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2. That under strong as well as weak kings “this landlord M.P.'s interests are directly antagonistic nation has all along insisted upon resumptions." to the people's, and that they serve themselves
7. That the House of Commons in their Bills of first, and not those whom they are elected to Resumption made very few savings as to the interests represent. of prirate men!
It is the want of united effort that is the only 13. That in these acts of resumption the salaries cause of the continuation of this sad state of things. and wages are taken away of all superfluous offices Wales must look to the best of its own people for which required no attendance and execution, and fit and proper representatives, men whose interests which were newly erected.
are identical with the peoples, men who will 17. That most of these Acts not only resume the always know how Welshmen wish them to vote. Crown lands, but revoke all unnecessary pensions: Its M.P.'s should be working men, their sons, or
18. That the 33 Henry VI. resumes the land small farmers; a subscription should be levied to passed away from the Crown, even by authority of pay election expenses, and let the member mainParliament !
tain himself. There are plenty of us young Welsh19. That in all these Acts, except 28 Henry VI., men quite prepared to do this; our blood boils the lands in Ireland are comprehended.
when we think how our Cambria is being passed on A resumption was only thought of in the reign of one side, and we would be no silent members King James I. But in the reign of King Charles II. should such a state of things continue. It is sensea resumption was again agitated, for we find in less and outrageous that we should be represented the journals of the House of Commons, 22nd May, by Englishmen and Scotchmen who know nothing 1660, “a Bill for making void of grants made since of our very musical language, and consequently May, 1642, of titles of honour, manors, lands, tene- know not our wants. We are prepared for free ments, and hereditaments passed under several education, to disestablish the alien church, to great seals by the late King Charles I., or the nationalise the land, and for every Radical proposal. King's Majesty that now is, or any other great Why, therefore, should we not have Radical M.P.'s? seal, was this day read the second time, ard, upon -Yours truly, the question, coinmitted," &c. (p. 166.)
DAFYDD AP HYWEL, I will close with a remark of the learned Sir Thomas Smith: “No man holdeth land simply free in England but he or she that holdeth the Crown | RESUMPTION AND COMPENSATION. of England. All free land in England is holden in TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT. Feodo, which is as much as to say in Fide, or
SIR, I observe that your compositor substitutes Fiducia, that is, in trust and confidence that he shall be true to the Lord of whom he holds it and
the word "landowner" for "landholder," and
destroys the sense. The constant repetition of the pay such rent, do such service, and observe such
former word induces a belief in private ownership, conditions as were annexed to the first donation.
which is contrary to fact. Ours is a system of land Thus none but the Princes were veri Domini, but
tenure, involving State responsibilities, and landrather fiduciarii Domini and Possessores." (State
lordism is a political, not a commercial, institution, Tracts, vol. ii., p. 751.)
as moderns affect to treat it.
As a plea for enclosing commons, or annexing - :0:
them to freeholds, landlordism declared that “X WALES AND HER MEMBERS.
right ceased to exist whenever the reason for its
creation became obsolete” (See Leslie Stephen's TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT. • Life of Fawcett "). So when the neighbours SIR.-It was with pleasure that I read your note around Clapham Common ceased to rear geese, in January number-short though it was-anent pigs, and donkeys, the freeholder was privileged to the above subject. As a Welshman, who feels
attach or annex it. Let us judge landlordism by intensely on behalf of his country, I beg your indul- the same canon. It was created to supply the gence to say a few words, in the hope that they State with funds, and defend the country by permay awaken a right spirit among present-day sonal service with the aid of clothyard bows, crossWelshmen. As you say, the Welsh people are ox
bows, battle-axes, lances, javelins, coats of mail, &c., ceedingly Radical, and they are very dissatisfied
which are all become obsolete, and it is so long with the majority of their present members. It is
since landlordism provided the State with funds a fact clear to all Welshmen that their members, that the habit is also obsolete, therefore landlordism with two exceptions (Messrs. Abraham and Ellis). should cease to exist, and the people, the rightful are not as Radical as themselves, and yet there is owners, should resume possession of the soil. At no attempt made to procure other and far better present they derive no benefit from their estate. members. No doubt our present old members have
Rather the reverse. done good service in the past, but this is no reason
JOHN WHEELWRIGUT. why their present want of sympathy with Welsh
- :0:men should be condoned. Wales has over and over MALTHUSIANISM AND DEMOCRACY. again been insulted in the peoples' Commons, and
TO THE EDITOR OF THE DEMOCRAT. no voice until recently has been lifted in its vindication. Thank God we are beginning to shake off SIR, -An interesting controversy has recently been the shackles of landlordism, our emancipation is conducteà in the Echo upon this subject, and certain dawning, and I have but little doubt it is not far, disputants having very warmly defended the theory We have long been awaking to the fact that our l of Malthus, permit me to offer to your readers a
few remarks on the other side. The doctrine of LETTER FROM THE CHILDREN'S moral restraint has been declared an absolute neces
DEMOCRAT. sity in order to check the increase of population, but, beyond the prevention of indiscreet marriages,
MY DEAR CHILDREN,-Most of you have, no it is a great fallacy, against which I place the
doubt, read “Robinson Crusoe” or “ The Swiss ancient injunction, "Be fruitful and multiply."
