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LETTER FROM THE CHILDREN'S people will be deprived of what they might have DEMOCRAT.

had. Then, it is very likely that the people of the

sugar countries will say, “If you can't buy more of My Dear CHILDREN, --In our last letter we said our sugar, we can't afford to buy so much of your that the world could be made richer, not only by

cheese." Thus the cheesemakers will have their

cheese standing on hand, and will say, “What are making new things; it can be made richer by

we to do with it all ?” People in both sorts of taking things from places where they are of no use country will be short of what they want, and at to places where they are of use, and by exchanging

the same time there will be too much in both

countries. And some men will talk of overdifferent sorts of things between one person and

production; and it will be over-production -too another.

much made. Suppose that a boy has nothing but cabbage for You know if your mother cooked for you only one his school dinner (I have heard of such a thing), dinner a week, it would be over-production if she and another boy has nothing but potatoes. If the

kept all your mouths locked up.

But the expenses of Government are met partly first boy gives the other a little cabbage for a little

by the payment of these duties, and they must be potato, each of the boys, I should say, would be met in some way. Yes; but the less the Governbetter off, richer, than he was before.

ment interferes with men doing the best they can Suppose the school committee or school board

for themselves, the more they will be able to con. should make a rule that every boy who did such a

tribute towards the expenses of Government. At thing should have to pay something extra every

the same time, there will be less trouble and time towards the school expenses. This would tend

expense in governing, because thriving businesses to make all the children in the school worse off

of themselves keep people in order; so that the

Government would need less money, and would be than they were before. They would have less means and less opportunity of getting what they

able to get more. liked.

I think it is a pity that Governments should try There may be a village situated on land not suit- |

to get money by preventing property from being able for raising potatoes, and there may be some

made more valuable. Exchanges do make things man who brings potatoes to this village for sale.

more valuable. If I raise more fruit than I can eat, But if they tell him that for every peck of potatoes

and another man raises more eggs than he can eat, that he brings he must subscribe so much towards

we both gain by exchanging with each other. To the parish expenses, he will either set a higher

be sure, things are not often managed in this way. price on his potatoes, or he will not bring them at

Most likely I should sell my fruit, and he would sell all.

his eggs, but in the end this would come to the But some persons may say that neither the

same thing. And this is what I particularly school nor the village will be the worse off for these

want you to understand, that buying and selling rules, because the payments will go towards the

is a sort of exchanging all round, and everybody school or the village expenses. But I think they

ought to be the better for it. . . . will be worse off. Industry, and sense, and good

It is waste to interfere with profitable transacmanagement will be discouraged. Besides, it is

tions; I mean transactions profitable to all parties possible that such rules will prevent potatoes and

engaged in them. I should like you to study this cabbage from being bought and sold or exchanged

er exchanged subject, and to consider, when you pay for things at all, and in this case the people will be deprived

at the shops, how much of the price belongs to of what they like, and the school and village

the expense of raising the article and of bringing finances be no better off than before ; worse off in

it to the place where it is wanted, and how the end, because the less persons can suit them

much to the charge that is made upon it by selves, the less they will be able to contribute

Government. About this time of the year, a new towards scbool and parish expenses.

Budget, as they call it, is brought out, to say However, such things as we have been supposing

what duties and taxes the Government think had are not done with respect to schools and villages,

better be paid upon this and upon that. You but they are done with respect to countries. There

| are, many of you, old enough to take an interest are certain goods which are not allowed to be

in such matters, and to judge to some extent brought into certain countries without making pay

whether the new Budget does as little harm es ments, called duties, to the Governments of

possible. But THE DEMOCRAT has in its head an these countries. Let us see how this is likely to

altogether different way of getting money for work.

