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in being too eager to reduce rents, yet cannot Parnell's Bill. The work done might be help making the most extraordinary reductions. summed up and described in one phrase “ The The difference between what it declares in arguments and statements of Mr. Parnell are hundreds of cases to be a fair rent and the

right in every particular.” rent that has hitherto been demanded and paid The chief value of the report lies chiefly in should stagger any man whose sense of honour a dissent which it has evoked. The Commission and honesty has not been altogether and hope- appointed to deal with tenant farmers had, as lessly corrupted. A few days ago Mr. Com- is the sublimely ridiculous habit of British missioner O'Keefe, Mr. Commissioner Reeves, officialdom, only one tenant farmer upon it. and Mr. Commissioner Rice gave judgment That gentleman, Mr. Knipe, has spoken out his upon what was a fair rent on an estate belong-views in a plain and distinct manner. He ing to Lord Castletown, and lying in Queen's dwells with emphasis upon the fact that in 31 County. Here is the result, and worth study years rents have fallen £32,000,000, and that it certainly is :

in five years the value of all land stock in Old Rent. New Rent. Ireland has fallen from £50,000,000 to Tenant.

£ 8. d. £ s. d. Maria Quinn ............. 10 0 0 ... 5 0 0

£41,000,000. L. Duggan .............

28 0 0 13 10 0 Mr. Knipe bluntly tells the Commissioners H. Lawler................

that good farmers on good land cannot live, Ditto ................. 101 5

that he himself can make no profit, and that J. Hourahan, jun. ..... 28 0 0

rents are being paid out of that thrifty store R. Campion .............. 21 0 8 14 0 0

33 Ditto

8
19 0

laid up for old age and sickness.
0

This stateWilliam Davin.... 15 11 ... 10 10 0 ment is again and again confirmed. It matters Ditto .................

18 15 8 ... 12 0 0 not whether the witnesses are Orangemen or J. Delaney ............... 41 18 0... 29 00 Catholics, Nationalists or Loyalists, there the C. Fogerty ......... . 17 0

0 0 thing is in black and white, the plain and M. Hennessy ........... 36 0 0

24 16 0

startling statement, “ We cannot live and pay D. Keeffe ................... 74 0 0 ... 17 0 0 Thomas Morrin ......... 4 1

rent." 0 ... 2 10 0

To this the Government have practically What must be the feelings of Maria Quinn

replied, “Then don't live.” That is what the for a country which has supported Lord Castletown in taking £5 a year out of her pocket as

| policy of Mr. Balfour amounts to. The dishonestly as if he had crept through the

peasants may take their choice, and die by window at night and taken it out of her old

starvation or bullets, but a crowd of needy, stocking while she was asleep? What ideas

| greedy impostors, whom he facetiously calls can L. Duggan have of a state of things which

Law and Order, must be maintained. has simply been robbing him of £28 a year

The result is certain and inevitable. Rents when £13 10s. was the value of his holding ? | cannot be paid, farmers will not attempt to Yet Maria Quinn and L. Duggan are compara pay them. Then the British Government will tively fortunate. They have partly beaten off recede as it has done before. Let us hope the thief. But there are hundreds and thou- that its advance and its recession will not be sands of Maria Quinns to-day in Ireland who | marked by the red stain of blood. But let are not so fortunate, that have still to bleed the Irish Democracy be sure of this—the themselves to death to feed the extravagance

British Democracy is with them. of Irish landlords, who are at this very moment But one thing is needed. The Irish must disgusting London with their profligacy. keep cool. We know that we are asking a

The Cowper Commission throws a flood of hard thing. It is almost as hard to keep cool official light upon these matters. It was sent amidst the persecution that may be coming as out to waste time. It was appointed to prove it is to keep cool amidst the fever-stricken that the value of products had not fallen. swamps of India. But it may be, and can be, Those who appointed it knew better than any done." And in doing it the Irish know how one else that values had fallen. But while the successful hitherto has been their passive Commission was sitting, months would glide resistance. The Irish cannot resist steel to by, reform would be postponed, and who knows steel and bullet to bullet, but by their union, what might happen, what disastrous event their order, their passive resistance, they can might turn public attention from the question make coercion a failure. And they will not of land robbery? Therefore the Cowper Com- have to endure long. Before a dozen priests mission was appointed. It did its work; it and patriots are in prison the British people produced a report, and that report is nothing will rise in their wrath and sweep the Govern. more or less than a yea and amen to Mr. I ment from its place.