Family Robinson" or "The History of Masterman Under a proper state of society each additional
Ready," or some other story about persons ship
wrecked on a desert island. child born would be regarded as a new customer
Now I want you to imagine that some man, we for the markets of the world.
will call him Mr. Crusoe, has an island all his own, Now, sir, coming nearer home, is it not a fact by law his own, and that no one can have any of that there are towns and villages in England, to it to cultivate without his leave. And we will supsay nothing of Ireland and Scotland, with a con- | pose that this Mr. Crusoe asks some man if he siderable smaller number of inhabitants than they
would like to come and live upon the island with had fifty years ago. Is it not a fact that there are his wife and children and have some land at a scores of farms in the market to let, and tens of certain rent to cultivate. The man would reply, thousands of acres of land simply wanting hands “It is quite out of the question my paying any and brains to cultivate them, and although it is rent. There are so few of us, and no manufacequally a fact that the Anglo-Saxon race increases turers and shopkeepers to put things to our with astonishing rapidity, it shonld be borne in mind | hand; so that our work will not produce more that certain other races are diminishing and passing than will keep ourselves. It would serve your away. As a nation do we not carry on a brisk intcrests better in the end to pay men to come trade as exterminators ? Let American Indians, and live upon your land rather than ask them for the Aborigines of Australia and New Zealand, with
rent for it." This would be true, indeed so true the sable sons of Ham in Africa, answer the that the unlikely part of what I have supposed is question.
that Mr. Crusoe should have thought of asking It may be conceded that our great centres of for rent. There, you see, would be a case of industry are somewhat congested. What is required plenty of land, but few workers; and you may is a little dispersion. The world is as wide and as learn from this that it is work and not land which wealthy as it ever was ; let us, therefore, struggle yields rent. The land has always been where it is, for “Three acres and a cow," and when that patri- or, if not, we didn't put it there; and it can no archal boon is gained we will gather our “Fruits of more yield rent now than it could at first. Not Philosophy” from the apple tree instead of the that we could do without land; but land was pas.
given to all the world in one and at once, and it
WM, JOINER. is work that makes differences. 20, Harcombe Road, N.
But time goes on, and more persons come to
settle upon the island, and children and grand- :0:
children are born, so that now the tillers of the
soil have plenty of helpers and plenty of customers. THE RULERS AND THE RULED.—The Speaker of
Now they can manage to get a living and to pay the House of Commons has taken upon himself to
rent as well. But by-and-bye the people on this say when and how the representatives of the people
island find that by having corn brought to them of Great Britain shall state their grievances. That is so much power taken from the people. The
| from other countries they can have their bread
cheaper. When the farmers find this to be the manner of taking the power away shows what will
case they consider that they will have to lower their be done with it. A working-class question was
prices and the landlords to lower their rents. under discussion, and Mr. Speaker Peel peremp
Now, I cannot tell how the people on this torily closed the debate. If we do not put a stop to
imaginary island will settle the matter; but I know such arbitrary doings we will have enough of them.
what they did in this country many years ago, All power is in the hands of the working-classes.
when prices were likely to go down. Laws were To power the aristocracy oppose cunning. By
made compelling certain payments, called duties, means of Parliament much may be done to improve
on foreign corn when imported into this country. the condition of the people. We must not allow the
Of course, such laws as these made corn, all our cunning of the wealthy to over-ride the power of the
land over, dearer than it would have been if things poor. We must not forget that if Parliament rules /
liament rules had been left to take their own way. Farmers the people, then the people must rule Parliament.
