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Act, by which the landlord should be made to round the House of Commons, and there was restore to the tenant the tremendous sums out a soft murmur of “ Mickey the Botch.” By of which he has defrauded him, would be only that name do the scornful peasants of Ireland a measure of simple justice. But if we cannot recognise the amiable and incapable gentleman get back the money stolen from the Highland we have sent to rule them. tenants, we can, at least, get back the stolen

| Lord Hartington must have drunk deeply of land. The deer forests in ten Highland coun

the milk of human kindness. Even journals tics comprise 2,155,000 acres. Much of this land is fertile valley or productive hill pasture,

and speakers who oppose him praise him. It

is often said, “Here, at least, is a man who and was at one time densely populated. We must have every acre of it back that is worth

speaks impartially upon the Irish question. taking back. A Bill for the appropriation of

His own family estates are managed to perfecvacant Highland soil is simply a Bill for the

tion. There the happy tenantry get all they preservation of the lives of thousands of High

need, and have only to pay what the merest landers.

honesty demands.” The Irish Land Commission has a different opinion. In some cases

it has deducted 33 per cent. from the rents Even those who wish to think nothing but good paid by the tenants of his lordship's of the Church of England bishops find ita dreary father and it has almost wipeil away and a weary task to read any account of their large amounts of arrears. So it seems political action during this century. They have that in what has been called - The bestgiven one persistent vote against liberty and

managed estate in Ireland," the landlord has progress. The mitred followers of the humble

been exacting over thirty per cent. from his Nazarene have led whenever the haughty peer- tenants more than the land was worth--rolage of Britain made a new and ignoble Ther- bing them of thirty pounds out of every hundred. mopylæ in defence of prejudice and tyranny. | Unhappy Ireland, if that be thy best estate. The political rank of a bishop is utterly false humann

human minds shudder to think what must be and unscriptural. To allow himself to be

thy worst ! called “My Lord” is a grave offence against

Sir Henry James, being a self-called moderate the very genius and essence of Christianity.

Y man, of course wishes to call into play those Yet, as De Quincy says, “I have often re

ten te immoderate passions that wreck humanity. marked that the proudest class of people in He asks the Protestants of Britain to protect England (or, at any rate, the class in whom

the Protestants of Ireltnd. As Protestants we pride is most apparent) are the families of the

resent the insult. We know that the Protesbishops." The bench of bishops in the House

tants of Ireland are in no more need of protecof Lords voting against humanity is a concrete

tion from the Catholics than is the Pope himblasphemy.

self. Persecution in Ireland has all been, we

are sorry to say, on one side, and that side is There are two ways of depreciating a man. not the Catholic. What Sir Henry James You may either abuse him or overpraise him. wants is to arouse the unholy feelings of perseThe latter is the more artistic method. If you cution, to call from its slumbers the dread curse praise a man for truthfulness who is a noted of creed, to fill the air with a clamour of contendliar, you make him supremely ridiculous. So ing churches, amidst which a great political prinwhen Lord Randolph Churchill compared Sir ciple will be lost and forgotten. “But the fiends Michael Hicks-Beach to a skilled rider, whose of theological persecution are for ever chained. horse recognises every masterful touch, and | And when a man like Sir Henry James tries'o when he complimented him, in terms of wld break those chains we tell him that we aro exaggeration, on his gentle and firm govern-Christians first and Protestants or Catholics ment of Ireland, suppressed laughter rippled | afterwards.

Much credit has been given to the House of “Besides,” she adds, "they lay claim to moral Lords for the passing of the Habæus Corpus privileges, and think they can do what other Act—that very standard of British liberty. But people dare not.” That is the most terrible we are told by Bishop Burnet that it was car- and the most truthful word of all. And we, ried by accident. The teller for the Opposi- the Democracy, are not without our share of tion to the Bill was at times not quite clear in blame. Every moment that we permit these his intellect; the teller for those who supported privileges of hell to continue, we are sinning the Bill was fond of a joke, and had all his against the clearest light. wits about him. A very fat peer entering, he, in jest, entered him as ten. The other teller did Another tipple manufactory has been sold. not notice the trick, and seeing that the Allsopp's is now a limited liability company. error was not perceived the reforming peer That is to say, the liability is limited as regards thought it no part of his duty to call attention money value ; but is the moral responsibility to it. Thus, on counting, the Bill seemed to be limited also ? Has each man who has become carried, although it was in reality lost. If that a brewer thought to himself of the extent of be true, the House of Lords has done more his liability in puddling the world's wits? To good by one accident than it did during five put the matter mildly, it is far from a noble centuries on purpose.

