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This letter puts me in mind of an Italian fields, as he thought the nature of the soil epitaph, written on the monument of a va- required. At the end of the year, when letudinarian: Stavo ben, ma per star meg- he expected to see a more than ordinary lio, sto qui :' which it is impossible to crop, his harvest fell infinitely short of that translate. * The fear of death often proves of his neighbours. Upon which (says the mortal, and sets people on methods to save fable) he desired Jupiter to take the their lives, which infallibly destroy them. weather again into his own hands, or This is a reflection made by some histo- that otherwise he should utterly ruin himrians, upon observing that there are many self.

C. more thousands killed in a flight, than in a battle; and may be applied to those multitudes of imaginary sick persons that No. 26.] Friday, March 30, 1711. break their constitutions by physic, and throw themselves into the arms of death, Pallida mors equo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas, by endeavouring to escape it. This me- Vitæ summa brevis spem nos vetat inchoare longam, thod is not only dangerous, but below the Jam te premet nox, fabulæque manes,

Et domus exilis Plutonia.--Hor. Lib. 1. Od. iv. 13. practice of a reasonable creature. To consult the preservation of life, as the only Knocks at the cottage, and the palace gate:

With equal foot, rich friend, impartial fate end of it, to make our health our business, Life's span forbids thee to extend thy cares, to engage in no action that is not part of a And stretch thy hopes beyond thy years: regimen, or course of physic; are pur. To story'd ghosts, and Pluto's house below. Creech.

Night soon will seize, and you must quickly go poses so abject, so mean, so unworthy human nature, that a generous soul would

When I am in a serious humour, I very rather die than submit to them. Besides often walk by myself in Westminster Abthat a continual anxiety for life vitiates all bey; where the gloominess of the place, the relishes of it, and casts a gloom over and the use to which it is applied, with the the whole face of nature; as it is impossible solemnity of the building, and the condiwe should take delight in any thing that tion of the people who lie in it, are apt to we are every moment afraid of losing.

fill the mind with a kind of melancholy, or I do not mean, by what I have here said, rather thoughtfulness, that is not disagreethat I think any one to blame for taking due able. I yesterday passed a whole aftercare of their health. On the contrary, as noon in the church-yard, the cloisters, and cheerfulness of mind, and capacity for busi- the church, amusing myself with the tombness, are in a great measure the effects of a stones and inscriptions that I met with in well-tempered constitution, a man cannot those several regions of the dead. Most of be at too much pains to cultivate and pre- them recorded nothing else of the buried serve it. But this care, which we are person, but that he was born upon one prompted to, not only by common sense, day, and died upon another; the whole but by duty and instinct, should never en history of his life being comprehended in gage us in groundless fears, melancholy those two circumstances that are common apprehensions, and imaginary distempers, to all mankind. I could not but look upon which are natural to every man who is these registers of existence, whether of more anxious to live, than how to die. In brass or marble, as a kind of satire upon short, the preservation of life should be the departed persons; who had left no only a secondary concern, and the direction other memorial of them but that they were of it our principal. If we have this frame born, and that they died. They put me in of mind, we shall take the best means to mind of several persons mentioned in the preserve life, without being over solicitous battles of heroic poems, who have soundabout the event; and shall arrive at that ing names given them, for no other reason point of felicity which Martial has men- but that they may be killed, and are celetioned as the perfection of happiness, of brated for nothing but being knocked on neither fearing nor wishing for death.

the head. In answer to the gentleman, who tempers Taxuxou ti, Mesorts +$, @tpordomov to,'-- Hom. his health by ounces and by scruples, and "Glaucumque, Medontaque, Thersilochumque.'–Virg. instead of complying with those natural so-Glaucus, and Medon, and Thersilochus.' licitations of hunger and thirst, drowsiness The life of these men is finely described or love of exercise, governs himself by the in holy writ bv 'the path of an arrow, prescriptions of his chair, I shall tell him a which is immediately closed up and lost. short fable. Jupiter, says the mythologist, Upon my going into the church, I enter o reward the piety of a certain country- tained myself with the digging of a grave; „nan, proinised to give him whatever he and saw in every shovel-full of it that was would ask. The countryman desired that thrown up, the fragment of a bone or skull he might have the management of the wea- intermixt with a kind of fresh mouldering ther in his own estate. He obtained his earth that some time or other had a place request, and immediately distributed rain, in the composition of an human body. snow, and sunshine among his several Upon this I began to consider with myself, * The following translation, however, may give an confused together under the pavement Fomen, friends and enemies, priests and sol- the repository of our English kings for the diers, monks and prebendaries, were crum- contemplation of another day, when I shall bled amongst one another, and blended find my mind disposed for so serious an trgether in the same common mass; how amusement. I know that entertainments beauty, strength, and youth, with old age, of this nature are apt to raise dark and disweakness, and deformity, lay undistin- mal thoughts in timorous minds, and gloomy guished, in the same promiscuous heap of imaginations; but for my own part, though matter.