could keep up high prices, and landlords could keep THE CIVIL SERVICE INQUIRY COMMISSION.-Mr. up high rents. J. M. Cameron, writing on the 21st inst, from the “But the nation didn't approve of such dear bread, Metallurgical Laboratory, Lime-street, E.C., to and, therefore, about forty years ago these Corn Lord Randolph Churchill, expresses a fear “lest Laws, as they were called, were repealed. And those who are selected to give evidence might have there are some who say that this repeal is the cause their future advancement in tho service retarded why our farmers nowadays cannot make fortunes; by reason of such evidence were it directed against indeed, can hardly make a living, and why rents are the abuses and anomalies which unfortunately are paid with so much difficulty. And, indeed, when known to exist in nearly every branch of the public you come to think of it, how is tho farmer to pay service." The best way to prevent this is for mem- rent when people mean to get the corn from him as bers of the Civil Service to fearlessly express their cheap as they can, that is to say, when they don't opinions, and expose any attempt at intimidation.,' mean, if they can help it, to work more to pay him
for his corn than he has to work to raise it. What
"FAITHFUL UNTO DEATH." does that allow for rent?
And yet the farmer ought to pay rent, and ought. The following story of an American reporter's to have a price for his corn that would enable him last despatch is taken from the St. Paul Pioneer to do it. The fact is this, that if the rents were Press. It says:properly divided amongst us all, and we thus received It is not many years ago that Tony B--, the the value we create, farmers and labourers, manu- | attaché of a Central Iowa paper, now defunct, rode facturers and working men would all be well off. out from a Southern Iowa city one fine morning,
Some men say we must have the Corn Laws back perched daringly on the brake of a flat car that again, or laws of the same kind. This is what is was attached to a “wild freight " and loaded with meant by the doctrine of Protection. It means iron rails. He had been in newspaper work for that money is to be charged on goods brought into | about six years, and was thoroughly capable. To this country, and this is to be done in order that make the story short, 40 miles out from its startcertain parties here may sell their goods dearer. ing point the “wild " freight, with a leap of madOne class of sellers has as much right to this sort of ness and a terrible crash, went through a bridge, protection as another, and we might come to have down sixty feet, and Tony sitting on the brakelaws forbidding us, except on heavy payments, to beam. It was over in an instant. When the import anything that could be raised or made in conductor of the train (the only one uninjured) our own country, and terribly scarce and dear such | crawled out of the wreck his eyes first fell on Tony, things might become.
lying across the side of a dismantled box car-on I am afraid that many men have to sell their his chest a heavy rail, his legs crushed-and dying. goods or their labour at a cheaper rate than gives Beyond him lay a dead brakesman: the engineer them a chance of living in comfort. But the was buried under his machine, and by a proper remedy for this is that they should do larger boulder was the fireman with a broken back. something else, and not continue at the cheap work Tony was conscious, and when the conductor any longer. But, for this, a man must be able to reached him he asked for paper and pencil. They turn about, and must have his brains active and in were found in his pockets. Unable to write himgood practice. Therefore, dear children, use your self, he dictated this, angrily ordering the men brains, in all sorts of things, in field-work, in who had come up to let him alone :-"C-E-, housework, in your lessons at school, and in your | Mar.aging Editor, Star,-, Iowa:--Train through games. In this way, and also by having just laws bridge at Was on board and am hurt. Will made about rent, we shall bring matters into such send full particulars at once.-T.B." A farmer a state that sellers will be able to afford to sell, and was secured, who carried it to the nearest station. buyers be able to afford to buy, at such prices that Then this boy, true to his duty, and not flinching will ensure comfort to all the industrious. Begin before death, suffering frightful agony, and while now to do your part, for it is likely that you will willing hands sought in vain to release him from have to do the most of what has to be done in
his position, dictated a “special” of 1,500 this direction. Your affectionate
words to his paper. What he suffered no one can DEMOCRAT. ever know. It was with difficulty he could
breathe, and every gasp cost him a wrench of agony. RECEIVED.
But he held death back down to the last few lines.
