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CORRESPONDENCE AND NOTES ON | Mr. Joseph Sherrard, 20, Denmark-road, CamCORRESPONDENCE.

berwell, sends us a most interesting letter, in which A letter comes from Mrs. Josephine Butler pro- he replies to the letter of Mr. Albert Solomons, testing against Mr. Acland's Vagrant Act Amend- pu

published in our last issue. ment Bill. We need not remind our readers that

Mr. Solomonsobjects entirely to land being held by Mrs. Butler's name is synonymous with the best and

the State for the people, except as public parks and noblest enthusiasm of our time. We agree with

with other small uses. And his reason is that he thinks her that the Bill gives a power to the police that

some poor man, living on a thousand pounds or less, the police-in London, at least-have not shown

would lose that and starve. themselves worthy to possess and exercise. The

The Of course nothing of the kind would happen. power of arresting on suspicion would-it is as well

Democracy, in seeking to get back its own, would known as that two and two make four-be rarely

take more than good care that no one suffered any exercised against any one who could thrust a

real loss. Purple and fine linen might have to go, sovereign into the officer's hand, and it would be

but honest homespun would not lose a thread. exercised with the most terrible severity upon any

But, even if it were, as it is not, that poor men poor creature against whom any officer cherished

might have to suffer, then, Mr. Sherrard asks, with for his own reasons-a dislike or spite.

a fine burst of eloquence, Should they not be ready

to suffer ? He compares this fight to the storming TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT.

of Plevna. There battalions rushed forward and “SIR,-I enclose for your perusal a Bill intro

threw down their lives; and if it were for the good duced in the House by Mr. Acland, which is of a

of humanity, poor men would rush forward and very loose and dangerous character. You will

throw down their lives. The sacrifice is not needed, allow me, as one who has worked for nearly

Heaven be thanked. Democracy does not come to twenty years against undue encroachments on the

make the poor poorer. liberties of the citizen, and on behalf of the

Mr. William Arthur Andrews, Hon. Secretary of daughters of the poor, to state what I think of this Bill. I have observed the system of Police

the Ipswich Democratic Club, brings forward a sub

ject upon which all Democrats must feel the deepest regulation of vice abroad, and I can state that one

interest. He proposes the formation of a Demo. of the worst features of this is the raids made

cratic Union in London, with branches in the upon the populace from time to time by the Paris police.

country. Mr. Andrews has carefully and thoroughly These raids result in the most horrible

developed his ideas. tyranny and injustice. The police are allowed to

The society must be Democratic, but must not be be judges of the motives of a crowd of persons

Socialistic-for Socialism is repugnant to the ideas assembled in any street or thoroughfare at any

and methods of British workmen. given time. They pounce upon the crowd, or upon

On the other hand, it must be free from the persons in that crowd-it may be from personal or

trammels of “ moderate Liberalism," which opposes spiteful motives. Of course, they generally select

such things as free education, payment of members, the poor and most defenceless for arrest. So

| and land nationalisation. terrible have been the wrongs resulting from this

Such a society is needed. Mr. Andrews says system in Paris that several deputies and just

that it can only be founded by means of hard work, minded public men have protested against them,

and Mr. Andrews is right. Who are ready for and are endeavouring to put a stop to them. Now,

this work? We hope to hear more, and from if you will look at Clause 3 of Mr. Acland's Bill,

many quarters, on the subject. In the meantime, you will see that it simply legalises the Parisian

we recommend to Mr. Andrews and others the raids. There is, it is true, a certain safeguard in the fact that the initiative is to be taken by a

English Land Restoration League. group of citizens, and then the powers are simply

Mr. S. Thomas sends us two letters, one an handed over to the police. But it is very easy to

answer to Mr. Solomons' letter of last month, get a group of citizens in any large district of which we print elsewhere; the other a criticism of London to sanction such a raid carelessly, or it may

the efforts that are being made to stop the Sunday be spitefully, or in a class spirit. When once they

delivery of letters. In regard to the latter, we have sanctioned the action of the police, the police

feel strongly that the way to honour the Sunday are at liberty to select, arrest, and “run in ” ad

is not to abolish Sunday comforts and conveniences. libitum. I do beg of your readers who may feel

