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358.

Labour : hours in Utopia 63, cause Law, International : 71, 73, 74,

of value (Locke) 94, connec · 232 n., 317, 321, 322, 386.
tion with property (Locke) 99 | Law and Morality : (Kant) 271,
seq. (cf. 93, 127), individual's (Hegel) 305 seq., (Fichte) 283,
labour helped by society 102, 388-9. See also Justice.
other than physical (Hume) Law: in economics 141 n., 193 seq.,
116, source of wealth (Hume) 212, 344, 387, 390, in physics
117, measure of value (Ad.
Smith) 157, 158, a commodity Laws: due to human imperfec-
(Ad. Smith) 158, productive tion (Plato) 25, bad laws not
and reverse 161, in relation to wholly fatal (Plato) 26, edų.
government (James Mill) 230 cative (Aristotle) 43, not
seq., 386, (J. S. Mill) 254, always indispensable 44,
"attractive” 255 seq., hours divine and natural (Chris-
of labour (J. S. Mill) 264, tianity) 55, natural (Grotius)
labour and property (Kant) 72 seq., of nations (Grotius)
273 seq., labour and food 71, standard of justice
(Fichte) 288 seg., (Hegel) 311 (Hobbes) 79 (but cf. 84),
(cf. 303), (Marx) 341 seq., natural (Locke), 95, 96, laws
(Lassalle) 351 seq., right to and property (Locke) 101,
labour 145, 192, 193.

(Physiocrats) 139 seq., 195,
Labourers : (Plato) 17, 21, (Aris .(Ad. Smith) 170, commercial

totle) 35 seq., living from hand law 190, in view of develop-
to mouth (Locke) 96, not ment 364. See also Nature,
lauded by Physiocrats 139, Jurisprudence, Justice.
as inventors 365, as chief | Leagues : and law of Nature 75.
class in State 368 seq. See LEIBNITZ (G. W.): 86 Note, 352 n.,
also Arts, Division, Produc 359 n.
tion, Wages.

Leisure : (Aristotle) 32, 33, 34,
Laissez-faire : truth in 103, 394, (More) 63, 65, (Hume and

(Physiocrats) 145, 185, (Ad. Locke) 112, right to have
Smith) 175, (Paine and Bent leisure 193 seq., 202, 206, 368,
ham) 188, 189, not a “law” 384.
194 (cf. 258), (Spencer) 196, LESER (Prof. E.): 153 11., 181 Note.
(James Mill) 233 seq., (J. S. LESLIE (Cliffe) : 121 n., 180, 196.
Mill) 257, 258, 263, 264, LETOURNEAU (Prof.Charles): 255 n.
(Hegel) 313

LEWIS (G. C.): 184.
LANGE (F. A.): 265 Note.

Liberty : (Plato) 17, 30, (Hobbes)
Language : origin 155 n., cf. 183, 80, 83, “a necessary of life"

language of trade (Kant) 276. (J. S. Mill) 255 (cf. 263,
Land: balance determining power 394), (Kant) 277, (Fichte

(Harrington) 88, taxes ulti and Krause) 298, (Hegel)
mately resting on land (Locke) 302, 303, 311, (Humboldt)
95, specially treated (James 238. See also Nature.
Mill) 234, (J. S. Mill) 255 List (Friedrich): 133 n., 287 n.
7, not peculiar (Hegel) 303, Livy (Machiavelli): 60.
(Marx) 342. See also Physio- | LOCKE (John): 5, 76, 77, 90,
crats, Nationalizing.

Book II. ch. v. passim, 103,
LASSALLE (Ferdinand): 350 seq., 104, 112 n., 117, 127, 136,
371, 392.

139, 144, 146, 154, 185 seq.,
LAVELEYE (E. de): 265.

199, 254, 269, 273, on gene-
LAW (John): 97 n., 134, 146.

ration 363, 379.

LORIA (Prof. A.): 374 n. MENGER (Prof. Carl): 194 n.,
LORIMER (James) : 30 n., 86, 196 299 n.