“The killed were ---," and so on, ending with Kent Times, Highland News, Oban Timee, Tem
the name of Tony B--, reporter." As he ended perance Record, Reynold's Newspaper, Crofter Re
that his eyes filled with tears, and he looked up volt, Sheffield Echo, Jus, Scottish Highlander, Life- ' wistfully to the conductor, who had written the boat Journal, Drogheda Argus, Northern Ensign, l telegram for him, and who himself could not keep Labour Tribune, Western Morning Post, Alnwick | his tears back. '" Tell my mother,” said Tony. Guardian, Weekly Bulletin, Pioneer, Observer and that I did my duty; and, boys, rush that over Chronicle, Western Morning News, Christian Million, I the wires for me. It's a scoop.” It went over Northern Daily Telegraph, Stirling Observer, Stroud the wires all right, and it was a “scoop”, but Journal, The Union, Knights of Labour (Chicago), I before it was printed Tony was dead. Arbeiter-Zeitung, True IVitness (Montreal), Crédit Foncier of Sinaloa, Le Prolétariat, Evansville Courier
-:0:- (Evansville, Ind.), Weckiy Star (San Francisco), Erening Reporter, Industrial News (Toledo, Ohio), IN 1835 Austria exported eggs to the value of John Swinton's Paper, Workmen's Advocate (New nearly 7,000,000 florins, Germany to the value of Haven), Standard (New York, U.S.A.), Canadian 21,000,000 marks, Russia to the value of 3,500,000 Labour Reformer, Kapunda Herald (Kapunda), roubles, Italy to the value of 37,500,000 francs. Irish World, World's Advance Thought (Salem). Nearly all these eggs came to Britain. And what
prevented them from being raised in Britain? The The Bishop of London, who presided at the rapacity, the cruel greed of British landowners and Temperance Conference, is one of those strong men British railway companies. The one drive the who are often used to buttress tottering institutions, British labourer from the country into the towns, but he may live to astonish his companions. We the other refuse to take his productions at a fair should not be surprised to find him limiting his and just rate. All that immense amount of money own income to £500 a-year, and using the palace at should easily, honestly, and in the way of trade, Fulham as á convalescent home, for which it is so have gone to relieve the agricultural distress that well adapted.
is desolating the country and crowding the towns.
A WORKMAN'S SECRET.
Reader, Mr. Norman Firebrace ; Mr. Norman Fire "Well?" brace, the gentle reader.
" It will do a great good." Miss Firebrace, reader ; reader, Miss Firebrace. " To whom?"
We have met you, sir and madam, before, but not Why, to the workmen.” near--not at home. So I take this opportunity, &c. "Oh, it will, will it?"
Mr. Firebrace called his house Mount Paradise. His * Surely, you can see that it will do so.''
"I am not a man.” (How unir ie!) I am a master. You could not see Mount Paradise without being | What good will an ambulance society do to the greatly struck with its appearance. Mr. Firebrace masters?” had said to the architect :
This was said in a voice so thunderous that, half in "Don't spare money. Do the handsome. By --- fear, half in indignation, the Rev. Mr. Meek rushed I have as much right to a good house as any -- wildly from the room and from the house, shaking, aristocrat in the land! What's blood to money? I as he always took care to say, the dust from his feet want a slap-up aristocratic edifice."
| as a testimony against Mr. Firebrace, The architect set his wits to work, and struggled The interior of Mr. Firebrace's house harmonised for weeks with his inspirations. Then he was with the exterior. To intrude upon the stock-in. delivered of a plan. It was of the composite order. trade of the London Jourual, it was furnished with Greek temples, and baronial halls, and modern man. “ gilded magnificence." Of course, it was not comsions were all robbed of their symmetries and jumbled fortable. When you glanced along the vast and into one vast pile of startling proportions.