what innumerable multitudes of people lay English reader some idea of the Italian epitaph: 'I was well, but striving to be better, I am here."

of that ancient cathedral; how men and

I am always serious, I do not know what it After having thus surveyed this great is to be melancholy; and can therefore take magazine of mortality, as it were in the a view of nature, in her deep and solemn lump, I examined it more particularly by scenes, with the same pleasure as in her the accounts which I found on several of most gay and delightful ones. By this the monuments which are raised in every means I can improve myself with those obquarter of that ancient fabric. Some of jects, which others consider with terror, them were covered with such extravagant When I look upon the tombs of the great, epitaphs, that if it were possible for the every emotion of envy dies in me; when I dead person to be acquainted with them, read the epitaphs of the beautiful, every he would blush at the praises which his inordinate desire goes out; when I meet friends have bestowed upon him. There with the grief of parents upon a tombstone, are others so excessively modest, that they my heart melts with compassion; when I deliver the character of the person depart- see the tomb of the parents themselves, I ed in Greek or Hebrew, and by that means consider the vanity of grieving for those are not understood once in a twelvemonth. whom we must quickly follow. When I In the poetical quarter, I found there were see kings lying by those who deposed them, poets who had no monuments, and monu- when I consider rival wits placed side by ments which had no poets. I observed, in- side, or the holy men that divided the world deed, that the present war had filled the with their contests and disputes, I reflect church with many of these uninhabited with sorrow and astonishment on the little monuments, which had been erected to the competitions, factions, and debates of manmemory of persons whose bodies were per- kind. When I read the several dates of haps buried in the plains of Blenheim, or the tombs, of some that died yesterday, and in the bosom of the ocean.

some six hundred years ago, I consider that I could not but be very much delighted great day when we shall all of us be conwith several modern epitaphs, which are temporaries, and make our appearance towritten with great elegance of expression gether.

C. and justness of thought, and therefore do honour to the living as well as to the dead. As a foreigner is very apt to conceive an No. 27.] Saturday, March 31, 1711. idea of the ignorance or politeness of a nation from the turn of their public monu- Ut nox longa, quibus mentitur amica, diesque ments and inscriptions, they should be sub- Longa videtur opus dehentibus; ut piger annus

Pupillis, quos dura premit custodia matrum: mitted to the perusal of men of learning Sic mihi tarda fluunt ingrataque tempora, quæ spem and genius before they are put in execu- Consilium que morantur agendi gnaviter id, quod tion. Sir Cloudesly Shovel's monument has Æque pauperibus prodest, locupletibus æque; very often given me great offence. Instead

Æque neglectum pueris senibusque nocebit.

Hor. Lib. 1. Ep. i. 23. of the brave rough English admiral, which

IMITATED. was the distinguishing character of that

Long as to him, who works for debt, the day; plain, gallant man, he is represented on Long as the night to her, whose love 'saway; his tomb by the figure of a beau, dressed Long as the year's dull circle seems to run,

When the brisk minor pants for twenty-one; in a long periwig, and reposing himself

So slow th' unprofitable moments roll, upon velvet cushions, under a canopy of

That lock up all the functions of my soul; state. The inscription is answerable to That keep me from myself, and still delay the monument: for instead of celebrating

Life's instant business to a future day:

That task, which as we follow, or despise, the many remarkable actions he had per

The eldest is a fool, the youngest wise : formed in the service of his country, it ac- Which done, the poorest can no wants endure; quaints us only with the manner of his And which not done, the richest must be poor.