the Goverment. I will describe this in my next There are countries in which a very large quan

letter. tity of sugar can be raised and manufactured, and

I said I would tell you what you children there are countries which can produce a very large

could do to put down waste. One great rule is amount of cheese. Now, if the Governments of

this: When you work, if you can choose, let it the cheese parts of the world say that no sugar

be for some one who works himself, or else for shall be brought into their countries without pay

some one who can't work. Because, if you work ing duty, the consequence will be that sugar will be for the idle, your work goes to no good, and is so much the dearer in the cheese countries, and

wasted, the consequence of that will be that there will be

Your affectionate less used, less bought, and less brought in. The




Robert Makinnon walked very slowly, and with his Again the flush deepened on Miss Firebrace's cheek. head bent to the ground. It was one of those after- Her task had become very hard. Nor was it less when noons that press heavier than lead on a sunshine with a grave and ceremonious courtesy, belonging by spirit. There aro days of malign influence, just as very birthright to those of Celtic blood, Makinnon did there are men whose spirituality affects and depresses not allow to appear on his face one glance of surprise, our own. To meet some men, to live through some but placed a chair for her as respectfully as if she days, is a struggle and a trial. All the light, and love, were an expected princess. and laughter seem at their touch to fade away from But Miss Firebrace had great coolness and self. life. All above, around, beneath us is deathly and command. Long and bitter training-the training ashen with dreariness and desolation. These are the which comes to a woman when she belongs to a newlythings that try what stuff men are made of. Every enriched family struggling for that rainest of vain thing whispers despair. Why should we toil, why be things, social position-came to her aid. great, why seek after nobleness ? Let us eat, let us She saw, with all the quickness and clearnegs of a drink, let us die.

woman's mind, that she must tell him everything. To Robert Makinnon started at the train of thought and his sister she would only have said that she had heard its ending that had gone over his soul. He found of a plot to do her brother injury, and then went her himself thinking of death as a cool stream, where flows way careless, or trying to feel careless, as to what he the waters of Nepenthe; and of life as a dusky bank, thought; but she could not say so to him. His quiet from which it is only wisdom to leap.

ways and his clear eyes had an influence on her. She Startled and shocked, he hurried on as if to escape knew that if she told her tale in such bare outline that from some darker self that kept whispering in his ear. his nimble and penetrating intellect would at once and

He did not notice that a tall and graceful woman was easily fill up the blank. She was too proud to allow following him; now hurrying, as if urged by some that. It would look so like a falsehood-the falsehood sudden impulse ; now almost halting, as if a still had of a coward. And she was no coward, this proud, tall fallen upon her resolution.

girl, whose nature had hitherto seemed like unto a At last Makinnon reached home, and at the touch of frozen deep. Her voice, however, trembled a little as his sister's cool, soft hand, and at the sound of her she spoke, but her eyes never fell, and she looked voice's calm music, his soul grew quiet. There is a steadily in his face. scmething in woman-a loftiness, a calmness, a clear- “I have come, Mr. Makinnon, to tell you something ness and steadiness of faith-that is to man a haven that it is right you should know." and a heaven of refuge. A fervid and poetic nature He bowed gravely. needs such an influence as a sun-parched land needs | "I have heard the value you put upon your inventhe breeze that comes like an incense from the sea, tion." when, one by one, the stars come to keep their angel Again he bowed. watch. The loving tendance of mother, sister, wife, is "I have heard that a scheme has been proposed to soul-soothing as the sound of holy bells.

take"-she almost said steal~ " this invention away And so Makinnon sat wearily down, and his sister's from you." quiet talk played coolly on his soul.

Still his only answer was a bow. He only half heard, as one hears in a dream, a gentle “I am grieved to say" and here, in spite of herself, knocking at the onter door. But Katie, quick, bright, her voice faltered—" that my father is engaged in this alert, heard it, and rushed to open, perhaps half plot with a man, Jacob Rapeworthy. Do you know expecting to see behind the solid oak a certain blushing him?” and stammering probationer of the Kirk of Scotland. I know him."

Katie started a little at seeing before her a tall and “On Monday night, when you are away, that man's elegant girl, hardly older than herself. For a moment plan is to come here and to take away your machine.” she was too astonished to speak, and then she said, “I can easily prevent him." Miss Firebrace!"