Note, 297, 298 n., 389. Mercantile theory : 5, 59, 69, 76,
LOWELL (J. R.): 89.

89 (cf. 103), 118, Book II.
LOWNDES (T.): 96.

ch. vii., 152–3, 162, 246,
LUCRETIUS: 49.

378, 382 seg.
LUTHER : 204.

MERCIER DE LA RIVIÈRE : 134.

Metaphysics : 85, 86, 110, 112,
MABLY (Abbé): 144 n., 346.

119, 147, 269, 279, 300, 337,
MACAULAY (T. B.): 218 n., 227 n., 384, 388.

232, 233 n., 239, 243 n., 261. Method of Political Economy :
MACCULLOCH (J. R.): 246, 258, (J. S. Mill) 241 seq. See also
MACHIAVELLI (N.): 60-62, 65. Abstract Method.
71, 87, 377.

MIASKOWSKY (Prof. A.): 131 n.
Machines: Ad. Smith's similes MICHELET (J.): 239.

151, 175, 183 Note, failure to Middle Classes : 68, 69, 70, 83 n.,
benefit working classes (J. S. 233, 234, 249, 258, 320, 370,
Mill) 257 n., epoch of (Proud 391, (bourgeoisie) 338, 339.
hon) 332, history of—à la Mill(James): Book III. ch. ii. 237,

Darwin (Marx) 364 (cf. 367). 238, 245, 247, 249, 260, 385.
MACKENZIE (J. S.): 373 n. MILL (J. S.): 18 n., 73 n., 86, 161,
MACKINTOSH (James): 232.

*195, 212, 218, 221, 226,
Madmen : (cannot combine) 40. Book III. ch. iii. passim, 270,
MAINE (H. S.): 85 n.

386 seq. .
MALEBRANCHE (N.): 145 Note, MIRABEAU (Marquis de) (the
202, 203.

Elder): 134.
MALTHUS (T. R.): 105, 141 n., Monarchy: (Hegel) 319. See

150, 178, 196, Book III. ch. i. also Absolute Monarchy.
passim, 236, 237, 240 n., 245, Money : (Plato) 18, 22, (Aristotle)
331, 334, 344, 357 seq., 383, 37, (Machiavelli) 60, (More)
393.

62 seq., (Bodin) 69, (Hobbes)
MANDEVILLE (Bernard): 6, 93 n., 82, 83, (Locke) 92 seq., “im-

104, 107 seq., 118, 121, 154, aginary value " 97 n., helps
160, 171, 180, 181, 202, 380, accumulation 101, 103,
384.

(Hume) 118, Mercantile
MARCEŢ (Mrs.): 242 n.

theory 131 seq., (Quesnay)
MARSHALL (Prof. A.): 61 n., 135, 137, (Ad. Smith) 156,
222 n., 299 n.

(J. S. Mill) 239, 258, 263,
MARTELLO (T.) (“ Hiatus "): (Kant) 274 seq., (Fichte) 286,
112 n.

speculative prices 289, 290, (cf.
MARTINEAU (Dr. James): 145 293), (Fichte and More) 290,
Note, 227.

(Hegel) 311, (Proudhon) 333,
Marx (Karl) : 106 n., Book V. ch. (Marx) 337, 341, 342, (Engels)
i. passim and ch. ii., 364, 391 350, (Keary) 365.

Money-making: (Plato) 13, 22,
MASSIE (Joseph): 106 n.

(Aristotle) 38, (Æsthetic
Materialism : Book V. passim, cf. Socialists) 370 seq., 375.
280.

MONTAGUE (Prof. F. C.): 228 n.
Mathematical economics : 224. MONTCHRÉTIEN (A. de): 377.
MAURICE (F. D.): 373 n.

MONTESQUIEU (Charles) : 67 n.,
MELUN : 89 n.

125 n., 126, 134 n., 146, 148,
MENGER (Prof. Anton): 336 n.

231 n., 381.

seq.