Pope. death, in which it was impossible for him to reap any honour. The Dutch, whom There is scarce a thinking man in the we are apt to despise for want of genius, world, who is involved in the business of it, show an infinitely greater taste of antiquity but lives under a secret impatience of the and politeness in their buildings and works hurry and fatigue he suffers, and has formed of this nature, than what we meet with in a resolution to fix himself, one time or other, those of our own country. The monuments in such a state as is suitable to the end of of their admirals, which have been erected his being. You hear men every day, in at the public expense, represent them like conversation, profess, that all the honour, themselves, and are adorned with rostral rower, and riches, which they propose to crowns and naval ornaments, with beauti- themselves, cannot.give satisfaction enough ful festoons of sea-weed, shells, and coral. to reward them for half the anxiety they

But to return to our subject. I have left, undergo in the pursuit or possession of

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them. While inen are in this temper | live. The station I am in furnishes me with (which happens very frequently) how in- daily opportunities of this kind; and the consistent are they with themselves? They noble principle with which you have inare wearied with the toil they bear, but spired me, of benevolence to all I have to cannot find in their hearts to relinquish it; deal with, quickens my application in every retirement is what they want, but they thing I undertake. When I relieve merít cannot betake themselves to it. While they from discountenance, when I assist a friendpant after shade and covert, they still affect less person, when I produce concealed worth, to appear in the most glittering scenes of I am displeased with myself, for having delife. Sure this is but just as reasonable as signed to leave the world in order to be virif a man should call for more lights, when tuous. I am sorry you decline the occasions he has a mind to go to sleep.

which the condition I am in might afford Since then it is certain that our own me of enlarging your fortunes; but I know hearts deceive us in the love of the world, I contribute more to your satisfaction, when and that we cannot command ourselves I acknowledge I am the better man, from enough to resign it, though we every day the influence and authority you have over, wish ourselves disengaged from its allure- sir, your most obliged and most humble ments, let us not stand upon a formal taking servant,

R. O.' of leave, but wean ourselves from them while we are in the midst of them.

"Sir, I am entirely convinced of the It is certainly the general intention of the truth of what you were pleased to say to greater part of mankind to accomplish this me, when I was last with you alone. You work, and live according to their own ap

told me then of the silly way I was in; but probation, as soon as they possibly can. But you told me so, as I saw you loved me, since the duration of life is so uncertain, and otherwise I could not obey your commands that has been a common topic of discourse

in letting you know my thoughts so sinever since there was such a thing as life it- cerely as I do at present. I know the self, how is it possible that we should defer character,” is all that you said of her; but

creature, for whom I resign so much of my a moment the beginning to live according then the trifler has something in her so unto the rules of reason? The man of business has ever some one

designing and harmless, that her guilt in point to carry, and then he tells himself he one kind disappears by the comparison of will bid adieu to all the vanity of ambition. her innocence in another. Will you, virThe man of pleasure resolves to take his Must dear Chloe be called by the hard

tuous man, allow no alteration of offences? leave at least, and part civilly with his mistress; but the ambitious man is entangled men? I keep the solemn promise I made

name you pious people give to common woevery moment in a fresh pursuit, and the lover sees new charms in the object he fan- you in writing to you the state of my mind, cied he could abandon. It is therefore a fan- deavour to get the better of this fondness,

your kind admonition; and will entastical way of thinking, when we promise which makes me so much her humble serourselves an alteration in our conduct from change of place, and difference of circum- vant, that I am almost ashamed to sub

scribe myself yours,

T. D.' stances; the same passions will attend us wherever we are, till they are conquered,

“SIR,-There is no state of life so anxious and we can never live to our satisfaction in as that of a man who does nct live accordthe deepest retirement, unless we are capa-ing to the dictates of his own reason. It ble of living so, in some measure, amidst will seem odd to you, when I assure you the noise and business of the world. that my love of retirement first of all brought

I have ever thought men were better me to court; but this will be no riddle, when known by what could be observed of them I acquaint you that I placed myself here from a perusal of their private letters, than with a design of getting so much money as any other way. My friend the clergyman, might enable me to purchase a handsome the other day, upon serious discourse with retreat in the country. At present my cirhim concerning the danger of procrastina- cumstances enable me, and my duty prompts tion, gave me the following letters from me to pass away the remaining part of my persons with whom he lives in great friend-life in such a retirement as I at first proship and intimacy, according to the good posed to myself; but to my great misfortune breeding and good sense of his character. I have entirely lost the relish of it, and The first is from a man of business, who is should now return to the country with his convert: the second from one of whom greater reluctance than I at first came to he conceives good hopes: the third from court. I am so unhappy, as to know that one who is in no state at all, but carried one what I am fond of are trifles, and that what way and another by starts.

I neglect is of the greatest importance; in

short, I find a contest in my own mind be“SIR, --I know not with what words to tween reason and fashion. I remember you express to you the sense I have of the high once told me, that I might live in the world obligation you have laid upon me, in the and out of it, at the same time, Let me penance you enjoined me of doing some good beg of you to explain this paradox more at or other to a person of worth every day I | large to me, that I may conform my life, if


No. 28.)

possible, both to my duty and my inclina- nuns and a hare, which we see so frequently on. I am yours, &c.

