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purposes of Co-operative stores, at Great Horton, in the borough of Bradford. A beautiful silver trowel was presented to Dr. Watts, for the purpose of enabling him to perform the ceremony. The building will include a provision shop, a draper's shop, and a butcher's shop on the ground floor; a show-room and warehousing on the second storey; and a large lecture hall and ante-rooms above. The outlay, exclusive of the cost of the site of the premises, will be about 2,0001. The designs are furnished by Mr. Hope, architect, Bradford, and the elevation is Gothic in style, freely treated. A Co-operative store was established, with 37 members, about three years ago, at Great Horton, and the number at present is 600, and the receipts amount to about 3001. a week. The original store is now so scanty that large premises have become absolutely necessary. The laying of the corner-stone was made the occasion for a great demonstration in favour of the principles of Co-operation. Dr. Watts addressed the large assembly at great length; and Mr. John Rand, a West-Riding magistrate, residing in the district, also addressed the gathering in terms expressive of sympathy and good-will. A public meeting was subsequently held at the Primitive Methodist Chapel.— Manchester Examiner and Times.

Hadfield.—Depression of trade weighs here very heavily. The withdrawals last quarter have been 600^., whilst the receipts for contributions have been below 2002.

Hull Co-operative And Mutual Assurance Society (Limited).—The quarterly report of this society, just issued, shows that the receipts for the past quarter have amounted to £2,456, being an increase over the previous quarter of £486, and that the present receipts of the society are at the rate of £12,000 per annum. The profit on the quarter is £334, which, after paying interest on shares, and allowing for depreciation of fixed stock, will give a bonus of 3s. in the pound to each member. The number of new members during the quarter has been 98.

Hull Co-operative provident Company (Limited).—This working man's company have removed its central store from Dock-street to the extensive shop, No. 57, Lowgate. The report and balance-sheet show a dividend upon shareholders' purchases for the quarter of Is, 5d. in the pound, and 6d. in the pound for non-shareholders.

Kirkcaldy.—The third quarterly report shows 101 members; paid-up capital, £200. 3s. 6d.; sales, £653. 6s.; after paying all necessary expenses there was a balance of £40 Is., to be divided as follows :—5 per cent, on paid-up capital; 5 per cent, to reduce fixed stock; 5 per cent, to sinking fund; Is. M. in the pound to members, and 7d. in the pound tdinon-members, on their purchases We intend opening a branch shop in a few weeks.—John Galloway, Secretary.

Leith.—This society has been four quarters in existence;, our capital is £303 3s. 6d.; Our members are 122; sales, £1,207 13s. last quarter; profit, £19 6s. 51d.; dividend, Is. Id.

Liverpool (Industrial, 155, Burlington-street).—The second quarterly report shows progress, the members having increased to 137, and the dividend to Is. 5d. Coals and clothing have been added.

London.—The "British" quarterly meeting was recently held in, the schoolroom of the Battle Bridge Congregational Chapel, Pentonville-hill. Mr. J. Tauty, chairman of the committee, presided. Mr. Ireland, the Secretary, read the report, which showed that a considerable increase in the society's business had taken place during the quarter. The sales have been £2,140 19s. 5d. There has been an increase in members, and also in capital, the brush trade has just been added, and has turned out very satisfactory. The wholesale trade is also increasing. The dividend is Is. in the pound on members'purchases, 6d. on non-members' purchases, and 5 per cent on capital. It was decided that the society's shops should be closed every Wednesday at two p.m., to afford the storekeepers a half-holiday.

London St. James's.—We regret to find in the report of this otherwise successful and well-managed society, that the committee have been obliged to dismiss their late storekeeper, under the plea of a " waste of goods," which they say " lessened the profits, at least, 5 per cent." The receipts for sale during the quarter have been £798 7s. lfd.; the profits, £9. Is. 3Jd.; which, after allowing £1. 5s. for depreciation of fixed stock, will give a dividend of 6d. in the pound.

Loughborough.—The sale of goods for this quarter is £113; dividend, Is. old. in the pound on members' purchases; 9d. in the pound to non-members.

Lye (stourbridge).—There has been a little falling off in the deposits, but the figures in the fifth quarterly report show an increase of £63 for goods sold, and £20 increase of capital.

Middleton And Tonge.—The distress has not, as was predicted by false friends, annihilated this society, for the 47th quarterly report shows an increased business, and a dividend of Is. 6d. in the pound. The business includes grocery, tailoring, shoemaking, and clogging. The dividend to non-members is 19d. in the pound. A committee has been appointed to revise the rules, in conformity with the new act, so as to secure limited liability.

Oldham (King-street).—Forty-seven new members have been added during the 48th quarter. The redemption fund has reached the large sum of £639, and the fixed stock has been reduced £111, thus giving increased stability to the society. The profit for the quarter is £1,(186, and the dividend Is. M., after allowing the usual claims. The committee have reason to feel thankful at this prosperous state of affairs, amidst the surrounding ruin.