When the good people who advocate Sunday with me the dangers of this Bill to petition Parlia

severities eat cold dinners, permit their servants ment against it. I cannot believe that The to do no work, and keep their horses locked in the DEMOCRAT would approve of such a measure, which,

stables from Saturday night to Monday morning, though it may occasionally, under good management,

then we will consider their demand that the postresult in taking up a wealthy vicious debauchee, is

men should not deliver Sunday letters. Mr. perfectly certain in the long run to be used as an

Thomas points out that two things would happen instrument of terrorism against the poor, and

| by the stoppage of the Sunday post-the poor especially the women of the poorer classes. You man would not get his letters, and the poor postwill observe, too, that it is to extend to the whole man would only get six days' pay instead of seven. country. I do earnestly hope that the Bill will We believe in having as little Sunday toil as not pass the present Parliament, or any other.- possible, but we also believe in studying the conYours faithfully,

venience of the people. ? "JOSEPHINE E. BUTLER. Lieutenant-Colonel Philip Dickson, of 25, Lans"g, The Close, Winchester, April, 1887.” | downc-road, Bedford, brings under our notico a

very grave accusation of injustice against the mili

THE JUBILEE ROT. tary authorities, who have forced him to retire

TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT. upon half-pay. The charge is the more grave because it comes at a time when our whole military

Sir,- We are asked to be thankful because and naval system is the object of public suspicion,

Victoria Guelph has reigned over us for half a as being controlled by corrupt and occult influences,

century. If we examine the virtues and talents of against which too loud or too frequent protest can

this family since George I., we shall not find much not be made.

to rejoice over. The facts of the case are as follows:

Let us pass over the arbitrary spirit of George I., Colonel Dickson committed what may or may

who never even learned to speak English: the not be an indefensible act in giving the soldiers of avarice and corruption of George II., and the his regiment an allowance-the Colonial allowance grossness of their sensuality, which equalled that -and which was given to others, although denied of Charles 11., to inquire how their posterity have to him.

done credit to their exalted station, At his trial were those whom he asserts had an

It was through the ignorance and obstinacy of interest in making the verdict go against him.

George III., who sank into drivelling idiocy, that After his liberation he wrote the following

we lost the United States. The Duke of Gloucester, letter:

his nephew, was known as “ Silly Billy," and his “Melbourne, 9th September, 1863.

son, the Duke of Cambridge, made himself "R.A. Office.

remarkable even among the very silly dukes who at

that time took the bread out of the clown's mouth “SIR, I have the honour to report to you, for the information of the Brigadier-General command

and spoiled the pantomime. He even called in

question the existence of the potato disease and ing, that I accuse Major Pitt, 80th Regiment, of

the impending famine in Ireland, “because he having caused me to be placed under arrest for a

always found the potatoes at his own table very period of five months, for the purpose of conceal

good." The Duke of York was deprived of the ing money matters.—I have, &c.,

chief command of the army on account of his “ PHILIP DICKSON,

corrupt practices, which were brought to light “Capt. R.A., and Major, Comg. R.A. through the exertions of the Duke of Kent, who The Brigade Major, Melbourne.”.

hoped to step into his shoes by exposing a

brother's infamy. For having written the said letter, he was put | George IV. was a bloated mass of moral and permanently on the half-pay list, after having been physical corruption. He was a “hoary Hal” withconfined thirteen months.

out his courage, wit, or generosity. Of the many At a trial which took place he was not allowed incidents of his private life, not the least disgraceto put to Major Pitt any questions in regard to ful was his being turned off the turf by the Jockey those money matters, upon which the whole case Club for cheating. turns.