LETTER FROM THE CHILDREN'S does make the world poorer when goods are taken

from those who need them and have earned them, DEMOCRAT.

and are given to those who have not earned them, MY DEAR CHILDREN,—The meaning of Demo

and who have enough already. Would it not make

the world poorer to take food out of your horses' cracy is that your father and grown-up brothers mangers and your cows' stalls and give it to hounds, some say mothers and sisters also—are to rule their which had just had a good meal, and who would country, and that you are to learn to rule it. very likely scratch it into the earth?

| Would it not be waste if your parents gave one One of the principal duties of rulers is to prevent

• of their children three times as much as he needed, waste. Anything that makes the world poorer is

and to the others not half as much as they needed ? waste. You cannot gather a blackberry from a This waste is the main thing that Democrats hedge without making the world either richer or have to rectify. In our next letter we will conpoorer. If you gather it ripe, and it does you good,

sider what it is that children can do towards or you give it to some other person to whom it rectifying it. Meanwhile I remain does good, then there is one person in the world

Your affectionate who is fitter for work than he was before. But if

DEMOCRAT. you gather and eat it under-ripe, or when you have had quite enough already, then you are in a worse

-:0:condition than you were before, and the blackberry

REVIEWS is prevented from being of use to anyone, the

It is not safe to meddle with the Irish people. world is so much the poorer.

The same power that gave the bee a sting gave the You can make the world poorer without destroy

Irishman a tongue, and the one is as effective as ing anything, and you can make it richer without

the other. Thus, Mr. John Bright is not allowed making anything.

to libel the Irish people unanswered and unreproved. If you took a loaf of bread and crumbled it, and we have just received a pamphlet from the pen threw it down and trampled it into the earth, cer of one of the ablest and most eloquent of the Irish tainly that would be waste. But what if an representatives in the House of Commons. It is enormous giant with an immensely long acm should in the form of a letter addressed to Mr. Bright, and put the loaf on the top of a distant crag, to which its author is Mr. T. D. Sullivan, the Lord Mayor of no one could climb ? That, too, would be waste. Dublin. We hesitate to express our opinion on the He would have put the loaf out of the way of doing logical effects of this little book. It simply makes service.

mincemeat of Mr. Bright's political principles. A good giant who should reach down the loaf While written in a calm and dignified tone, there froin the top of the high crag and put it within runs through and through it a vein of bitter, reach of the hungry, would add to the world's almost cruel sarcasm. Indeed, the case makes satire wealth as really as if he made a loaf.

easy. One has only to contrast Mr. Bright's past Now, there are certain laws and certain exactions,

with Mr. Bright's present to be satirical. It is a

sight for the gods, or rather for the demons, to see that is, certain greedinesses, in this country, which put many things out of the reach of many persons

John Bright speaking Times' editorials, and the who need them, just as surely as if a great giant

Times writing John Bright speeches. But, as Mr. put them on the top of a high perpendicular crag.

Sullivan points out, neither of them can equal the

splendid vituperation which was poured out upon A great deal of land is put out of the reach of

| OConnel. The Times wrote:those who need it, and would make a good use of

“Scum condensed of Irish bog! it, by the enormous rents which are demanded for

Ruffian-coward-demagogueit, or by its being made into sporting ground.

Nurse of murders-treason's factorA great deal of fuel is put out of the reach of a Boundless liar-base detractorgreat many persons, through the large payments Spout thy filth, diffuse thy slime, demanded by the owners (as they are said to be) of Slander is in thee no crime!” the lands out of which the coal is dug. These large The Times-Bright party would equal that if they payments make the coal so inuch the dearer.

could. But they can't. The sharp storm of Goods of various sorts are put out of the reach of coercion and reviling is past. We have now only large numbers of persons, by high prices charged the dreary drizzling of the rain. for conveyance by railway companies.