stately drawing-room, you expected that you would When it was finished, a jocund professor brought have to take a ghost or a skeleton down to dinner : the great art critic of the day-the man who has while you ate that dinner the dishes and the wines taught the world that English is as musical as Greek seemed to say to you, “ We are the best that can be - to look upon its proportions. That noble gentleman had for money." The magnificence of everything stood regarding it in stunned silence. Mr. Firebrace was oppressive. If poor Charles Lamb had had to felt his bosom swell with pride as he saw the evident dine at that table for a week it would have driven bim emotion of this subtle critic, whose great and just mad. You felt your brains freezing within you, and fame inspired even him with awe. At last he said, in helplessly asked yourself, “ Will they ever thaw?". a sonorous and satisfied tone, and willing to hear his Perhaps you looked at Miss Firebrace for a moment own praises from lips so great :
and felt a little better. Perhaps she looked at you, * Well, sir, you appear to be struck with the and then you felt the frost keener than ever, Never, appearance of my house. I must say myself that I surely, was a girl so cold and silent. When she think it remarkable-very remarkable."
looked down she seemed a girl like other girls. Her "Are you the man who caused these stones to be form shapely, lithe, elegant in all her movements ; her pat together ?” asked the critic, still keeping his eyes face nobly and clearly cut (whence had she such upon the gigantic pile.
features?); her hair of that gold in which the lights "I am, sir; I am."
nimbly dance, with long and wavy lengths to drive * Then may heaven forgive you !"
an artist or a lover to despair. You waited for some And, turning, the artist fled, as if the plagues of spoken word or maiden's inner thought to break the Egypt were behind him. This did not shake Mr. stillness of that face and ripple it with laughter or Firebrace's opinion of his own house--what ever does animation. You waites in vain. She would look shake the opinion of such a man? There were those coldly and clearly into your eyes, and you would who said to him that a house so large should stand shiver at the iciness of her glance. Was it cruel ? away from the road, amid broad acres of lawn and Was it the glance of those patrician women who wcod; that at present it was, in proportion to its made firm their rer lips while men and lions fought ground, like a giant in boy's clothes. To this Mr. in the arena ? Above all, was tie ice above the Firebrace would answer :
living water, or was it the ice of hearts that no sun "Does a town hall stand back from the road, sir ? can melt? We shall see. Answer me that, sir.”
| Meantime, think of the dreary and parrow life an " But people don't live in town halls. You could intellectual, sensitive, and educated girl lives in a hardly speak of a town hall as an eligible residence," house of vulgar and gorgeous wealth. The servants
"And why not? If I choose to live in the Tower have been selected because they have served the of London, is that your business ? ”
nobility. Therefore, they look down upon their Upon which Mr. Firebrace would look so unutter. new employers. She is perpetually thrust, by the ably fierce that the reasoner would be convinced. For ambition of her parents, among people who respect fierceness is excellent logic, and of such logic Mr. them nothing more than their dogs, but who must be Firebrace had a sufficiency. Very few people were on good terms with wealth. But young women treat able to sustain an argument when he took the other young women with remorseless severity. I once side. Not speedily will the Rev. Mr. Joseph Meek listened to the conversation between three daughters forget his interview with this iron autocrat. Mr. of a poor baronet and the daughter of a very wealthy Meek was pursuing the usual business of a clergy. man. Their father owed her father more than would man-he was calling for subscriptions. On this ever be repaid. Yet the three girls treated their occasion he could not have been better employed, for good-natured and sensitive companion with an icy he was collecting money to establish an ambulance I politeness, a cutting courtesy, a scornful style of society.
compliments, that made me fly from the spot in " Ambulance society," grunted Mr. Firebrace. I horror. Now, cynical, sarcastic, icy coldness, is the
only defence that girls have against each other. But “Of course not. What do ministers know-hem!" cynicism, assumed as armour, iciness put on for pro "Sir !" tection, become at last worn as a constant dress. Is “Oh, no offence, no offence. I don't blame you in this the case with Helen Firebrace ?
particular. But do you know that I offered to take At one of those feasts of reason and flowings of that engine up and to make his fortune-did he tell the soul that accompanied the dinners at Mount you that?" Paradise was present our young probationer, Mr. "He said something of the kind." Arthur Robertson. Mr. Firebrace was fond of asking "And that he refused, threw actually away the the clergy to dinner. I believe there is a vague senti. | best chance ever offered to a mın yet?” ment among such men that it is good to know "So he said." clergymen. A sentiment, a feeling - hardly an "Well, I say that a man who does that ought to be opinion--that they will be able somehow to float into hanged; he is dangerous to society." heaven on clergymens' coat-tails, like witches on "He believes that his invention would turn so many goats, or at least that the clergy have some influence people out of employment that he dare not face the at the gate, like dramatic critics at the stage door of risk of giving it to the public." a theatre. Perhaps they feel that, by knowing a few “That's blasphemy-rank blasphemy.” clergymen they get into the swim. Mr. Robertson "I think that it is wrong, although I do not quite accepted the invitation with somewhat the same see how; but it can hardly be blasphemy." feeling as the beasts when the lion asked them to a "But I tell you it is blasphemy. Did not God make feast.