William IV. left Mrs. Jordan, the actress, the An attempt was made to prove that he was mother of his children, to die in positive destitumedically unfit for service, which he met by pro tion, though he had formerly been in the habit of ducing the evidence of high-class medical men, waiting at the door of the theatre to receive her

The whole question is rather old; but no injustice salary. is too old to be set right.

The Duke of Sussex married Lady Augusta A working man from Hants, who, as he himself Murray, and then abandoned his wife and children, puts it, bas lived sixty years among the agricultural in pretended deference to a law made after the labourers, sends us a letter in answer to the letter event, which declared invalid all marriages conof Mr. Solomons. We regret that the length of tracted by members of the Royal Family without the letter and the limits of our space prevent us the Sovereign's consent, But this did not prevent from giving it. He asks Mr. Solomons to think, to him from afterwards marrying Lady Cecilia Buggins. try to realise all that the labourer suffers because Lady Murray was taken no notice of by the Court, the landlord can do as he pleases with the land, | but Lady Buggins was received, and, after his death, with that without which man can live no more created Duchess of Inverness by the present than he can live without air. The man who steals Queen. the land steals from others the means of life; the It is not, therefore, on the plea of having served man who buys from the man who stole does not the State by its virtues orits talents that the House buy inanimate acres but living human beings. of Hanover can ask us to rejoice. Indeed, the most

Our correspondent, in a private note which ac plausible reason it can plead in support of its companies his letter, complains bitterly of the claim to the continuance of the national bounty is persecution of the Primrose Dames. Men are the fact of having so long enjoyed it. But hunted and hounded out of their means of liveli this is an argument that might be pleaded with hood by women of title. some of them no better equal justice in favour of the rats who for several than they should be, because the poor fellows will generations have bred unmolested in a farmer's not perjure their souls by voting for the man they barn, and lived upon his corn. think the wrong man. We hope that English boy- The Guelphic breed has been enriched by a cotting will be met by boycotting. If a duchess cross of the Coburgs, for which John Bull has had boycots a neighbourhood, then the neighbourhood to pay the piper. should at once consider how best and safest to When Prince Albert first came from Germany, have its revenge on the duchess.

it is said that attempts were made to change the uniform of the British army; and that private | stock and connection are there, so to go out without meets were ordered with the Royal stag hounds, selling the business and getting the town lardlord because he had been laughed at by the field for a succeeding tenant and victim means ruin to want of pluck in riding at his fences. But when himself. he found that England was not Saxe-Coburg First, the fixtures are little value to remove, Gotha, he meekly resigned himself to the perpetra- being made for the shop to fit and the value mostly tion of the celebrated Albert tom-fool hat; to the in the fixing therein. The connection may be the encouragement of animal obesity, by breeding fat toil of years and the stock bought as suitable for porkers, for which he obtained prizes at the cattle | the locality. shows; and to pattering after a quiet set of harriers, Landlords preach that it is freedom of contract. safe and slow. But complain not of his want of Landlords would not relish freedom of contract spirit; for when he did pluck a spirit up it was only that laid such a tax upon their income as to reduce to squabble with the parish officers about the rating them to a terrible struggle to live or have to clear of Windsor farm, on which he bred fat cattle, con out and lose all. tending that he did not occupy it beneficially, an Business people must be in the limited area of allegation which was in this sense of the word central town property to make any turnover at undeniable, for it would have been more benefici- all, and I am sorry to see daily respectable townsally occupied if the parish poor had been settled people going down amongst the unemployed. upon it, and Prince Albert located in the Union, Gradually are we becoming the rich richer, the Both were equally dependent upon public charity, middle and lower classes poorer. Indeed, I say it with this sole distinction, that many of the Union without fear of contradiction, the middle classes paupers had at some time or other contributed to are rapidly and surely falling out, and the result of the burdens of the State, whilst the Consort that will be simple repetition of history-revolupauper was a burden to the country from the time tion, anarchy, and confusion. he set his foot in it.