sight to behold the rich struggling to get richer

as beer sellers, in such numbers and with such We are wrong in thinking that the days of Protection are over in this country. The

in keeping them back. Sir Wilfrid Lawson railway companies protect the foreigner against

said truly, in a recent article, that temperance the Briton. To carry fish from Ireland to

reform is a people's movement. Speaking London is £4 a ton; the foreigner has to pay

generally, wealth and rank are arrayed against £l a ton. Where the English fishermen have

it. Yet the instinct of the people has seen in to pay-5s. 6d. on a barrel of fish, the French

it a way of salvation. If all Britons were are allowed over the same length of rail, by the

always sober, the day of every abuse would be patriotic kindness of British railway directors,

numbered. to convey their fish for ls. 6d. Fish comes

Lord Hartington is not a selfish man. He from Norway at 10s. a ton; from the High

does not defend landlordism for his own profit. lands at 70s. a ton. As a result, our fisheries

He defends it, he said at Newcastle, in order are on the point of ruin. And not one of

to defend those sacred laws of property that those railway directors but would tellus

secure to the workman the workman's savings. that railways want more power and more

That is very noble. Lord Hartington will liberty. Surely they presume too far on the

keep what he has not earned in order that the stupidity of John Bull !

working man may feel himself justified in

keeping what he has earned. Who, on these Mrs. Langtry has laiely been treated with terms, would not sacrifice himself for a glorious coldness by the British aristocracy. They are | principle, and accept a dukedom with a tired of their pet. But the aristocracy were hundred thousand a year, in order that Holge wrong to offend a woman who knows them so may enjoy in security the score of pounds he well. She has spoken some bitter and truth has saved by the toil of fifty years ? ful words, that will make many an ear tingle. " The aristocratic world,” she says, "is hope. Lord Ernest Hamilton considers that the lessly corrupt. What the public learns is a crofters of Glenbeigh have been treated with mere trifle to what the public never hears. The almost unexampled kindness and indulgence. men and women of fashion stand by cach Surely the tender mercies of the wicked are other and help in mutual concealment.” I very cruel.

France recently presented the United States in the vain hope of escaping from misery. with a statue of Liberty. Some loyal and lavish Alas! they only pass from one misery to Britains desire to present Uncle Sam with another. French peasants, who have some another statue, in honour of the Jubilee of that hope in life, do not marry until they have made lady to whom and to whose family this devoted some thrifty provision for their lives. But nation pays yearly a million of hard-earned British labourers, whose lot is hopeless, think money. What the statue is to be that these that they may as well be miserable married as Royalists have the impudence to present to a single. Republic it is hard to say. We venture, however, to offer a suggestion, and if our idea is An aristocratic class is said to be necessary carried out we will be glad to subscribe to the in order to lead the taste of the country. And scheme. We would represent John Bull in it has led that taste. It has led it astray from the familiar attitude of “Christian at the the loveliness of simplicity to a thousand Wicket Gate," bending beneath a mighty grotesque or horrible devices. Our great landed burden, and we would call it, “ Britain Bur- aristocracy has been the first and chief cause of dened with the Results of Royalty.”

corruption in the peoples' taste. Good taste

—noble simplicity—has never appeared in the Although Mr. Gladstone's Home Rule Bill

world since the Greek Republic were crushed was not altogether good, the spirit which beneath despotism. In past seasons it has beurged Mr. Gladstone's action is surpassingly come fashionable to wear as ornaments live noble. And so it has been felt by the Irish

snakes and lizards, which shows what we are race, ever prompt with a generous response to

brought to by aristocratic leadership. generosity. It is a wonderful and affecting thing to see how enthusiasm lights up the faces! No wonder we find difficulties great and of the poor peasants in the wild West of Ireland

many in our task of Land Restoration. We when Mr. Gladstone's name is spoken. You may do not marvel that they are so numerous, but travel for days in Ireland and never hear a

rather that they are so few. When the Bible word spoken about separation. It was despair

