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the preceding words, suggests both the LVI. Compare Patmore's "Married peculiar lustre of a pearl (as in the phrase Lover" (page 475). "orient pearl”) and the rising of a crest

3. fell: a stretch of bare, high into time's light.

land, such as a moor or a down. (566.) 9. its face 'tis due: Here

4. environing: permeating and the poet repeats, and in the rest of the

pervading. sestet amplifies, the idea of lines 1-3.

LVII. 2. he: the man she loves. - lode13. the dark wharf: the bank of star: guiding-star (showing a finite way the river Styx, where the ferryman Charon for her infinite love). embarked the shades of the dead.

7. Ice to the moon: icy even in V. 4. that sea etc.: See Exodus, XIV, comparison with the cold moon. 15-31.

LVIII. 2. the Seer: “The Seer ... is XIX. Compare the idea of E. B. Brown Swedenborg” (W. M. Rossetti). ing's sonnet xxii (page 474).

CI. What relation does the "Peace" XXII. 12. Like the moon's growth etc.: of the octave bear to the "Hope" of the i.e., like the moon rising until its face gleams through the radiance which, while

8. amulet: an object (sometimes yet hidden, it had sent forth.

a plant) supposed to have a remedial XXV. 4. Still: ever, continually.

effect on the person wearing it. — Observe 7-8. yet

unheard: The the changing but unbroken series of images voice of the higher Love, though it speaks in lines 4-8. to them at every meeting, is often drowned

10. scriptured: inscribed. Cf. the by their sheer delight in possessing each "figured leaf” in “In Memoriam,” XLIII other.

(page 333). 12. brake: thicket.

- The image is of the winged hour killed by some stroke

JOHN KEATS of fate that keeps the two lovers at a distance from each other. XXVII. Contrast the title and idea of

(571.) 4. Castalian brink: Castalia was a

fountain on Mount Parnassus sacred to “The Sea-Limits" (page 566). — Here

the Muses; its waters had the power of culminates the conception of Love that

inspiring those who drank. Latmos: the appears, more or less, in every one of the

mountain associated with the story of Enpreceding sonnets given in the text. Compare the thought of Shelley's “Epipsy

dymion. Keats's poem is alluded to here chidion,” lines 112 ff. (page 210).

and again in line 10. 4. halcyon: Anciently, this word

II-14. Thou whom etc.: When referred to days of fine and calm weather

near death, Keats remarked, “I feel the about the winter solstice. See the note to

flowers growing over me"; and he sug“Epipsychidion,” line 412, page 690, above.

gested for his epitaph, “Here lies one

whose name was writ in water. 7. oracular: mysteriously and divinely revealing. 8. The evident heart etc.: the

THE KING'S TRAGEDY manifested, living centre of all life, future and

past. — Two corollaries of this On the date given in the subtitle, James thought are given in the ensuing sestet: was murdered in the Dominican or Black life has no problems that Love cannot Friars' monastery in the town of Perth, surmount, and the world has no value which thereupon lost its status as capital when opposed to Love.

of Scotland. He was buried in the CarLV. Compare the idea of Browning's thusian monastery or “Charterhouse” (so “Cristina" (page 411).

called through corruption of the French 4. Bides:

endures. Time's name of the order) which he himself had weary sea: Cf. “The Sea-Limits,” lines 1-3 founded in 1425, and which Rossetti here (page 566); and “The Blessed Damozel,' merges with the Dominican monastery lines 49-51 (page 558).

(line 141, etc.),

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45 ff.

(571.) 3. Barlass: "Tradition


that Roman calendar, the first day of the Catherine Douglas, in honor of her heroic month). act when she barred the door with her

343. aventure: fortune. arm against the murderers of James the

347-348. when lessen woful First of Scots, received popularly the name chance: when the trouble of my bitter and of 'Barlass'” (Rossetti).

woful fortune began to lessen; see line (572.) 28. Henry: King Henry Fourth.

29. southron: southern, i.e., Eng- (577.) 388. pearl-tired: pearl-adorned. lish.

414. the voidee-cup: a drink of 41. Song: his poem, “The King's | spiced wine served at bedtime. Quair" (quire, i.e., book), in which he tells (578.) 424. riven and brast: cloven and the story of his love for Lady Jane Beau burst. fort, - including this episode of the night

445. dight: prepared. ingale.