Our ground landlords have not been re-assessed Some people may attempt to argue that, as the since A.D. 1692 for the land tax; therefore, as they country has prospered under the Guelphs, their are so careful-I mean our ground owning lawrule must by some means or other have conduced makers-of their own interests as to escapere-assessto it. But the House of Hanover has had nothing ments, why should they be allowed to re-assess to do with the growing prosperity of the kingdom. in the shape of improved rentals until the tradesAt any rate, neither their virtues nor their talents man, the worker, is compelled to sell or walk out have rendered them indispensable to the country. I to suit the landlord's greed in his ease and In this respect, indeed, it would have been difficult affluence ? to have gone further and fared worse.

If a tradesman seeks a lower rental his removal

FRED, LEARY. loses his connection, and it is by no means an 55, Fairfield Street, Manchester,

unusual thing for the landlord to advertise the shop as suitable for the trade of the departed

tenant, thereby giving a plum to a succeeding TOWN LANDLORDS.

tenant to keep up his rent at the expense of the TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT.

one he has done to death, in a business point of

view. Well may we quote “ Man's inhumanity to SIR,- If you can oblige by inserting these few

his fellow man is the death of thousands." A lines in your valuable space, I should like to remark

gentleman, high in the medical profession, assures that, whilst country landlords and landowners havo

me the struggle for life and decent position by the much to answer for, we are apt to look over the

| lower and middle classes is likely to have the most extreme selfishness of some of the town owners of

terrible effects upon the rising future generation, shop property improved so vastly, not by any

for we are all now " men of sorrow and acquainted exortion of the property owner, but by the un

with grief," and for what? That the rich may avoidable crowding up of tradesmen in a limited

become richer and amass money they will not cir.

culate, but hoard up or invest in limited liability Often have I noticed the career of the shop companies and general stores to compete with and keeper to be as follows. When a private house is ruin their own tenants-the shopkeepers. first converted into a shop-mark, as a private The town landlords will only have themselves to house it has paid good interest—the rent is at once blame if they do not in time read the handwriting put up. Still, it may be worth the extra for on the wall and realise the growing conviction that business purposes, I freely admit. Then unless a it will be better for one slothful landlord to drop man can secure a lease, which is seldom, and is down amongst the unemployed and starving than willing to do so without a reasonable trial of his half a dozen hard-working tradesmen, on the venture, I find almost invariably his rent is risen principles that the good of the majority is the from time to time, until the rent takes so great a foundation of equitable laws. share of his profits that he finds he is working for! Thanking you in anticipation, I am, Sir, yours rent and taxes. He may grumble, and though by obediently, grumbling, not without cause, doubtless the

JOHN BANKS. country tenant occasionally gets an abatement of rent, I never yet knew a town landlord abate one jot or tittle to an existent occupier or current

TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT. tenant. Why? Because tho town landlord knows SER, I have just soen a copy of your publicafull well the shopkeeper's fixtures are therë, his tion, in which " Coventry "asks if he has a remedy

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against injury by huntsmen. He has the ordinary | £1,000 and to have invested it in land, would not action of trespass against every person riding on be so great a loser after all, and that the remedies his land without leave. The reasons why this he proposes would not be efficient to alleviate the remedy is not put in force are, (1) because the distress of the working classes. farmer would be given notice to quit by his land- I think Mr. Solomous has formed his judgment of lord, and (2) the jury in some counties would Mr. George's theories from extracts from, or reviews refuse to give damages, out of sympathy with the of, Mr. George's books, and that if he would care“sport." The best way is for the sufferers from fully read these books he would alter his ideas, and this aristocratic pastime to combine together for that, as his heart appears to be in the right place, joint action, and they will soon succeed in abating we should hereafter be able to count him in the the nuisance. In many parts of Ireland hunting number of Land Resumptionists.--I am, dear Sir, has been completely stopped ; but, of course, the yours truly, result has been an exodus of the hunters and con

S. THOMAS sequent loss of money to the district. I add this Redditch, A pril 10, 1887. that your readers may not take action without being aware of all the consequences involved. It