all laws?" - You know," said Mr. Firebrace abruptly, " a work. "All natural laws." man of mine called Makinnon. I saw you with him “ And is not the law of trade a natural law? And the day that rascal Clark defied me.”
what does the law of trade demand? It demands “ Yes ; I know Robert Makinnon. What has become that some people-many people-shall always be of Mr. Clark ?”
starving in order that the other lazybones' may be "He is starving. I hope to -.-- that by this time forced to work. God made some men to starre as he is in the poorhouse. The ruffian actually talked to surely as He made you to preach and me to build me about his conscience. As if any man I employ has ships. Now, is this man Makionon to set himself up a right to a conscience. Does he ask less money when against the law of God ? I say that it's blasphemyI take him on because he has a conscience ? No, he utter blasphemy!”. does not. Well, I employ him, and he turns out to “But I refuse to admit that the law of trade is the have a conscience. Is that honest ? Is that moral ? law of God." It is as if you sold me a horse and didn't tell me that " Then you will next refuse to admit the law of it had spavins."
gravitation." " Still, a man may have a conscience, may he "No, sir ; and neither do I refuse to admit the law
of trade. But just as the law of gravitation would “We will not argue the point, sir. I wish to know naturally drag us to the earth and make us crawl like about Makinnon. You are well acquainted with brutes, so the law of trade drags our commerce into bim ?” :
utter shame and misery. And just as we have that in “Yes; I see him pretty often."
us that enables us to overcome the law of gravitation " What do you think of him ?”
and walk erect as civilised men, so we can overcome "I think,” said Mr. Robertson boldly, “ that he is | the law of trade and raise those puor unfortunates, a very good, and that he will be a very great, man." whom at present it crushes lower than the brutes, to
“Has he not a very pretty sister ? " asked Miss the rank and dignity of men.” Firebrace, as coldly and negligently as if she had All this was said very boldly and nobly, although asked how many miles is Jupiter distant from the sun, Mr. Robertson blushed, when he had finished, at his And yet she examined Mr. Robertson's blushes keenly own rhetoric. As to Mr, Firebrace, he was too indig. as he stammered :
nant and surprised at such logic to make any reply “Yes, I think he has-in fact, he has."
except an indignant grunt. He only answered: "I quite believe it," said Mr. Firebrace; “such “Well, at any rate, I'm not going to lose that in. men have always pretty sisters, or pretty pieces, or vention if I can help myself. I think I see a way of pretty daughters, and a pretty fuss they make about getting it. Look here, my girl, I am going to ask them. Hem !" Here Mr. Firebrace grew red and Makinnon to dinner." angry, for scandal did say that once the husband of a " Very well, sir." pret y wife—the man was his own workman-had “You ain't too proud to meet a workman?" giren Mr. Firebrace so thorough a thrashing that for . "Not if he isn't too proud to meet us." months he could not see a good looking woman with. “Confound the girl, what does she mean?" out a shudder.
“I mean that a man like him of whom you speak “ But the point is," continued this eminent ship. | would be received into a society that would hardly builder, “ do you know about his invention?"
care to meet us." And she swept from the room, " What do you know about it?"
leaving her father well-nigh purple with rage. “I have seen it working." And he explained it to you ?" cried Mr. Firebrace,
(To be continued.) eagerly. “ No; he told me that not even his own sister knew
- :0:-the secret.
THE LAND QUESTION.—“A Radical Democrat," ** Just like the cunning of these dogs. Where's their openness, where's their candour, I should like to
writing on the land question, says that any attempt know? But you have seen it at work?”.
to settle it must be met with the most determined " I have."
opposition, because it has not yet been thoroughly “And you can tell me something about it?".
| studied by the whole of the people, who are born "Indeed I cannot. I only saw wheels go round with an equal right to the soil, and who must thereand pistons moving. I don't eveu know how an foro bo consulted before a just settlement can be ordinary engine works.”