Evolution in Economics: An Analysis of Social Problems

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Сторінка 111 - Natural Selection is daily and hourly scrutinizing, throughout the world, the slightest variations; rejecting those that are bad, preserving and adding up all that are good; silently and insensibly working, whenever and wherever opportunity offers, at the improvement of each organic being in relation to its organic and inorganic conditions of life.
Сторінка 138 - When private property in land is not expedient, it is unjust. It is no hardship to any one, to be excluded from what others have produced: they were not bound to produce it for his use, and he loses nothing by not sharing in what otherwise would not have existed at all. But it is some hardship to be born into the world and to find all nature's gifts previously engrossed, and no place left for the new-comer.
Сторінка 227 - So that the value of money, other things being the same, varies inversely as its quantity; every increase of quantity lowering the value, and every diminution raising it, in a ratio exactly equivalent.
Сторінка 110 - If such do occur, can we doubt (remembering that many more individuals are born than can possibly survive) that individuals having any advantage, however slight, over others, would have the best chance of surviving and procreating their kind? On the other hand, we may feel sure that any variation in the least degree injurious would be rigidly destroyed. This preservation of favorable individual differences and variations, and the destruction of those which are injurious, I have called Natural Selection,...
Сторінка 359 - According to the doctrine now stated, the only direct advantage of foreign commerce consists in the imports. A country obtains things which it either could not have produced at all, or which it must have produced at a greater expense of capital and labour than the cost of the things which it exports to pay for them.
Сторінка 111 - ... inhabitants were in some manner modified ; for, had the area been open to immigration, these same places would have been seized on by intruders. In such cases, slight modifications, which in any way...
Сторінка 111 - The former acts only for his own good, nature for that of the being itself; man on mere external characters, nature on the whole machinery of life ; man irregularly and imperfectly for a short time, nature by accumulation during whole geological periods. Natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinizing, throughout the world, the slightest variations, rejecting those that are bad, preserving and adding up all that are good, silently and insensibly working, whenever and wherever opportunity offers,...
Сторінка 112 - ... pollen, its advantage in intercrossing, and the resultant modification and adaptation of flower and insect to each other through the preservation of their advantageous variations. Circumstances favourable for the production of new forms through natural selection are great variability, large numbers of individuals, the complex effects of intercrossing, isolation in confined areas (yet probably still more extension over continental ones, especially if oscillating in level), and considerable lapse...
Сторінка 112 - ... as greyhounds have been developed by man ; (2) by reference to the excretion of nectar by flowers, its use to insects, the action of these in carrying pollen, its advantage in intercrossing, and the resultant modification and adaptation of flower and insect to each other through the preservation of their advantageous variations. Circumstances...
Сторінка 112 - ... seed, or young as easily as the adult, the structure of young to parent and of parent to young, and in social animals it will adapt the structure of each for the benefit of all.1 The theory of natural selection is next illustrated (1) by supposing the formation of swift varieties of wolves, much as...

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