:0:only shows that the conflict between the “classes ONE OF THE CLASSES ON THE LAND and the masses " must be joined all along the line,

and much cannot be expected from isolated move-
ments.--Yours truly,


SIR, -The members of the Plaistow Working National Labour League. Men's Club, an institution affiliated to the 1, Fitzgibbon-street, Dublin, April 19, 1887. E.L.R.L., were treated to an evening's amusement

on the 4th of April, by Mr. Hume Webster, a rich :0:

gentleman who aspires to represent the workingTO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT. class constituency of South West Ham in ParliaSIR,-Will you allow me to say a few words in ment. He said he was a Radical and a Home answer to the letter of Mr. A. Solomons, which Ruler, and that the Irish Question was a question appeared in your issue of April 1 ?

of land and rent-(Quite true). When asked to The first part of Mr. Solomons' letter has my explain his views on the Land Question, he said he hearty sympathy, and I am therefore the more did not understand land nationalisation ; did not grieved at the way in which he speaks of Henry believe the land would bear the tax of 4s. in the George's theories. Mr. Solomons objects to the pound on present value, which he said would proacceptance of these theories on the ground of the duce 12 or 14 millions. A member explained that “ acquiescence of the people in the acts of their it would produce about 40 millions, and that if the ostensible representatives.”

land could bear the 4s. on the value of 1692, it was He apparently forgets that until very recently equally able to bear the 4s. on the value of 1887; the masses have not been represented, and that that it was no tax on land, but & tax on laad they have had no voice in the election of represen values—a very different thing. To this Mr. tatives. The landlords made the laws and Webster could only say that he was quite of the mercilessly plundered the masses.

same opinion as the member, but still he did not If the law upholds an injustice the law should believe the land would bear the 48. on the present be altered, and it would be better that a few should value. The member of the Club illustrated a case suffer in the alteration than that the injustice to by imagining a gentleman in 1692 holding a piece the many should be perpetuated. And the hard- of land then bringing him in £30 in rent, he would ships to the few would be very small, even if they pay to the State 30 times 4s., whereas the same enjoyed a little less luxury and had to do some piece of land might to-day bring him in, without thing to inake themselves useful in the world, while anything being done by him or his forefathers, the hardships to the many at present cause £3,000 in rent, then the State would require 3,000 thousands to actually die of starvation and drive times 4s. ; but all to no purpose. This extrahundreds of thousands to a degradation worse than ordinary Radical could not understand how the death.

land could bear the tax. Another member quesMr. Solomons says, “an enormous area of tioned him as to Royalty rents. He said he was agricultural land is out of cultivation, because the in favour of having them greatly reduced, but price obtained for the produce will not pay cost of could not see how they could be abolished, mumbworking," and he does not think such a state of ling something about the holders having a perfect things would be improved by increased taxation on right to them, &c. The Club members were very land.

| much amused, wondering how the Royalties could I think Mr. Solomons could find many thousands be reduced if they could not be abolished. of men willing to work the land if they might have some months ago, this amusing Radical was the produce of it, and if he would carefully read invited by a few busy bodies to speak on the Coal Mr. George's book, “Progress and Poverty," he and Wine Dues at a public meeting. Before would see that the adoption of the ideas therein coming, he wrote to Mr. Firth for information on contained would relieve valueless land from all that subject. Mr. Firth sent him the latest taxation, and that the taxation of the land would pamphlet on the question. Now, before he has to only be in proportion to its value. He would see speakagain on the land question, we would advise bim also that the man, whom he supposes to have saved to write to Michael Davitt, William Saunders, or

Morrison Davidson to be coached up in the argu- acquires a right to stand in the shoes of the ments. Failing that, he would be considerably original grantee and accepts the responsibilities. benefited, politioally, by reading THE DEMOCRAT He buys merely an estate. That meant originally monthly and Reynolds' Newspaper weekly to get a Government situation, and, by way of remunerathimself into line with the ideas of working-men ing his services as a Government officer, the State Radicals on the Land Question. The evening's permitted him to use the 500 acres. If he proved amusement was complete when he repeatedly a bad servant, the State could dismiss him, and affirmed that the Monarchical was much cheaper grant the 500 acres to a better man. Therefore, than the Republican system of Government, and resumption was a plain business-like procedure, more excellent in many ways. (Always a wonder similar to a merchant dismissing an inefficient ful people the English).

