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The taissezfaire's, and that numerous section of mankind, who are ever "reading papers," or listening to the unpractical, undigested lucubrations of others, make no locomotive efforts from their "most respectable " homes. The rationale given for this apparently unchristian course being, that in their carrmy transit* over the roadways of the metropolis, or any other leviathan city, where a luxuriousness of life forms one terminus of the "social" link—like that of an ancient Rome, showing in a strange juxta-p'osition, effeminacy, brutalism, and manliness, the last force, the least in ratio—the others, who, although not so highly favoured by God's providence, as it is termed, nevertheless using; public conveyances oftener than those useful means for journeying hither and thither— the feet. The broad, well-paved streets, as well as the lesser ones in distinctive importance, are those only passed along. Many, especially feminine, are probably in ignorance, from the cradle to the grave, that there is a' vastly greater number interlacing and ramifying from these respectable "meals of brick," as that genial genius, Tom Hood, sen. has sung, whose graduated respectabilities sink lower, until at last the Zero of life is revealed.
Thus we note that there really are many, whose "make up" has such a surplusage of the animal over the spiritual characteristics, that their belief extends no further than their ocular vision ; and who " Pooh, pooh !" with admirable and determinate off handedness the accounts of others, who have surveyed the backslums of misery, and its almost constant associate, vice.
Others, and a very considerable section of the "well-to-do's," are not so obscure in their mental optics. They do perceive how shockingly numerous are our social evils; that they are most serious in quality and consequences, and ought to be done away with. "But," say they, "they do not affect us, or interfere with our life enjoyment or business operations in any way. Nor, upon thinking over these matters, can we see that they are likely to do so in our lifetime; therefore, why should we give our thoughts and unsettle our minds about subjects that do not concern us in the least." Most rationally and selfishly reasoned! Under such negative action, evil gradually increases her swollen and polluted form, poisoning the air where'er she wends her way.
Nevertheless, despite these " laissez faire's " and " retrogressists," we prophecy that some (probably much) good might result, were mankind to see thus publicly arrayed the sores which fester in our "social" system, and that earnest thoughts and earnest works might, by degrees, annihilate this blot on the human escutcheon. M. M.
The Female Tempeb.—No trait of character is more valuable in a female than the possession of a sweet temper. Home can never be made happy without it j it is like the flowers that spring up in our pathway, reviving and cheering us. Let a man go home at night, wearied and worn out by the toils of the day, and how soothing is the word dictated by a good disposition! It is sunshine falling upon the heart. He is happy, and the cares of life are forgotten. A sweet temper has a soothing influence over the minds of the whole family. Where it is found in the wife and mother, you observe kindness and love predominating over the feelings of a naturally bad heart. Smiles, kind words and looks, characterise the children, and peace and love have their dwelling there. Study, then, to acquire and retain a sweet temper. It is more valuable than gold, and captivates more than beauty, and to the close of life retains all its power.
Obey The Laws Of Nature. —The most unnatural slaveholder is disease. No tyrant was ever half so full of fierce mischief. His hands are red with human blood. He lives in our dwellings—nay, in our very bosoms, residing in the warmest recesses of our hearts—destroying health and beauty before, and oftimes tn, our very eyes! How can we longer hear the presence of this sleepless wretch? If humanity should weep 'a flood of hot tears for forty days and forty nights, the deluge of sorrow would not drown this serpent, this rampant monster, this great foe of all men, called Disease! Drugs, doctors, ministers, cannot kill him; he is sovereign of them all, and of all the world besides. And yet there is one certain way to conquer him, to wit: Obey the laws of nature, and thus entrench yourselves in health.—A. J. Davis.
From The French Of Theodore Karcher.
(See " La France Libre," June 21,1862.)
To thee, Old England, dear asylum-land,
The stranger offers a fraternal hand;
Home of a faith for which the martyrs bled,
Long may thy flag her glittering folds outspread,
Telling of thy great deeds the wondrous tale; • Tis Gratitude, not Flattery's baser part,
That prompts the admiring homage of my heart;
And though thy power I own, thy virtues bless,
I do not love my own fair France the less.
T'was thou who, when from Europe's blood-stain'd sod
Expiring Freedom shriek'd aloud to God,
With outstretch'd arms, kind words, and beaming smile,
welcomed her children to the refuge Isle;
In vain the tyrants clamour'd, thou didst still
Succour the exiles, shielding them from ill;
Claim'd as thine own Protection's sacred right;
Hail, Isle of Freedom, hail!
Oh! Liberty divine!