For a moment there was silence. Miss Firebrace, as Miss Firebrace, at the sound of her name, blushed she proceeded, had lost her calmness, and her face was slightly, as if that sound called back to her all she flushed with agitation, Robert Makinnon did not was and that vast responsibility to society which is know what to say. Cannot you conceive his embarrasscalled convention. But soon she suppressed, or seemed ment ? to suppress, her emotion, as she said, in a tone that was But it lasted not a moment. A deep awe and respect almost constrained and harsh

for this girl fell upon him. What she had done was - Yes; that is my name. I want to speak to you, if more heroic than marching to the stake. What a you are Miss Makinnon."

struggle! what a triumph! His soul bent in worship “I am she. Will you come in?”

to this queenly spirit. With an agitated voice he said Miss Firebrace bowed like a queen, and Katie showed “ Miss Firebrace, believe me, what you say shall be her into the room where her brother was seated, look- locked in my breast. I understand your father. He ing dreamily into the fire-for these were poor folk, loves science; he fears that a great invention shall be look you, without half-a-dozen apartments into which lost to the world. He does this thing for the benefit a stranger can be put.

of humanity." The sight of Makinnon was evidently unexpected by It was a clumsy attempt, and done in the whirl of Miss Firebrace. She had hoped to have said all she agitation. A clear-eyed girl like Helen Firebrace knew wished to his sister, and to have been gone before he too well the motives of her father, read too truly his returned from his daily work at the foundry, where he nature ; and she perfectly understood the generous was at present engaged drawing the plan of a ship's feeling that sought to justify the father to the daughter engine.

Somehow it profoundly affected her. She felt dazed and dizzy. Just then, her eye caught sight of Katie,

A MODEL LAND LAW. who had come up to her, and was looking at her with

Under this title Mr. Arthur J. Williams, M.P., eyes so tender and timid that the girl's proud heart yare way. She stretched out her hand, and Katie took has expressed his views in the April number of

| the Fortnightly Review. it, and kissed it with simple reverence.

in Oh, Miss Firebrace.” cried the tender-hearted little 1 His model land law is to “keep sacred and inwoman, “ you look so ill; come to my room.”

violable the true ownership of land," and "working As in a dream, Helen lét Katie lead her away. She with inexorable precision, it should convert every hardly knew where she was or how she went, until she farm and dwelling into a home from which no one found herself lying on Katie's little white bed. Then could be turned out so long as he deals with it as the restraint and passion of years broke through, and it should be dealt with." He adds, “ All this she wept as if her soul would come away in tears. should be managed without depriving those who

And then she felt what she had never felt before own the land of any single right to which they the tender ministry of woman to woman. Katie bent

| are justly entitled, and without spending a single above her; and the poor, proud, wearied girl felt as if

! penny of the public money." an angel fanned her with real wings and softly whispered

These proposals are interesting, but, unfortucaresses. When she got better, Katie softly led her out and went

nately, they are incomprehensible. Mr. Williams along the road with her in the shadows of night, and

may be pokiug fun at the landlords, for he goes on the two girls parted with a kiss that was to Helen as

to quote Mr. Mills celebrated dictum that “the the seal and sacrament of a great peace.

essential principle of property is to assure to all Meanwhile Makinnon and Robertson (who had called) persons what they have produced by their labour, sat smoking their pipes and looking into the fire in that and accumulated by their abstinence." silent companionable way that is so luxurious in this This principle, sound though it be, is not readily world of talkee.

adapted to the ownership of land. Even if land At last Robertson spoke

could be produced by labour, or accumulated by " I'll tell you what it is, Makinnon. You look quite

abstinence," yet landlords are not noted for the handsome; you remind me of your sister."

exercise of these virtues. “ Ab, my boy, that is because I hare made a great

The landlord obtains his income by saying to discovery."

those who desire to profit by labour and abstiWhat?" • Yes, I have found something that I did not know

nence, you shall do neither until you pay mo so

much. “In the country you shall give me a pound before." - Electrical or itemical?”

per acre per annum, in the town my charge will be “ Better, my boy, far better."

twenty thousand pounds per acre per annum, and " Not perpetual motion ?”

until you have agreed to this and other hard con« No."

ditions you shall do nothing; after that you may " What? What?"

profit by your labour and your abstinence if you "I have found an angel!”