clerk and giving the salary to another. But what ANDREW DRYBURGH, merchant would pay one clerk to live idle and One of the Club Members. another to do the duty ? Yet this is what the

landless masses, who form the chief body in the

State, are actually doing in allowing landlordism to TRUTH IN LOVE.

enjoy the land, and in taxing industry to pay TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT.

other servants to do the work that landlordism

neglects. SIR-It is a substantial aid to truth and justice

It is clear. enough to any who will take the when men and women overcome the fear of a

trouble to look into it that, if we pay land-rent name,

and ground-rent, we ought not to pay rates and Democracy, Socialism are names at which the

taxes while those rents last, that landlord law was generality of Christian people stand aghast; and

designed to rob us legally, and that we should now to keep at the utmost distance from the combina

make law ourselves to reverse the robbery. Educate ! tions intended they deum essential to their reli

educate !! educate !!! Ignorance is our greatest gious life. One evil effect of this feeling is, that

enemy! they who adopt the sentiments thus denominated

JOHN WHEELWRIGHT, are hasty in concluding that Christian teaching is opposed to them; and become, in reality, what Christians represent them, sceptics. I am quite

0:convinced that this antagonism between Christian teaching and the true principles of Democracy-or

MAGNA CHARTA. if you choose to call it by another name—is not

TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT. real. Movements affecting the social, and political, and moral condition of the people are within our

SIR,-Your correspondent, J. W., said that knowledge, which were viewed as very dangerous,

Magna Charta provided that the farmer should and they put in a state of antagonism Christian

pay landlordism no more rent than landlordism teaching and the new move; but the right

paid the State for the same land, and, carrying triumphed, and men now wonder they were so out a former promise, I beg to bring the original long in seeing the true. So will it be with the clause under your notice, viz. :movement contemplated. Many Christian men

"Omnes autem istas consuctustines et libertates and Christian teachers see eye to eye with you;

quas Rex concessit Regno tenendas quantum ad se and, by-and-bye, they will have courage to avow it,

pertinet erga suos, omnes de Regno tam clerici or, when success has crowned your efforts, they

quam laici observabunt quantam ad se pertinet will hasten to say they have long been of your

erga suos." That is to say:-All customs and mind.

privileges which the King grants to the State's In the meantime, let all who hate tyranny and tenants, they in turn, both clergy and laity, shall oppression, either in high or low places, gain clear

grant to their tenants. views of the right mode of dealing with the evil.

Working men know by this time that land in Use all possible efforts to keep impetuous spirits

England is held of the king as representing the composed in their indignation. And bear in mind

people or State. Every landholder, excepting the that the oppressed Author of our Divine religion

king, is only a tenant. So, familiarly speaking, the will ever be on the side of TRUTH and JUSTICE and

king was the landlord of the baron, who was the PURITY and LIBERTY.

landlord of the farmer, who, by the above clause, It would be easy to sustain these views from the

has as much right to hold his land rent free as his words and acts of the Great Teacher, but I admire

landlord has. your liking for short articles, and am, Yours truly,

Since Poyning's law enacted that what held good

for England should hold good for Ireland, it TRUTH IN LOVE.

follows, if landlordism pays no rent to the State, :0:

the National League has a constitutional right to

issue a “no rent manifesto," and would then FIRST PRINCIPLES.

simply be following the example landlordism had TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT.

set. :

Clearly, a tenant cannot morally convert himSIR,-My fellow-workmen erroneously fancy self into an owner, and if landlords are dishonest that if a man buys an estate of 500 acres, he buys enough to attempt it with partial success, it is the land, but it is not so; he cannot buy the land because the masses are ignorant of their rights. either by natural or English law. He simply


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