Her Sydneys, Hampdens, Cromwells, at thy name
Hail, Isle of Freedom, hail!
A very large portion of mankind think they have little or no stake in the general welfare of the human race: that is, in their own improvement. They seem to think because there are prisons for convicts, asylums for lunatics, workhouses for paupers, &c, &c, that they are safe, and assured of all the blessings of life, provided they can succeed in the acquisition of wealth. They are too busy to perceive that their labour is half consumed in efforts to counteract the poverty, vice, and crime, which their own course of life engenders in society. They condemn as Utopian all attempts at improvement, though such attempts are, in fact, justifiable on the merest self-interest. C. L.
THE IMPORTANCE OE GOOD COOKING.
The importance of cooking has been completely overlooked by the working classes; whereas, from many important considerations it ought to have been considered one of the most important and directly interesting topics to them—health, economy, and even moral improvement in her family can be the reward of the Working Man's wife, if she will only hold her head a little less high, and condescend to study a little of that which even the grand lady feels important. What more important duty is there for her than to know how to provide wholesome, digestible food, and do the best and the most with the too often scanty means provided by her husband's labour? A school of cookery has been lately opened in London, where cooks and ladies come to listen to the teachings of a celebrated professor. That is well for the rich classes, but we should like to see something done to procure sound advice to the Working Man's wife or daughters upon this subject.
IMPORTANCE OF GOOD COOKING.
"Cooking being an art upon which so much comfort and health depend, it is important it should be well performed. Every housekeeper may not be able to procure the richest kind of food, but every one has it in her power to make the best of what she has; and it is astonishing, too, what a great difference there is in the appearance, taste, and value of the same provisions, from the manner in which they are served up. One woman will make the same wages go much farther than another. By a certain degree of skill and attention very humble fare may be dressed in such a manner as greatly to administer to the health and enjoyment of a family. A good housekeeper suffers nothing to be lost or spoiled. If little or nothing be saved, the dressing and serving up of food, in a proper manner, is a point of some importance. When a dish has a slovenly appearance, is smoked, under or overdone, both the eye and the palate are offended, the temper of the hungry man is irritated, digestion is impeded, and the food does not to him half so much good ; besides which, sometimes the peace of the family is considerably disturbed. In every respect, therefore, it is consistent with good judgment and proper management to prepare food for the table in the best possible manner."
| COOKERY AS IT IS.
"Cooking, as it is now generally performed, is a total failure. The two great purposes of all cookery should be to improve the quality of food, and increase its quantity. Sometimes both these ends can be secured at the same time; but it often happens, as the fashions of cookery now are, that we accomplish neither. Indeed, as a more general rule, the quality of substances submitted to the cook is deteriorated, and the quantity actually diminished. In short, if it were the universal object of all housekeepers, so far at least as food and cookery are concerned, to defeat, at every step they take, the real purposes for which food and cookery are designed, it is scarcely possible to conceive how they could better accomplish it, than by the course which is current among us. Take the article of flour, for example, and we shall show by facts and figures, under the head of Bread, that a large proportion of the grain is destroyed, in addition to which the remaining is greatly deteriorated, by the usual method of preparing it for the table. Thus, cooking as it is, seems to be a curse rather than a blessing. But there is no need of cooking everything new for each meal, nor for half a dozen courses at the same meal. Two courses (perhaps one) are enough for prince or peasant, at one meal. No one doubts that the mind is of more value than the body—infinitely so; and few reject the proposition, in the abstract, that while woman is, and has been, from the days of Sarah to the present, naturally the cook, she is also the divinely appointed teacher of man. And yet, where is the person that seeks to ease her burden of the former, that she may have more time and energy to devote to the latter? Where is the person, indeed, who does not, by indulging the demands of a pampered appetite, contribute to rivet the chains of her domestic slavery? Happily, there are a few. May their numbers daily increase. If, says Mr. Flint, quoted by Dr. Alcott, in his Young Housekeeper, this world is ever to be made better and happier, woman is to be a principal agent in the great work, but what can she do as things now are? Is she not completely enslaved—voluntary, though her slavery may use — to the never-ending din of pots and kettles?"
COOKERY AS IT SHOULD BE.