462. As

dree: as though to 52. And Love's storm-cloud etc.: await a bitter grief. The cloud threatening the happiness of

469. Aberdour: on the north shore Love may be the darkness of Hate (refer of the Firth of Forth across from Edinring to the hate of Graeme and others for burgh. the King, as presently shown). — This and (579.) 532. heft: half, handle. the following stanza are important for the

545. at the palm: See line 8. whole mood of the poem.

(580.) 585. litters: couches. 72. the leaguer etc.: the siege of (583.) 818. bale and ban: evil and enmity. Roxburgh Castle (in 1436). (573.) 105. Three Estates: nobility, clergy,

WILLIAM MORRIS (1834-1896) and common people.

131-133. but I see etc.: but I see in It has been said of Morris's intimate thee merely one of God's creatures who is friend Rossetti that, feeling the impulse of my mortal foe.

the Oxford Movement, he translated its 138. proper: own.

religion into poetry. In the case of Wil146. the Scottish Sea: (probably liam Morris, there is an even closer assothe Firth of Forth) where they were to ciation with that movement, in his life if take ship for the town of Perth.

not in his poetry. Coming to Oxford a (574.) 157. sea-wold: bare, uneven land decade after the deep fires of the Anglican by the sea.

religious revival had begun to cool, he 165. rack: ragged, moving cloud. nevertheless cherished the idea, early in his

173. wraith: an apparition having college career, of founding a monastery, the exact likeness of a person, seen usually and continued for some time to look to the before or soon after his death.

Church for his profession. It was not the 176. 'Twixt the Duchray and the medievalism of Newman, however, that Dhu: a small stream and lake, respec was to shape his life, but that of Carlyle tively, between which lies the whole of and Ruskin (mainly in their social critiPerthshire.

cism) and of Rossetti (in his conception of 179. Inchkeith Isle: in the Firth of art). For a time he studied architecture, Forth.

and then, submitting completely to the 183. Links of Forth: the windings influence of Rossetti, he turned to paintof the river, together with the adjacent ing. Subsequently he abandoned that art countryside.

likewise, in favor of the designing and 217. hind: peasant.

manufacture of house furnishings. (575.) 251, lift: sky and air.

Morris began to write poetry while in (576.) 316. Worship, ye lovers: The itali college, and in 1858 published his first cized verses were adapted by Rossetti from volume, The Defence of Guenevere, and "The King's Quair.” See note to line 41, Other Poems, in which the influence of above.

Rossetti was marked. As an Arthurian 317. kalends: first period (in the poet, he already showed himself to be,

rous romance.

what the author of Idylls of the King was THE HAYSTACK IN THE FLOODS not, genuinely medieval in tone. Nine years later came The Life and Death of Here, as in the preceding poem, Morris Jason, quickly followed by a great collec

develops, in a very distinctive "weather,” tion of tales in verse, The Earthly Para a medievalistic episode concerning two men dise, amounting to 42,000 lines, a work

and a woman. But now the two men, and which established his reputation as a major especially the woman, are startlingly vivid poet. But stronger in spirit is his crown

in the foreground. Jehane, a

sort of ing narrative poem, “Sigurd the Volsung”

medieval Cleopatra, is designed in sharp (1877). What most obviously unifies these contrast with the ideal heroine of chivaland Morris's other poetic works is their reincarnation of the past. Facilely

(585.) 52. the Chatelet: a dungeon in rather too facilely – he versified mythol

Paris. ogy, legends, hero-tales, from the Greek to (586.) 153. the first fitte: the first part the Scandinavian, aiming at no "criticism

(of the story). of life,” regarding himself, modestly, as “an idle singer of an empty day," a modern

THE EARTHLY PARADISE bard retelling old tales for those who cared to listen. In this general respect, he recalls After the “Apology” and “Prologue" Sir Walter Scott (see the biography of come twenty-four stories, a pair for each Scott, page 672, above). But his end-of-the

month of the year. The months are introcentury outlook is far from Scott's simple duced with lyrics, two of which are given adventurous feudalism.

in the text. “The Golden Apples" is the Having superabundant energies and first tale under “December.” much of the humanitarian and reforming idealism of the time, he preached after