Ramsbottom.—Number of members, 500; capital, £2,867 2s. M. ; sales during the quarter ending June 21st, £2,968 14s. 7d.; profits, £225 14s.; dividend in the pound, Is. 7d.; 14th quarter. We are building a very commodius shop for ourselves, which we estimate to cost about £1,600, and we have already paid £800 towards it.

Rochdale.—The Pioneers' seventy-first quarterly report shows the society to be in a remarkable state of prosperity, considering the unparalleled depression of the cotton trade. The profits for the year have been £4,422, allowing (after interest on capital, and £97 to the educational department) 2s. M. in the pound dividend on purchases. The library now contains 5,000 volumes. The three co-operative societies in Rochdale continue £23 weekly to the relief of distress. A meeting is called to consider the new rules compiled under the act of 1862.

Sheffield (High Green).—The sales for the sixth quarter have been £284 18s. 10Jd. Owing to the depression in trade and other causes, there have been a good many withdrawals, but as the main body of members have allowed their profits to accumulate, the capital of the society remains about stationary. The members are 20, representing a capital of £65 10s. 4Jd. The dividend this quarter, on members' purchases, is 7d.

Stafford.—At the sixth quarterly meeting a donation of £6 was voted unanimously for the Lancashire Relief Fund.

Tottinbton.—The report for the quarter ending September 20th showed the receipts to be in advance of any other quarter—viz., £926. There is a profit of £70 after paying all working expenses. A dividend of Is. 8d. in the pound was declared, to the satisfaction of the members, for trade is very dull. The meeting also granted a donation of £5 to the Torrington Relief Fund, and we are also on the eve of opening a soup-kitchen for the poor.

Trowbridge.—The number of members is 235; business done during the quarter, £1,220; profit made, £72, and a dividend on purchases of Is. 2d. in the pound; 16,290 41b. loaves were baked last quarter, and the demand was •till increasing.

Tweeside.—The third quarterly statement of accounts shows a very satisfactory state of matters in being able to pay Is. 6d. in the pound, and a balance of £11 16s. towards a sinking fund.

Wallsend (Northumberland).—In November, 1861, a few working men of this village, with much difficulty, got up a meeting to try and impress on the minds of their fellow-workmen the utility of bettering their condition by Co. operation. Thirty names having been taken down as subscribers, and a room got for holding meetings on Saturday evenings, after toiling for the space of six months they found they had raised a sum of £86 12s. They took a dwellinghouse, the only suitable place they could get, to commence a grocery and provision store. The alterations they had to make, with the fixtures and fittings, cost £20, which only left £66 12s. to commence business with. They opened on the 1st of May last. The first quarter's report showed the receipts to be £572 8s. 3d. for the quarter ending August 4th, with a nett profit of £42 18s.lOJd. After paying all expenses, with five per cent, on all paid-up shares, and £3 carried to the redemption of the fixed stock, the committee were enabled to pay 2s. in the pound on members' purchases.


(To the Editor of the Working Man.)

Sir,—The reproach made against me by A. T., of dealing unfairly with Mr. R. Owen's fundamental facts, by showing that they will apply to a locomotive as well as to a man, calls for a short reply on my part.

I find a writer who puts forth a theory of human nature, and builds upon it a scheme of an imaginary society, where the evils now pressing upon large portions of the community shall disappear. To me it seems that his theory is very imperfect, and that, in consequence, his imaginary society must prove incapable of being realized in the form imagined by him. The particular imperfection of the theory, in my judgment, is, that it insists exclusively upon the action of circumstances upon man, and overlooks the action of man upon circumstances ; in other words, it takes a mechanical view of human nature, subposing that it may be moulded indefinitely by the influences to which it is sub jected, and offers only a passive resistance to them—such as is offered by the materials of a machine to its maker. I express that judgment by the statement that Mr. Owen's theory was a theory for producing "virtuous machines." A. T. attacks this judgment of mine as an absurd misrepresentation of Mr. Owen's doctrines. In reply, I subject my position to the severest test, by taking Mr. Owen's definitions and applying them to a locomotive, to see how far they will fit it, and I find that they do fit with a precision quite astonishing, when the immense difference really existing between the two Beings is taken into account.

I do not think that this criticism on Mr. Owen's philosophy deserves to be called " unfair," or a " railing " at Mr. Owen. At all events, it is a different sort of " railing" from that which it has elicited in the page of the Working Man immediately preceding A. T.'s letter.

So far from "railing" at the man, I have not even "railed" at the system, but have admitted that it asserted a very important truth, and one generally overlooked at the time when it appeared—namely, the vast influence of circumstances on man, both physically, intellectually, and morally.

Mr. Owen's disciples cannot reasonably ask for more from one who believes his philosophy to be one-sided, and his scheme of society impracticable.