Society was founded it was looked upon as that drove the Irish to think of desperate revoli

revolutionary and opposed to the highest remedies. Now that hope has dawned upon interests of Church and State. them, Fenianism is dead. “The Wandering Jew" has at last found a

When Saul made his debut as a prophet, the rest in the bosoms of the “Primrose Dames.”

prophets were justly suspicious. Lord RanMr. Goschen has won a seat reserved by the

dolph will, therefore, pardon us, if among our snobocracy for the nobility. A provincial news

hopes for his future as a Social Democrat,

there obtrudes an unwelcome doubt. paper wonders if he is not ashamed to appear in such a position. Our wonder would be if he were ashamed of anything. Mr. Goschen was RELIGIOUS journals are speaking with all the sure that he would never win a Liberal seat.

force of frightened eloquence of the increase of

atheistic books. These spring as directly from the He was so equally sure of this Tory seat that churches themselves, as if they were printed and he did not even think it worth his while to published by convocations and assemblies. The

greatest extant evidence against the truth of make a set speech to his future constituents.

Christianity is the income and palace of the ArchVirtually he said to them, “I despise you, but bishop of Canterbury. When the leading Christian I must use you."

in Great Britain exhibits in his own person all the pomp, the splendour, and the pride, against which

Christianity came as a warning and a protest, then The marriage returns for last year show how those who wonder at the growth of infidel opinions

are weak and foolish. When Christ's churches startlingly large is the number of marriages

carry out Christ's work in Christ's spirit then inamong the poorest of the poor. They marry I fidelity will vanish like a mist.

THE TEMPERANCE CONVENTION.

The success of the Temperance Convention of the Alliance felt much misgiving as to the recently held in London is a triumph for the dangers which might arise if the principle which principles of Democracy. During thirty-four they advocate-i.l., popular control, was apyears the United Kingdom Alliance for the plied in the conduct of the Alliance. Howsuppression of the Liquor Traffic has been ever, these scruples were ultimately overcome; carried on as an autocratic institution, the Execu- and not only was a representative convention tive Committee elects the Council and the assembled, but the convention was allowed to Council elects the Executive Committee. The have its own way as nearly as could be exbusiness of the Alliance has been well managed, pected from managers to whom submission to and at one time it was, perhaps, the most the popular will was a new experience. From efficiently conducted of all our philanthropic the confidence which has been imparted by the institutions. It still unites under its banner results of the Conference it is to be hoped that men of all shades and parties, who are banded on similar occasions in future there will be no together to promote the important object for attempt whatever to manipulate the prowhich it was founded.

ceedings: Sooner or later the organic defect in its In response to a drafted resolution recomconstitution was bound to affect its vitality. mending the executive to propose a plan of The absence of activity in the House of Com- | representative government and submit it to the mons, and the falling off of about a third in its next council meeting, the executive replied that subscription list, are the outward and visible they were engaged in the preparation of such a sign of that inherent weakness which it is im-plan. This is satisfactory, and it may be well posssible any longer to overlook or disguise. to point out that the Executive Committee

When an institution is conducted on a re- have the power not only to prepare such a presentative basis it is easy to answer. Those plan, but they can at once put it in operation who are interested can make themselves heard, The method of calling the next council meeting all have practically a voice in the management ; is under the control of the executive; and all know what is being done, and if every one it is to be hoped that they will adopt the repre. cannot have his own way, each one is willing sentative principle in the assembling of the to follow the majority after reasonable dis- next council. An early and definite announcecussion.

ment of their determination to do this woulil Thus it is that Democratic institutions have re-assure the friends ofthe Alliance and impait a strength and permanence which no others a degree of vigour to the movement which no can obtain. The Democratic element has been other course would call forth. wanting in the United Kingdom Alliance ; it While the magnificent success of the repremust now be supplied, or the Alliance will sentative convention is a matter for congratulafail. Impressed with these ideas, some of the tion as showing the superiority of representative members of the council proposed at the last methods, the attainment of the object which annual meeting the calling of a Representative the Alliance has in view will add to the power Conference in London. The proposal was cor- 1 of British Democracy to a degree of which it dially accepted by the council of the Alliance, I is impossible to measure the extent. In carryand has been faithfully carried into effect by ing on the liquor traffic Democratic principles the Executive Committee.