Mr. Williams admits that the landlord does not (To be Continued.)

provide either “skill, energy, or forethought," but

adds, “ It is true he lends the land." But would - :0:

not the land be there without the landlord ? EELS IN PIPES.- The Chairman of the East

Be he aristocrat or capitalist, the landlord does London Water Works Company, in reply to ques

nothing but prevent others from working until he

is paid; and because he has done this for generations about eels, said that “they got into the pipes | when young, and when they grew the pipes became

Sitions, and is now obtaining rents which cannot too small for them and they died in the pipes."

possibly be continued, Mr. Williams proposes to This is exactly what happens with a nation under

make him the owner of a rent-charge," so that landlordism. A country gets into landlordism

in future he may enjoy his “property” without

even the modicum of labour" involved in making when young, and growing, it perishes, being unable to burst the bonds of landlordism, and equally

agreements with tenants. unable to live within them.

ANOTHER FRAUD. From the Land CommisThe retrogressive condition of Mr. Chamberlain's sioners' report for 1886, it appears that “Extramind is shown in an expression which he used at ordinary Tithe” has been exacted in 495 parishes Edinburgh. He said, “I do not think that and from 7,200 farms. The aggregate annual Scotchmen have much to fear from English preju amount is £48,000, and under the Extraordinary dice in the House of Commons. I believe that if Tithe Redemption Bill of last year this sum has to it were clear that the mind of Scotland was made be “capitalised,” which means that as 495 clergyup on any great question English Members would men have succeeded in successfully and legally let Scotchmen settle it for themselves." Does robbing 7,200 farmers during the last few years, Mr. Chamberlain forget what happened in refer they (the clergymen, not the farmers) are to have ence to the Crofter Bill, on which the Scotch about a million and a half sterling of our hardMembers were constantly outvoted by English earned morey distributed among them, so that in Members, who came trooping in to vote, although future they may enjoy the fruits of their robbery they had not cared to listen to the debate ? If, without the trouble of exacting it. Instead of however, Scotchmen are to settle things for them- giving this money to the farmers, who have suffered selves, why should the British House of Commons wrong, it is to be given to the clergy, who have be occupied with such subjects ?

| unjustly benefited thereby.





Vol. IV.-No. 103.

JUNE, 1887.


Wise Politicians.

means this, that on Home Rule for Ireland Sir George Trevelyan has escaped both the alone the Liberals cannot win. The working Scylla and Charybdis of modern politics. He classes of England, Scotland, and Wales are did not bow the knee to the class concessions right in demanding attention to their own contained in the Irish measures of last year. affairs as well as to those of Ireland, and until lle never gave the shadow of a sanction to land we have a satisfactory programme from the purchase, government without representation, Liberal leaders, the Liberal party will have to a first order, or tribute instead of partnership take back seats. Home Rule for Ireland alone in taxation. Neither has he allowed himself causes a dread of separation which alarms both to become the supporter of a Tory Govern- wise and timid men. Home Rule is wanted all ment, or of Coercion Acts more unjustifiable round, and if its general application is proand oppressive than any which have previously posed, the masses of the United Kingdom will been adopted. The moment he felt that we be stirred and excited to action. were secure from the four follies which surrounded the Irish Bills as at first proposed, he gave his

The Dauntsey Charity. cordial support to Mr. Gladstone. That he has The following brief report of proceedings in not been premature in thus assuming our the House of Lords will be read with much safety from the four follies is evident from interest. :Lord Rosebery's speech at Plymouth, who

The Dauntsey Charity. In the House of Lords ridiculed the exclusion of the Irish members on Monday the Earl of Mount-Edgecumbe, as from Westminster, and was equally sarcastic on Lord Steward, brought up her Majesty's reply to the limitation of their action to Imperial pur

an address relating to a bequest of Alderman

William Dauntsey, which was as follows :-“I poses. Mr. Gladstone has himself declared have received an address praying that I shall withthat he will not again attempt to impose land | hold my assent from the schem-s of the Charity purchase on the British taxpayer. We are now, the school and alm-houses, and for other purposes,

| Commissioners relating to (1) The foundation for therefore, secure from the first two follies, and in the parish of West Lavington, otherwise Bishop it is certain that we shall not hear anything | Lavington, in the county of Wilts, founded under

8the will of Alderman William Dauntsey, dated more of a first order or the financial proposals 10th March, 1542, and since further endowed ; and which bewildered every body. Thus the ground (2) for dealing with the endowment of the Wilts

County School in the county of Wilts, and I is being cleared for action. Having ceased to

comply with your advice.” do evil, the Liberal party must now learn to.