R. B.' joined together. I would therefore establish

certain rules, for the determining how far one tradesman may give the sign of another,

and in what cases he may be allowed to Monday, April 2, 1711.

quarter it with his own. -Neque semper arcum

• In the third place, I would enjoin every Tendit Apollo. Hor. Lib. 2. Od. 1. 19.

shop to make use of a sign which bears Nor does Apollo always bend his bow.

some affinity to the wares in which it deals. I SHALL here present my reader with a What can be more inconsistent, than to see letter from a projector, concerning a new a bawd at the sign of the angel, or a tailor office, which he thinks may very much con- at the lion? A cook should not live at the tribute to the embellishment of the city, boot, nor a shoemaker at the roasted pig; and to the driving barbarity out of our and yet, for want of this regulation, I have streets. I consider it as a satire upon pro- seen a goat set up before the door of a perjectors in general, and a lively picture of fumer, and the French king's head at a the whole art of modern criticism.


• An ingenious foreigner observes, that se"Sir,Observing that you have thoughts veral of those gentlemen who value themof creating certain officers under you, for selves upon their families, and overlook the inspection of several petty enormities such as are bred to trade, bear the tools of shich you yourself cannot attend to; and their forefathers in their coats of arms. I finding daily absurdities hung out upon the will not examine how true this is in fact. But sign-posts of this city, to the great scandal though it may not be necessary for posterity of foreigners, as well as those of our own thus to set up the sign of their forefathers, country, who are curious spectators of the I think it highly proper for those who acsame; I do humbly propose that you will tually profess the trade to show some such be pleased to make me your superintendant marks of it before their doors. of all such figures and devices, as are or

•When the name gives an occasion for an shall be made use of on this occasion; with ingenious sign-post, I would likewise advise full powers to rectify or expunge whatever the owner to take that opportunity of letI shall find irregular or defective. For

ting the world know who he is. It would want of such an officer, there is nothing have been ridiculous for the ingenious Mrs. like sound literature and good sense to be Salmon to have lived at the sign of the met with in those objects that are every trout; for which reason she has erected bewhere thrusting themselves out to the eye, fore her house the figure of the fish that is and endeavouring to become visible. Our her namesake. Mr. Bell has likewise disstreets are filled with blue boars, black tinguished himself by a device of the same swans, and red lions; not to mention flying nature: and here, sír, I must beg leave to pigs, and hogs in armour, with many other observe to you, that this particular figure creatures more extraordinary than any in of a bell has given occasion to several pieces the deserts of Africa. Strange! that one of wit in this kind. A man of your reading who has all the birds and beasts in nature must know, that Abel Drugger gained great to choose out of, should live at the sign of applause by it in the time of Ben Jonson. an Ens Rationis! *My first task therefore should be, like presented by this figure; which, in conjunc

Our apocryphal heathen god* is also rethat of Hercules, to clear the city from tion with the dragon, makes a very handmonsters. In the second place, I would some picture in several of our streets. As forbid that creatures of jarring and incon- for the bell-savage, which is the sign of a gruous natures should be joined together in

savage man standing by a bell, I was forthe same sign; such as the bell and the merly very much puzzled upon the conceit neat's tongue, the dog and the gridiron. of it, till l'accidentally fell into the reading The fox and the goose may be supposed to of an old romance translated out of the have met, but what has the fox and the se- French; which gives an account of a very ten stars to do together? And when did beautiful woman who was found in a wilthe lamb and dolphin ever meet, except derness, and is called in the French La upon a sign post? As for the cat and fiddle, belle Sauvage; and is every where transthere is a conceit in it; and therefore I do lated by our countrymen the bell-savage not intend that any thing. I have here said This piece of philosophy will, I hope, conshould affect it. I must however observe vince you that I have made sign-posts my to you upon this subject, that it is usual for study, and consequently qualified myself for a young tradesman, at his first setting up, the employment which I solicit at your to add to his own sign that of the master hands. But before I conclude my letter, I whom he served; as the husband, after must communicate to you another remark, marriage, gives

á place to his mistress's which I have made upon the subject with asms in his own coat. This I take to have which I am now entertaining you, namely, given rise to many of those absurdities that I can give a shrewd guess at the huwhich are committed over our heads; and, as I am informed, first occasioned the three

* St. George.