"'Simplicity is a virtue,'which has almost grown out of fashion, especially in relation to food and cooking. You can scarcely sit down anywhere to a good plain meal, and find everything simple. Even our dietetic reformers have much to learn in this respect, before the full amount of the good their system contains can be enjoyed by them. They, however, are open to inquiry and truth. All that pertains to the science of cooking, on physiological principles, is, easily accomplished. The real object of cooking should be to increase the quantity, and improve the quality of food; to render it more economical and physiological. This is best accomplished by simplicity. It saves money, time, and health. Variety may still be kept up to almost any extent, without complexity, by taking one kind one day, or at one meal, and another on the next day. It is very important that the younger branches of the family, both boys and girls, should take a share in these domestic arrangements, which, while it would train them in the science, might also be the channels through which they may be taught the first principles of other branches of knowledge. Thus, while the mother is sewing or knitting, and one of the children is attending to the bread, cakes, rice, beans, or potatoes, she enters into familiar conversation on the subject before them, by telling them of the manners and customs, the geography, history, character, laws, and dietetic habits of the various nations adverted to in speaking about the food; and as the minds of the children were made ready for it, the mother might speak of the elements of food, its chemical nature, the methods of raising it, the chemical changes produced by cooking it, and finally, the effects produced on the human constitution by its use, which would lead to a familiar conversation on comparative anatomy, vegetable and animal physiology, the laws of health, and their influence on mind and morals. Thus, cooking ought to be one of the most highly intellectual, scientific, and pleasureable employments."
USE AND SELF-CULTURE.
Drown not thine own great thoughts in those of other men,
Nor yet delay for some immense Herculean stride,
And weak or strong, 'tis thine to guard them from abuse,
Barnsley.—The corn, flour, and provision company, limited. Numbers, according to last report, 142 members, with a capital of 167/. IN. ; business done, 5501.; dividend, Is. in the pound.
Bedlington.—The sales of this society have increased over 100/. during last quarter. The capital has been raised from 235/. to 332/. Present number of members, 132.
Burnley.—A new stone has been opened here, with a tea-party, when 1,500 persons sat down. -Mr. T. B. Robinson, president of the society, in the chair. The meeting was addressed by Messrs. James Beck, secretary; Wm. Cooper, of Rochdale, &c. In about twenty months the Society has enrolled about 1,000 members, with a capital of 4,538/. The dividends have averaged Is. M. in the. pound. The society has stood well against the present depression of trade.
Bridgnorth.—This society declared a dividend for last quarter of 2s. Id. in the pound. •
Bath.—The co-operative store which was opened about a year ago at the Borough Walls, Bath, was recently burnt to the ground, the manager and his family having a narrow escape.
Bristol Equitable And Industrial Co-operative Society.—The committee in their report, recommended that a dividend of five per cent, per annum on all paid-up shares Is. Id. in the pound on members' purchases during the past quarter, and 6Jd, on those of non-members, be declared, which was carried new. con.; the result being highly satisfactory to all present.
Chorley (Pilot Industrial).—Having received one number of your valuable Journal, and finding many reports from Co-operative Societies, I forward the following account of our society:—We commenced business nightly, in June, 1860, with 38 members, capital 30/. At the end of the first quarter the number of members was 84; capital, 168/.; dividend, 4d. in the pound. We then opened daily at the end of our ninth (last) quarter, although about half the mills in the town are stopped. The number of members was 413; capital, 1,537/.; sales, 2,060/.; profits, 144/. 12s., after paying 5 per cent, on capital, 5/. to reserve fund, and 1/. per month to the Chorley Relief Fund.
We have taken a piece of land near the present stores, on which we are erecting our own shops, bakehouse, ovens &c.—John Critchley, secretary.
Cleaton Moor.—Last dividend declared Is. 3d. in the pound.
Cleckheaton.—A butcher's shop has been erected. Members, 289; capital, 1,625/.
Cowpen District Co-operative Provident Society.—The fourth quarterly report states that, notwithstanding the great depression which has characterized the coal trade in the district for the last three months, there has been an improvement in the state of the society. The committee recommend a dividend of 2s. in the [pound on all members' purchases, after paying five per cent, per annum on all paid-up shares. The following are the business transactions of the society since its establishment :-^first quarter's receipts, £554; second ditto, £747; third ditto, £1,075; and this quarter, £1,363. The receipts for goods sold is £1,308, and members' contributions, £55. The profit, after all expenses are deducted, is £103; the capital of the society is upwards of £400. The number of members is 145, 1.2 new members having entered last quarter.
Derby.—The 47th quarterly report shows a dividend of Is. 6d.
Droylsden.—Sales last quarter, 517/. 6s. 9d.; dividend, 2s.
Great Horton (bradford).—Dr. John Watts, of Manchester, laid the corner stone of a new block of buildings, which are to be appropriated to the