are distinctly set at nought, Experience harThe result was the assembly in London of ing shown that the trade in alcoholic liquors is 1,200 delegates from all parts of the United a source of enormous profit to the promoters, Kingdom, who, at their own costs and charges, and a nuisance and cause of degradation to the made their way to the great metropolis for the

community, our aristocratic governors have hit purpose of assisting the movement, thus afford

upon an expedient which gives to the privilogcd ing a striking testimony to the strength of classes all the profit and imposes upon the temperance opinion throughout the country. I people all the burden. The granting of

One of the main objects which the promo- licences to sell alcohol has been placed in the ters of the convention had in view was the hands of magistrates, who take care to protect permanent establishment of the Alliance on a the localities in which they themselves live from representative basis. It is a curious fact that the degrading influence of public houses, but ineven Radicals regard autocracy as a good thing flict them freely upon other districts, often in when they are the autocrats. Thus the leaders spite of earnest protests on the part of the inhabitants. While the magistrates live in an ' from indulgence, an appetite which is not imearthly paradise they make a pandemonium planted by nature, but by custom. elsewhere for the especial profit of themselves The testimony of millions of total abstainers and of their friends interested in the trade. is given to the effect that the enjoyment of life

What a terrible business this tracle is may be is increased by total abstinence. The statistical gathered from the fact that those who arc results of numerous provident societies tell the engaged therein dic at about double the ordi- same story in language which is unmistakeable. nary death rate, while the victims of the trade These show that if a man desires long life and are the chief cause of the poverty, pauperism, vigorous days he must refrain from taking crime, and insanity debasing our population to a drink which creates thirst, and which not a degree which baffles all the efforts of poli- only steals his brains, but prevents him from ticians anıl philanthropists. As blight fastens, knowing that he has lost them. What we upon an unhealthy plant. so injustice inflicts should like to sce is the formation of Demoitself upon a weak and slegraded population. cratic Temperance Associations in every conPractical Democrats fight against injustice. stituency in the kingdom. Wherever two or The root of injustice is found in a people who three meet together this can be done, and if have not sufficient strength to resist oppression. these associations, like tiny seeds, were sown Drink is one of the chief elements of human throughont the kingdom, the result would give weakness and degradation, and its removal would an irresistible power to the working classes, impart a degree of strength and energy to the which would secure the comfort and stability of popular demand for justice, which would make the community. it invincible. Wc, therefore, seek for the Men must control themselves before they can people themselves the same control over the control others. They must exercise self-denial liquor traffic which now resides in the privi- before they can enjoy delight. Democratic leged classes. A poor man ought to have the Temperance Associations might be formed, not same power as the rich to protect his home only in every constituency, but, if desired, in from degrading associations, and until that every strect. One man alone can do but very right is obtained the capitalists and the aristo- little. Every Democrat, who is also a tempercrat will continue to profit by the vices and ance reformer, should unite himself with others, weakness of the people.

so as to be always prepared for action when The United Kingdom Alliance and other opportunities offer. These opportunities are temperance organisations have done a work in constant in cases where our fellow-men may be our day which is of inestimable value to the persuaded to break off bad habits, and political community. Thanks to their efforts we now opportunities are not infrequent, as no political know by experience as well as by scientific action can occur in which the voice of Temperdemonstration that alcohol is unnecessary to ance Democrats might not be heard with human life and happiness. We know that the advantage. (langer and suffering which it brings in its The advice we would give to Temperance train are evils which we voluntarily inflict upon Democrats is the same as that given to the ourselves. At present millions suffer from the early Christians : “Do not forsake the cravings of a created appetite which exists only assembling of yourselves together.”

-- ::- -
FRANCE AND GERMANY.

All men of understanding know with what, wealth might and should and will be made enormous speed the character of this century the means of civilisation — when it is inore is changing. The railway, the wire, and the evenly distributed. And here is the great newspaper are at last beginning to produce real want and cry of the age, ringing from the spiritual results. This, at first, they did not Pacific to the Atlantic, from the Atlantic back do. They aided the accumulation of material over Europe and Asia, to the Pacific—comfort wealth, but they did not advance civilisation. for the poorest. For civilisation is not wealth, and wealth is Now this doctrine is growing stronger and often the destroyer of civilisation. Poor stronger. Not a day passes but in some countries have climbed to the height of thought new, and often unexpected, form it rises with and fancy while rich countries have been held full and sudden growth. Sometimes it takes back by their own gross heaviness. But stronger and wilder shapes, for, like all great

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