In the Contemporary Review for this month is an Large quantities of goods are separated from article on "Temperance in America," by Alex those who need them, by the heavy taxes which are Gustofsan, which we would recommend to the levied in this country, and which are partly used to attention of our readers. It is marked by Mr. support men in idleness.

Gustofsan's chief characteristics-great ability and Some of these things are worse than putting a

wide knowledge of the subject upon which he loaf on the top of a high crag. They are like writes. putting children on the top of a crag, to starve The Greenock Telegraph has lately published more and shiver, and leaving the children's bread, for than one article upon the land question-signed by other persons to eat, down below. But some may Pioneer. The latest of these deals with ground say, Does this make the world the poorer, when rents in Greenock and the ruthless manner in what is taken from some is given to others? It which the ground landlord taxes all those who hold ground from him, even to a charitable institution Who then are best fed, the publicans or the average founded and maintained for the relief of friendless working man? I reply the publicans. Then who girls. That article has created a profound sensa- are the best clothed? I answer, the publicans, and tion in Greenock. Numberless letters have been especially the publican's wife. Then who are the written to the papers, and we understand that best housed ? I answer again, the publicans. And during the week which followed its publicaticn very again, who are most free from the risk of accident little else was talked of in the town. It is strange in their occupation ! I think that the publican, in that in Greenock the two local papers both support drawing beer or doling out gin or wine, runs a very a moderate measure of land taxation. We hope small risk of breaking his neck, while builders that many other towns will soon follow the example men, miners, sailors, horse-drivers, are much more of Greenock.

exposed to risk of personal injury from accident. ELEMENTARY POLITICS, BY THOMAS RALEICH Then, what mortality ought we to calculate upon (Henry Froude, Oxford). -Mr. Raleigh has added among a class of men so much more advantageously another volume to the number of those publica- | placed than the average working-man? The work. tions which “darken counsel by words without ing men have, as we have learned, an average deathknowledge.” The confusion of his ideas will be rate of fifteen per 1,000. Perhaps we might expect evident from the following quotation, he says:

the publican, therefore, to die at the rate of twelve “If, on the plea of necessity, a man may claim to per 1,000 per annum. Curiously, we find that, have land or food or a loan of capital on easier where fifteen working men die, instead of twelve terms than free contract would permit, such claims | publicans dying we have thirty die! The Registrarwould soon multiply so as to cat up all the wealth General, last year, broke out in a new place on this of owners." The question naturally arises why are matter, and he writes: “ The mortality of men who landlords allowed to have land “on easier terms | are directly concerned in the liquor trade is appalthan free contract would permit?" Why are they ling.” During the three years, 1880, 1881, 1882, made dispensers of land for their own advantage ?

his actual figures for twenty-five to sixty-five years The State alone can give a title to land, and can just

of age are that :-where 967 men of all occupado so only for the benefit of the community, which tions died, 1,521 publicans died, and 2,205 publithey govern, and should govern, without

cans' servants died, whereas only 830 maltsters favouritism.

died, the maltsters handling only the original food material, and not necessarily the fermented liquor

into which it is turned. Again, where these 1,521 RECEIVED.

publicans and 2,205 publicans' servants died, only Labour Tribune, Highland News, Kent Times. 1 701 agricultural labourers, 631 farmers, 599 garSouthport Visitor, Weekly Bulletin, Yorkshire Free deners, and 556 clergymen died. In fact, if you look Press, Southport Guardian, Women's Suffrage

through the various occupations, you will find that Journal, Rank and Degree in Church, Pioneer, Jus,

the death rate depends more upon tho extent to Christian Socialist, Scottish Highlander, Irish Trade,

which people are brought into contact with drink Jersey Advertiser, Free and Open Church Advocate,

than upon anything else whatever.-Dr. Edmunds. Daily Nebraska State Journal, Monthly Notes

0:(Y.M.C.A., Sydney), Evansville Courier (Evansville, Ind.), John Swinon's Paper, Crédit Foncier of

CORRESPONDENCE. Sinoa, Canadian Labour Reformer, True Witness (Montreal), Workmen's Advocate (New Haven), l'incennes News, Irish World, Our Common Wealth, OFFICIAL CHANGES IN ASSYUT, Kapunda lIerald (Kapunda).