The progress of socialism can be secured only by the same means by which progress in all other cases is secured—namely, by the fearless discussion of

f theories, so as to reduce a system of practice conformable to the reality of things. If we are to be deterred from pointing out the absurdities of a social theory by respect for the character of its author, the advance of truth on *';e very imimportant subject with which Socialism deals would be seriously cur. Tombed. If it is true that there is in man a something essentially different hum anything belonging to a machine, then a theory of human society, foundc I upon a philosophy which leaves out this something, cannot be a safe guide, although it may have exercised a very beneficial influence on those who embraced it, through its association with aspirations, practically belonging to this " something" which the theory left out.

Mr. Robert Owen's theory of socialism appears to me to be in the position thus described. Therefore do I attack it, while I respect the character of its propounder, and desire, as far as in me lies, to recognize the truth contained in his doctrine, in spite of its absurdities.

Edward VANsrrrAr.T Neale.

(To the Editor of the " Working Man.")

Sir,—As many inquiries have been made through the medium of the working Man and Co-operator as to the most efficient mode of checks which could be put upon co-operative officials, and as I have never as yet seen any suggestion but what appeared far from being what was required, would you have the kindness to grant me a small space in your next issue, for the purnos-; of laying down a plan which I think will effectually meet the difficulty. I will suppose a society doing business at the rate of £G,000 per quarter, and suppose it to be done in the proportions as stated below, which I think are about the average for Provincial Societies :—

£ Per Cent. £ s. d.

Flour ... ... ... 3200 1J 88 6 8

Offalds... ... ... 500 2J 11 5 0

Otmeal... ... ... 40 2J 10 0

Butter... ... ... 540 2 11 5 0

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experienced Manager.

(To the Editor of the " Working Man")


The term Natural v. the term Beatt.
The termsCivilized v. the term unnatural.

"The influence of names is in exact proportion to the want of knowledge."—Paley. There are no terms which have a greater influence on the minds of ignorant men than the above. Ask any man who is influenced by such expressions, what he considers to be the meaning of the term "Natural," and he will explain that it is to do something which the lower animals or savages do, or it is not to do something which the lower animals or savages do not do. Ask the same man what he considers to be the meaning of the term "Beast," and he will give you the same explanation. Ask the same man the meaning of the term "Civilized," and he will say that it is human invention, producing a different state of things to what is experienced in a state of nature. Ask the same man the meaning of the term "Unnatural," and he will give you exactly the same explanation. Now the most extraordinary thing is this, that although the firstmentioned two terms, as well as the last-mentioned two terms, have exactly the opposite impression on the minds of ignorant men, their meaning is precisely the same. So powerful is the influence of big names. "You are worse than the brute beasts, for they do such and such things," says one man, "You are a beast," says another; "you are only fit to be classed with the lower animals, for it is such as they that do such and such things." "You are not fit to live in a civilized country," says a third, "if you cannot restrain all your natural passions to meet the state of things produced by civilization." "You are an unnatural wretch," says a fourth, "if you resist those feelings given you bjfcnature." So much for the influence of names, mere sounds used to induce men without money and education to act as those with money and education. Would that they should act, though they act on directly opposite principles themselves, and they are taught to restrain those animal passions which are not wanted by them, and to give full vent to those which they may consider useful, as when they find an animal passion useful, they hold it up, and it is then men are referred for an example to the brute beasts; but when they consider an animal passion not useful, then we are told that we should be becoming like unto the lower animals were we to give way to it. For instance, a labouring man's wife's passion for rearing up a family proves useful by replenishing the slave market, and then the lower animals are referred to as a good example; but should the lower animal (which is constantly the case) kill its young when apprehensive of danger, then the animal is referred to as a bad example. There is another reason besides the want of knowledge which cause men to be led by sounds, which depend upon the position in which a man is placed, Men struggle hard to encourage in their own breast opinions which are most convenient for them to hold in the particular position, occupation, or circumstances, under which they are placed; so do they bend to circumstances. "Convince a man against his will, and he will be of the same opinion still." Imagine a man in humble life, with a family of children living in one room, how fond he is of all of them, the repeated attention he pays to them, the hours he nurses the baby—this is a man's fondness for children in humble life. But stop! a distant relation dies, he comes into possession of a large fortune, how is he now? In a drawing room. Where are the children? Where is the baby? They are gone, not only out of his sight, but out of his hearing, loo; his wife, who used to be such a fond mother, is with him; not a sound is heard, the children are in the nursery, and a poor man's wife is hired as a wet nurse, to rob her own child to nurture others. What they used to look upon as pleasure they now look upon S pain. I remember reading the following lines in Punch:

Matrimony In High Life.Wife to her husband. —" Oh ! dear Charles, can you show me the way to the nursery, I have not seen the children for ever so long; I really am getting quite anxious."

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