AN APOLOGY Carlyle the gospel of work and after

Contrast the tone of Wordsworth's sonRuskin the gospel of pleasure in work; and

net "The world is too much with us" carried his faith into his factory for house

(page 45). hold furnishings. With the development of

(587.) 6. Or hope again: nor shall ye the industrial revolution, satisfaction in

hope again. work, — in the making of serviceable and

25. Beats with

ivory gate: beautiful things, — largely deserted the life

summons up fanciful and untrue dreams. of the "working classes." This pleasure

- The dwelling of Morpheus, son of Sleep had existed in the past, emphatically in the thirteenth century.

and god of dreams, had also a gate of To revive the es

horn, through which were sent up true sentials of that early industrial order

visions. See Spenser's “Faerie Queene," was the task that Morris kept before him, Book First, I, 39-44. and that ultimately determined his adop

27-28. To those empty day: tion of socialistic views (see, for example,

Cf. the second stanza. his prose romance, News from Nowhere,

41. ravening: preying rapaciously. 1891, which pictures a communistic Utopia). The real basis of his socialism was æsthetic: life was needlessly and increasingly ugly, he felt — beauty must return to

7. below bridge: below London us, in all the things that are made for use,

bridge. no less than in poems and pictures; striving

(588.) 12. napery: linen. for beauty, we shall attain happiness.

14-15. Geoffrey


lading: 1374, Chaucer was appointed comptroller

of customs at the port of London. WINTER WEATHER



(584.) 57. the following bell: i.e., the twelve strokes following the “chimes” (line 51).

4. wold: a tract of open, uncultivated country, such as moor or down.




(588.) 6. stead: homestead.

land by dolphins that had gathered around 8. Come down: i.e., from the cliff the ship to hear his music. or hill overlooking the sea.

(591.) 102-109. How in the mid sea etc.: When abducted by

by pirates, Bacchus NOVEMBER

(Dionysus) drove them into madness by

performing forest-wonders, one of which As he turned in the preceding poem was a growth of ivy about the ship. from “the unchanging sea,” so here the

110-112. how, wild and white etc.: poet can find no comfort in the still moon When the race of man became degenerate, light of November, "the changeless seal Zeus destroyed it with a nine days' flood. Ti.e. conclusion of change." For though

115. Prometheus' son: Deucalion. irked by the changefulness of life, and al He and his wife Pyrrha were saved from lured by the idea of rest, he shrinks from the food in a boat built by him, which the stillness of “dread eternity.”—Contrast finally came

Mount Parsuch poems as Christina Rossetti's “A

nassus. Soul” (page 555) and “Rest” (page 554).

180. what that evil drew: what 7. these four walls: i.e., his study. brought that misfortune. The poet is addressing himself after a (593.) 225. fellows: friends. Observe long day's work.

the purpose of the shift, here, in narrative 20. void patience: The patience of standpoint. eternity seems empty or meaningless to his (595.) 305. daughters of old Hesperus: "restless heart” (line 21). — In the pre hence called "Hesperides." Another acceding poem, the patience required by count makes these nymphs the offspring, earthly life seemed irksome (line 16). not of Hesperus (the evening star), but of

Atlas (the mountain in northwest Africa),

and places their garden at his foot. Hera THE GOLDEN APPLES

(Juno) appointed them guardians, together

with the dragon Ladon, of the golden This tale is perhaps not so well known apples which Earth gave her at her maras others in The Earthly Paradise. It riage with Zeus (Jupiter). The story lacks the plot-interest of "Atalanta's rose from the paradisiac yearning that Race”; the force of “The Lovers of belongs to the human heart everywhere, Gudrun”; the weird lure that catches the and that created, indeed, Morris's "Earthly reader in many of the stories; and, above Paradise.” The garden of the Hesperides, all, the theme of love and death which the Greco-Roman Eden, echoed with the chiefly fascinated Morris himself. In his

sweet and happy singing of the maidens handling of that great theme, however, (cf. lines 309-310, etc.). Morris suffers from comparison with pro

346. the straw flare out: i.e., a fire founder poets; whereas his treatment of

in the dry grass. the episode of Hercules and the Golden (596.) 364. his gold fell: See lines 32-34. Apples is finely distinctive. Here, his

