In ruder ages classes could not separate Nothing is more remarkable in modern

| themselves as they now do. The chief and his society than the rapid change of opinion respect-retainers were constantly rubbing shoulders ing trades unionism. A few years ago trades

with each other, but in the present day the unionists were regarded by certain classes as

landlord may, and often does, see nothing of about on a par with highwaymen; every member

his serfs. The wealthy employer knows of a union was called upon to register a vow that

nothing of his hands. The power and authority he would not reveal the names of his comrades of the Imperial Government are employed to as to do so would expose them to unlimited per- | keep the peace, and the tenants or hands may secution. From this disagreeable position

starve and suffer in silence. trades unionists have been relieved, and now This is a wonderfully excellent system for find themselves in exactly the opposite dilemma. those who are at the top, not, however, so They are in danger of being killed by kindness, desirable for those who are below. And yet it and they have to exercise that vigilance which is a mere truism that the upper portions of is necessary when all men speak well of you. society cannot be maintained, unless the lower

This rapid change is largely due to the ex- are sound. In the end, and very soon too, the tension of political power, but it is also the whole fabric must fall unless the foundations result, in a great degree, of the judicious,

be secured. energetic, and persevering labours of trades Next to the extension of political power unionists themselves. The difficulties which nothing has done more to impart justice and surrounded their early efforts afforded excel-security in our social arrangements than trades lent training and imparted a degree of shrewd- unionism. The control of the land, the conness and prudence to their leaders which might trol of capital, and the control of the Governnot have been developed under more favourable ment have been, until now, exclusively in the circumstances.

hands of the upper classes. The result is a It is, however, upon the justice and wisdom of degree of injustice in legislation and administheir objects that trades unionists, must rely for tration, which has almost neutralised the enorpermanent progress. It is now beginning to be mous advantages gained by scientific, mechaniunderstood that the improvement of the condi- cal, and commercial developments. tion of the working classes is notonly an advantage The power of labour has been increased at to the mselves but that the real and permanent least five fold during the last 100 years. The prosperity of the whole community depends same number of hours of work produce five upon industry being properly remunerated. A times as much as they produced in 1786 ; does reduction in wages may be advantageous to a the condition of the workman show a correparticular employer, but to the community it ponding improvement ? By no means. That usually means a distinct loss--shopkeepers, there has been improvement in certain cases merchants, and manufacturers suffer when i we do not deny, but the terrible fact remains working men are unemployed or underpaid. that a large portion of our population are con

In human society there is a constant contest stantly on the verge of starvation, and during between those who pay and those who receive the period when the economic development has wages. The stronger portion of mankind been most marked, and under the Government always endeavour to obtain the services of the where it has been most largely secured, there weaker on the best possible terms for them- | the greatest proportion of people have actually selves. The complications of a highly-developed died of want, and millions of its inhabitants civilisation have, in many respects, intensified suffer a degree of misery which is generally class division, and made it more necessary that admitted by experienced travellers to be withno section of the community should submit to out a parallel in any other part of the world. injustice.

| If the working-classes were left to meet this

contest with wealth and power without com- and another, who must be bright and intellibination the result would be unmitigated and gent, receive only a guinea per week ? universal slavery. As it is trades unions have The reason is simply this : that the “ruling enabled labour to meet capital on something classes” make various devices for ruling the like equal terms.

| people's money into their own pockets, and No men are more deserving of honour than hitherto the working classes have been so ignothose who have taken an active part in the rantly patient as to submit. But with growing hitherto difficult and dangerous task of intelligence and a consciousness of power these organising labour. That their efforts in the inequalities will no longer be borne or be bearfuture may be less disagreeable and even more able. successful than in the past is devoutly to be

| The amount and variety of work to be done desired, and may be reasonably anticipated by the tra les unions would appal any but “There is a tide in the affairs of men, Which,

resolute and industrious men. The discussion taken at the flood, leads on to fortune.” That

of leading principles which takes place at the tide has now come to working men. Will Congress shows how many subjects demand it be taken or missed ? Upon this depends the

and receive intelligent consideration, but the advancement or downfall of the empire.

Congress gives only an imperfect idea of the No one could have attended the conference

many matters that require attention. In at Hull without being convinced that working

carrying out the work for which trades men have attained the power of organisation, unions have been formed, it has been necesand have in their midst all that is neces

sary to exercise discretion at every point, and sary for its complete development. The Lit is surprising to discover the amount of indemonstration of this fact is of the utmost im

dustry and intelligence which have been devoted portance. It proves that we need no longer to the business. A well-conducted trades depend upon a "ruling class” for the adminis- council must be informed of the circumstances tration of ourgovernment. All classes, especially

attending every workshop in their district, and the working-classes, must take their share in

be prepared at any moment to expose an abuse administration, and those must be employed to or discuss and arrange matters between masters carry on the government, who will bring to and workmen not on hard and fast lines, but the work the greatest industry and ability at

with due consideration of all the circumstances the most moderate cost.

of the case. Trades unionists find able men who for £200! The extension of the suffrage has been a a year will devote intelligence, energy, and tremendous engine in the hands of trades experience of no mean order to public business, unionists. There are few managers or and who carry on that business with undoubted proprietors of concerns who are wholly integrity and unquestioned success. When indifferent to political considerations ; the men can govern themselves on moderate votes of working men are, therefore, a powersalaries, why should they pay enormous salaries ful lever by which they can raise their confor other people to govern them The late dition. Mayor of Hull, who addressed the Congress at | No one realises more fully than the leaders its concluding meeting, received for many years of trades unions that the degree of power which payment which is estimated at £2000 a year they will exercise in the future depends upon for acting two days in a fortnight as clerk to the justice and wisdom of their own actions. the county court, and during his mayoralty Public opinion would as rapidly condemn an advertisement was issued for a first-class unionists for using their power unfairly, as it shorthand clerk for the Corporation at a salary condemns masters who act oppressively towards of a guinea per week. Why should one man their workmen. be paid at the rate of forty pounds per day One great advantage of trades unions

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