SUTHERLANDSHIRE.
4:0:-

To The EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT.
DRINK AND DEATH.

INEXPLICABLE INCOMPREHENSIBLES. If you take the annual returns of the Registrar- | SIR, -Great changes have of late transpired in General you may analyse the causes of about one this gloomy and congested part of the country. The million deaths in each year in this country. You local ground officer to his Grace the Duke of raav learn what mortality attends the clergy, the Sutherland, Mr. Robert Ross, a native of Rogart, lawyers, the doctors, the brewers, the publicans, has got notice to quit his house and farm at Whitthe working men of every class throughout the sunday next. Mr. Ross had been applying for soino country. The causes of sickness and premature years back for several of the vacant farms, but had death are in the main want of food, want of clothes, been refused them, presumably because he was such a want of comfortable houses, liability to accident valuable servant. This naturally made him most and injury in the trade to which a man belongs. zealous for his Grace's interest. His conduct for If you take the deaths of the working men between some time back has been strongly condemned by the twenty-five and sixty-five years of age throughout people, as they were of opinion that he was tho country, you will find that in each 1,000 living attempting to defeat the objects of the Crofters there are about fifteen deaths iu each year, and | Bill hy taking down notes of all the stock, &c., in that over the average of the whole country this the district, and trying to baulk the cause of Land percentage comes out with wonderful constancy. l.aw Reform by telling thoso of the people who Now, what is the mortality which we might expect have adopted the “No-rent policy" that they were among, say, the publicans ? The elements of to be summoned; but, lo! and behold, he proved longovity among people are first, abundance of focd. to be the fox, who, pursued by the hounds, was

:0:

caught, but the cat escaped. So with Mr. Ross, he I. Are you editing or circulating this paper for is the first man who was summoned for his ability profit? and the great service he rendered for the landlord. II. What religion are you of, or are you an Let us hope that all such men, who for the sake of agnostic, or are you an atheist, or do you simply “ self-interest” and the love to serve their master say I don't care a damn ? in robbing the poor of their right to the soil, would I don't ask these questions for any other motive even condescend to harrow under their heel the than curiosity, to try and understand why some oppressed descendants of the soil, and even their seem to see things so very differently to what I do. own friends of the same kith and kin. The thing -Yours truly, is preposterous; their policy is cowardly, and the

Rob. M. Iratt. system together proved ruinous to the Highlands. Cottenham, near Cambridge, March 18, 1887. They were not defeated in battle, they were not by the force of arms deprived of their birthright, but

-:0:they were robbed by their supposed friends, but who

ARCHBISHOP CROKE. in reality were their mortal enemies. Let us form

TO THE EDITOR OF TAE DEMOCRAT. & grand phalanx, and let our motto be “Death or Victory for the cause which made us hewers of Sir, -Archbishop Croke's “no tax” manifesto wood and drawers of water on the land of our and Mr. Parnell's “no rent” manifesto cannot be ancestors, and let every man, woman, and child in simultaneously right, though they may be right every Highland hamlet agitate constitutionally for separately. Every reader knows that the State Land Restoration, and they will be assisted and relied solely on its land for revenue, which was get the co-operation of their friends throughout originally part personal service and part pecuniary the world.

rent, necessarily small when little money was coined, Yours, &c.,

therefore land rent and taxes meaning essentially Stoer, Sutherland.

Vox JUSTITIA, the same thing. Though we must pay one, evi

dently we need not pay both.