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mour of the inhabitant by the sign that surdity, when it was impossible for a hero hangs before his door. A surly choleric in a desert, or a princess in her closet, to fellow generally makes choice of a bear; as speak any thing unaccompanied with mumen of milder dispositions frequently live sical instruments. at the lamb, Seeing a punch-bowl painted But however this Italian method of acting upon a sign near Charing-cross, and very in recitativo might appear at first hearing, curiously garnished, with a couple of angels, I cannot but think it much more just than hovering over it, and squeezing a lemon into that which prevailed in our English opera it, I had the curiosity to ask after the mas- before this innovation: the transition from ter of the house, and found, upon inquiry, an air to recitative music being more natuas I had guessed by the little agremens ral, than the passing from a song to plain upon his sign, that he was a Frenchman. and ordinary speaking, which was the comI'know, sir, it is not requisite for me to en- mon method in Purcell's operas, large upon these hints to a gentleman of The only fault I find in our present pracyour great abilities; so humbly recommend tice, is the making use of the Italian reciing myself to your favour and patronage, tativo with English words.

• I remain, &c. To go to the bottom of this matter, I must I shall add to the foregoing letter another, observe, that the tone, or (as the French which came to me by the same penny-post. call it) the accent of every nation in their From my own apartment that of any other people; as we may see

ordinary speech, is altogether different from “ HONOURED SIR, near Charing-cross. * Having heard that this nation is a great so near upon us. By the tone or accent, I

even in the Welch and Scotch, who border encourager of ingenuity, I have brought do not mean the pronunciation of each parwith me a rope-dancer that was caught in ticular word, but the sound of the whole one of the woods belonging to the great sentence. Thus it is very common for an Mogul. He is by birth a monkey; but English gentleman, when he hears a French swings upon a rope, takes a pipe of to-tragedy, to complain that the actors all of bacco, and drinks a glass of ale, like any them speak in a tone; and therefore he very reasonable creature. He gives great satis- wisely prefers his own countrymen, not confaction to the quality; and if they will make sidering that a foreigner complains of the a subscription for him, I will send for a

same tone in an English actor, brother of his out of Holland, that is a very

For this reason, the recitative music, in good tumbler; and also for another of the same family whom I design for my merry: the tone or accent of each language; for

every language, should be as different as Andrew, as being an excellent mimic, and otherwise, what may properly express a the greatest droll in the country where he passion in one language will not do it in now is. I hope to have this entertainment another. Every one who has been long in in readiness for the next winter; and doubt Italy knows very well, that the cadences not but it will please more than the opera, in the recitativo'bear a remote affinity to or puppet-show. I will not say that a the tone of their voices in ordinary convermonkey is a better man than some of the sation, or, to speak more properly, are only opera heroes; but certainly he is a better the accents of their language made more representative of a man, than the most ar musical and tuneful, tificial composition of wood and wire. If will be pleased to give me a good word ration, in the Italian music (if one may so

Thus the notes of interrogation, or admiyou in your paper, you shall be every night a call them) which resemble their accents in spectator at my show for nothing.

discourse on such occasions, are not unlike C.

I am, &c.'

the ordinary tones of an English voice when we are angry; insomuch that I have often

seen our audiences extremely mistaken, as No. 29.] Tuesday, April 3, 1711. to what has been doing upon the stage, and

expecting to see the hero knock down his Sermo lingua concinnus utraque Suavior: ut Chio nota si commista Falerni est. messenger, when he has been asking him a

question; or fancying that he quarrels with Both tongnes united sweeter sounds produce, his friend, when he only bids him goodLike Chian mix'd with the Palernian juice. 'THERE is nothing that has more startled For this reason the Italian artists cannot our English audience, than the Italian reci- agree with our English musicians in admir. tativo at its first entrance upon the stage, ing Purcell's compositions, and thinking his People were wonderfully surprised to hear tunes so wonderfully adapted to his words; generals singing the word of command, and because both nations do not always express ladies delivering messages in music. Our the same passions by the same sounds. countrymen could not forbear laughing I am therefore humbly of opinion, that when they heard a lover chanting out a an English composer should not follow the billet-doux, and even the superscription of Italian recitative too servilely, but make a letter set to a tune. The famous blunder use of many gentle deviations from it, in in an old play of “Enter a king and two compliance with his own native language, fiddlers solys,' was now no longer an ab- | He inay copy out of it all the lulling soft.

Hor. Lib. 1. Sat. x. 23.


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