That the final blow to the scheme of the do well and propose a comprehensive platform including Home Rule for all parts of the Empire

Charity Commissioners should be dealt by the

House of Lords is an unexpected and gratify. together with those practical reforms which are

ing result. This, we believe, is the first time needed by the masses.

that the Commissioners have received such a The Lesson from St. Austel.

rebuke from Parliament. The result is Nine-tenths of the Liberal majority lost be- due to a persistent agitation, pointing out tween 1885 and 1887 means something, and it'in unmistakable terms the nature of


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the plans of the Charity Commissioners, which question. Nothing would so delight them as involved the robbery of the poor for the to see all work done by women or by men benefit of the rich. We believe the matter is working at women's wages. now out of the Commissioners' hands, and the Mercers' Company will be free to act

The Beginning of the End. as they please. The master of the school

Nothing shows the paralysis of British agrihas resigned, so that the way is clear for

culture more completely than Mr. Mulhall's reform. We shall shortly issue a penny

“Fifty Years of National Progress.” Everypamphlet giving the facts of the case. The

thing has progressed except the most important circumstances are of interest throughout the incinst

industry of all. Agriculture is actually 6 per country. This successful exposure of the policy cent. lower than it was fifty years ago, and in of the Charity Commissioners will cause all reference

reference to population 33 per cent, lower. their schemes to be examined by Parliament, The following table gives twelve points in and make it less easy in future for the Com- | statistical form :missioners to endow their wealthy friends at

1837-40. 1800. 1886. the expense of the working classes.

Population .. .. .. 100 .. 110 . 142
Wealth .. ... 100 134 224
Trade... ... ...

265 672 Women's Work

Shipping ... ... .... 100 ... 175 ... 683
Textile industry...

203 Should women be allowed to work at the

Hardware ......

100 ... 230 ... 512 pit brow? That question has seriously dis

Mining .. .....

215 Steam power

1,140 turbed earnest thinkers, and has divided true

Agriculture... ... 100 ... 115 ... 94 Liberals. Certainly, their work is hardly Banking ... ...


Revenue ... women's work. To wear trousers and wield

Instruction ... ... ... 100 ... 170 ... 440 hammers is not exactly what is most appropriate for the daughters of Eve. But-and

1,200 ... 2,460 ... 5,334 there is a decided but—work of any kind is We have discovered that agriculture cannot so hard to get that women are glad to do any- live under landlordism, and all other industries thing for a morsel of bread and a sup of tea.

will soon show similar signs of decay, for in Thus they take men's work at less than men's time landlordism is fatal alike to all human wages. Naturally wages fall, and men who progress. have less than enough to maintain not only themselves, but their woman-kind, have to

Infidelity and Riches. take wages a little nearer to starvation. At a missionary breakfast of the Religious Woman's work will always be looked upon Tract Society, Mr. Samuel Smith, M.P., spoke with jealousy as long as employers can get solemn and far-carrying words on the growwomen cheaper than men. The remedy is not ing infidelity of the upper classes of Great to seek the exclusion of female labour from Britain. This is just what we might expect. this or that field of activity, but to bring The British churches do much for the upper women within the influence of trade union. classes, and little for the lower classes. ThereLet them work at what they can get to do, but fore, they have no claim to the gratitude of the let them not work for less than men. Mean- latter, and they only provoke the sneers of the time women do not mend matters by railing former. Those who see clearest and think at male jealousy of women's work. What they deepest feel alarm at the future of religion in forget is that few men have to maintain them- this country. The working classes behold in selves alone. They have women depending the clergy only a body of men who preach the on them, and thus they cannot work at women's supreme duty of upholding the rights and the wages. We notice that the capitalist press wrongs of property. There is in the workshop ignores this point in dealing with the labour ! a bitterness-often unjust, but still not cause

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