Magna Charta ruled that a sub-tenant should FROM A WAR CORRESPONDENT.

pay landlordism no more than landlordism paid the TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT. State. The landlord thus became simply a tax SIR,-Your letter and copy of THE DEMOCRAT

collector on the land he did not cultivate. to hand. I trust that you judge me aright when

| Landlordism was purely a political, not a comyou say I appear to have the interests of the Com

mercial, institution. The landholder is essentially monwealth at heart; but you certainly misjudge

the State's care-taker, subject, like any other careme if you think I could in any way assist in the

taker, to peremptory dismissal after compensation circulation of papers such as THE DEMOCRAT, which for money actually expended. In a rough and I consider are a curse to put into the hands of the

ready way, Parliament can arbitrarily abolish uneducated poor.

landlordism, independently of the reason that landYour first article dealing with the Dauntsey

lordism has broken its contract. Charity asserts that if a certain scheme is adopted,

Landholders held public property as public serthe money arising from this Charity will be spent vants, receiving public pay, in the use of the land, in three guinea dinners. This I take to be a mis

for varied services, as soldiers, sailors, policemen, representation of facts, or rather a lie. Then you

relieving officers, road-makers, lamplighters; but, infer further on that the Charity Commissioners

worst of all, with these occupations went that of devote their energies to robbing the poor for the legislator, and, prompted by the infirmity of human benefit of the rich. You know (for I presume you

nature, they abused their trust by twisting the are an educated man) that both these assertions

laws to enable them to shirk service and legally are untrue. I am well aware that there are many

pocket our rent (i.e., taxes) by aid of the very abuses which want rectifying, but this, in my

soldiers, sailor3, and policemen we pay for. opinion, is not the way, and I would rather have

From landlordism will come landlord law, and abuses than lies.

the Democracy is now to blame for sending landRe FOUR BROTHERS-IN-LAW.

lords to Parliament. I fail to see that you make a point when you

Anyone reading between the lines understands assert that the country would be better off if the that Lord Salisbury's coercion for Ireland means gentlemen referred to emigrated, &c. It may pass bolstering up the appropriation of land rent muster with a hard-working labourer whos) mind (ie, taxes) in England, and marks his terror of has not been educated ; but how much better it the fact that people are discovering that landwould have been to have held up for admiration lordism subsists on public plunder. men who, whilst receiving as much money

John WHEELWRIGHT, as the Craufords, had striven to elevate their fellow men. I do not know whom the Craufords may be, but till they are proved to the contrary,

TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT. I should conclude they are honest men. The pre- | SIR,- I have often thought of writing to you of the sumption in the mind of an Englishman would doings of landlords in the South-West of Scotland, be that they were so. I guess I am wasting my | but it has always seemed to me that you had time in writing this, but at the same time I would already enough such matter before you, and so I ask you one or two questions. You may or may have till now restrained myself. A paragraph in not think well to answer them.