372-378. But this I know etc.: Concheery delight in life — too often sub trast the mood of the two preceding poems. merged — has freshest play; and the flow This stanza expresses the firmest faith ing, decorative charm of his style, else that Morris himself attained to. It enwhere cramped by plot-necessities, is given tered into his socialism and his view of right wind and weather by the Auent and poetry. While studying the Icelandic picturesque old sea-god, Nereus.

mythology in preparation for "Sigurd the (589.) 45. Fate fire: In agony from Volsung” and other works, he said: "Think the clinging shirt poisoned with Nessus' of the joy we have in praising great men, blood, he caused himself to be consumed and how we turn their stories over and with fire.

over, and fashion their lives for our joy: (590.) 100. the sweet singer: Arion. When and this also we ourselves may give to the he jumped into the sea, to escape murder world. This seems to me pretty much the at the hands of sailors, he was borne to religion of the Northmen. I think one


In prose

could be a happy man if one could hold it,

THE VOICE OF TOIL in spite of the wild dreams and dreadful imaginings that hung about it here and

13-16. Where fast and faster etc.: there” (see J. W. Mackail's Life of Cf. the last stanza of the "Apology” and William Morris).

opening lines of the "Prologue" of The (596.) 396-397. Ah! craving

Earthly Paradise (page 587). fair: Even if their cold nature had been warmed, at this opportunity, by a yearning for human kindness, etc., such yearning GEORGE MEREDITH (1828-1909) could hardly have increased their great beauty.

Of Welsh descent, Meredith was born (597.) 444. a greater sire: Zeus. — His at Portsmouth and educated in Germany. mother was Alcmena, wife of King Am Having lost the small means that he inherphitryon of Thebes.

ited, he struggled for a time in the law, 451. Eurystheus: Cf. lines 3-4. Her and for some years as a journalist. His cules was “fated” at birth, through an oath first printed work was a poem, his first obtained from Zeus by a stratagem of volume Poems (1851), and he continued to jealous Hera, to be the "thrall” of King write poetry for sixty years. Eurystheus; and it was at this king's bid fiction, his first work was an Oriental fanding that he performed the famous twelve tasy, The Shaving of Shagpat (1856); and labors, one of which was fetching the his first decisive success a significant novel, golden apples.

The Ordeal of Richard Feverel (1859). (598.) 466. women fair: The fifty sea His novels as a whole form a brilliant nymphs called Nereides (Nereids) were social comedy, centering in The Egoist daughters and companions of Nereus. (1879). Behind that comedy, and behind

477. Nereus: Like Proteus, he Meredith's copious wit in his circle of would give true information and aid to friends, there went on a train of solitary anyone who could seize and hold him in meditation that found expression in his spite of his shifting forms. For his timidity, see also line 253 ff. The Mediterra The 1851 volume of poems, containing nean was his realm: Morris finely asso "Love in the Valley” (page 601), was folciates him with its weathers, and its lore lowed, after an interval of eleven years, by (see line 99 ff), while making him pri Modern Love, a sequence of sonnet-like marily a very human old man.

poems (one of which is given on page 481. shifting dale: the roll 608); and then from time to time came ing waves.

other volumes, including Poems and Lyrics (599.) 505. Kinsman: because both were of the Joy of Earth, Ballads and Poems of related to Zeus; cf. line 48.

Tragic Life, A Reading of Earth, A Read523. ness: headland.

ing of Life. These titles themselves indi525. Bedight: bedecked.

cate broadly the texture of his poetry, 545. Not yet: At death (see line 45 which is critical and philosophic in the and the note) Hercules was conveyed to warp, but keenly joyous in the woof. He Olympus and became a god.

is a poet of nature, giving us intimately the 548. There whence I came: refer rolling, wooded landscapes of the South of ring to his divine origin.

England where he spent nearly the whole but

that (following of his life, as Wordsworth gave us the "tell,” line 547).

hills and lakes of the North-but interpreting the external world with a mind

saturated with social and evolutionary LOVE IS ENOUGH

ideas, as Wordsworth had not done. It is

a rather grim, hard-won “Joy' that he (600.) 43. Though shadows: Cf. finds and conveys to us by his faith in "In Memoriam,” cxxiii, lines 5-8 (page “brain," the highest phase of the evolution358).

ary process. In his reading of Earth, there


551. But:

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