yoir February numbor with reference to the áction of Sir Massey Lopes, in connection with the delectation of these fish, none of which can a memwater supply of Plymouth, has again suggested the ber of the public touch. In fact, the poor public idea of a letter to you to show how common such can't even get a look at the fish, for whose comfort doings are over the whole country. The people of they are so amply providing. The landlords not the town of Ayr, like those of Plymouth, had also only claim the grass of the field, the minerals in lately occasion to reconsider their water supply. the bowels of the earth, the fowls of the air, and, The waterworks they already possess were recently as in the case above, the fish of the rivers and the acquired by the Corporation, and are valued at rain from heaven, but they also monopolise the $56,000; but the high cultivation, which the beauties of Nature. Burns, if he had been so unfarmers within the drainage area have had to have fortunate as not to be born till now, would never recourse to, was vitiating the source of supply and have been able to write his song, “Ye Banks and endangering the health of the inhabitants, and the Braes o' Bonnie Doon,” for he would never have community had no remedy against their poisoners. seen them. “Trespassers will be prosecuted" So they began to lift their eyes to the hills, and would have met him at every turn instead of the there they found embosomed a pure mountain tarn “rose and woodbine," and the gamekeeper's gruff at such a height that it could never, by any possible voice instead of the wood bird's note. But this means, pay landlords or their victims-the farmers landlord I write of goes farther still, for he not only -to cart chemicals to pollute it, except maybe with claims the land and the water and all that are the intent of levying blackmail on those who wished therein, but he even claims the air of hearen. In to use the water. But the people of Ayr have a case recently before the Court of Session, it was found, to their cost, that landlords can extort decided that the public had a right to angle for blackmail without having recourse to any such fish (not of the salmon kind) within the tidal waters expedient, for when they came to negotiate for the of the Doon. It, however, happens that between use of the water they were met by a demand of an the public road and the river at this point there is annual rent of £2 10s. per acre. The landlord, a narrow strip of ground, three feet broad, claimed who is the Marquis of Ailsa, has now agreed to a by the same noble marquis, and no one is allowed rent of £2 per acro; but the average rental of the to cast so much as a rod over this strip, because farm on which the loch is situated is only 3s. 6d. forsooth it would be trespassing in the air, which per acre, while the actual land which will be sub- it seenis is the private property of the marquis. merged is hardly worth 3 d. per acre; in fact, two You may think that I have chosen the worst acres would hardly support a sheep. But the need case among the landlords in my part of the country, of water was pressing, and the people had to suc- but the fact is that I respect the Marquis of Ailsa cumb to the exorbitant demand. Land was also more than any other landlord I know. He only necessary on which to construct filters, and for this needs a little education and to be freed from toad land, which is worth 12s. 6d. per acre, £6 per annum hunters and factors to be a very decent fellow. All will be paid; while for way-leave for the pipes, this is the outcome of the system.-I am, yours 2s. 2d. per lineal yard of annual rent is charged, very truly, and for similar way-leave another landlord gets

St. P. O'Doon. £100 a year, in addition to payment for actual Edinburgh. damage done in laying the pipes. Thus landlords take advantage of necessitous persons and corporations and levy blackmail; for what else is this rent

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. for way-leave ?- because once the pipes are under An esteemed correspondent, to whom we, some ground they do less harm than even an overhead time since, wrote, asking him to assist us in the cirtelegraph wire would do. The injustice of the culation of THE DEMOCRAT, sends us the following whole transaction is, however, not at first quite letter, which we print from a sincere sympathy with apparent, for it may be thought that the landlord all honest doubt and honest doubters :-“Dear Sir, gives something ; but no, he retains all the advan- | I have duly received your favour of yesterday. Will tages which he ever derived from the loch-viz., the you kindly permit me to relieve myself from a very fishing. Nay, more, the town has been forced to serious imputation which you have unconsciously build an expensive embankment and enlarge the cast upon me? I have not stated that I am an loch (and thus the feeding ground of the fish), not advanced Liberal. I regard the Liberal and Conso much for the sake of increased storage of water servative parties as simply bands of rogues, leagued for their own use, but in order that a certain together for the purpose of plunder, and fighting minin:im number of gallons per day may be sent each other from time to time to decide which of down the burn that issues from the loch, so that his the two bands is to possess the plunder. I entirely lordship's trout may no lor:ger suffer from drought repudiate any connection with either party. I am in the summer, as they used to do. The story a Democrat in every sense of the word, and I help does not end here, for this burn runs into Loch forward to the best of my small means and ability Doon, whence springs the river Doon, in which are anything that is just and honest. My many years' also fish, which are somehow the private property experience of the working classes is that whilst of the noble lord and others of his compeers. So bona fide workers do not desire to be themselves the good people of Ayr have to dam back Loch plundered, they equally do not desire to rob others. Doon, raising its level seven or eight feet, that the I have studied the land question most carefullyflow of the Doon may also be regulated for the good I am no bigot on any point-and after long thought of the riparian lords, and, moreover, a beautiful and discussion with working men, have come to the fish ladder costing a paltry hundred pounds or two deliberate conclusion that Mr. George's theories will also be provided at the public expense for the' are neither more nor less than veiled robbery. I

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