Moral Philosophy: (Ad. Smith) its (Fichte) 284 seq., (Krause)

four parts 147 seq. See also 297, 298, natural rights (Hegel)
Ethics.

314, natural laws of Econom-
More (Thomas) : 62 seq., 69, 71, ists (Marx) 338, natural selec-
85, 87, 146, 290, 292, 377.

tion 174, 357 seq., 393, 394.
MORELLET (Abbé): 129 n.

Law of Nature : (Berkeley) 104,
MORELLY : 144.

natural course of things
MORGAN (Lewis): 349, 367.

(Hume) 107, natural laws
MUIRHEAD (J. H.): 361 n.

(Ad. Smith) 172. See also
Mun (Thomas): 130, 146.

Grotius.
Music of the Future, 371.

State of Nature : (Grotius) 75,
Musical Combinations 262 n.

(Hobbes) 79, 378, (Hooker)

75, 76 (cf. 41), (Locke) 99,
Nations, law of: (Grotius) 71 seg. (Hume) 122, (Hegel) 322. See

See also (International) Law. also Book II. ch. ix. passim.
Nationalizing of the land: 142, and Necessaries and luxuries:(Plato) 13,

of capital 257, 368 seq. See 46, 374, (Aristotle) 33, (Epi-
also Land.

curus) 48, (Machiavelli) 60,
Nature: and custom 25, 43, nature (More) 62, 64, (Grotius) 74,

limiting wants 13, natural (Hobbes) 84, (Harrington) 88,
rights 6, 27, natural produc (Locke) 96, (Hume) 107, 116,
tion 37, nature goal not

117, 125, 384, (Mandeville)
starting-point 41, Greek view 107 seq., 384, (Quesnay) 135,
of 42, natural justice (Aris (Ad. Smith) 153, 154, 159,
totle) 43, (Stoics) 49, 50, 162, 170, 171, 172, 383, (God-
(Canon Law) 52, nature pre win) 202, (Malthus) 212, 213,
fers many things to gold and (Fichte) 288 seq., (Hegel) 310,
silver (More) 63, follow nature in view of Development 362,
(Bodin) 68, 69, natural desires 368.
(Locke) 91, eternal law and NETTLESHIP (Lewis): 14 n.
nature of things (ib.) 92 (cf. NICHOLSON (E. B.): 189 n.
98), natural value (ib.) 95,
natural interest (ib.) 96, follow Obligation : perfect and imperfect
nature (ib.) 98, nature and 86, 271.
natural in arguments (Hume) ONCKEN (Dr. August): 134 n.,
123, permanent elements in 169 n., 170 n., 182, 270.
human nature (Hume) 125 Open career: 17, 30, 34. See
(cf. 156), natural right and Nature (natural liberty).
natural order (Physiocrats) Organism and organization (Kant)
137, 140, natural rules of 279.
justice (Ad. Smith) 148, OWEN (Robert) : 115, 210, 329,
natural liberty (ib.) 162, 234 333, 316.
(cf. 96, 383), nature makes
individuals not groups (ib.) PAINE (Thomas): 188, 191, 261.
165, corrected by man (ib.) PALEY (Archdeacon): 105.
170, nature's means (ib.) 170, PALGRAVE (R. H. I.): 40 n., 55 n.,
natural jurisprudence (Ad. 216 n., 218 n.
Smith) 177, 179, nature versus PANTALEONI (M.): 219.
reason (ib.) 177, natural price Papacy as international mediator,
(ib.) 177, natural rights 235, 70.
Nature (J. S. Mill) 249 seq., PARADOL (Prévost) : 30 n.
259, (Kant) 270, 272, 278, | Paraguay : Jesuits in 255, 367.

Parliamentary representation : (J. seq., (Bentham) 225, and pain

S. Mill) 261, 262 (cf. 265 (Locke) 91, (Bentham) 216
Note), (Hegel) 320.

seq., 385, (J. S. Mill) 247,

248, 386, (Kant) 270.
Penal laws : 298 n., 305, 312, 313. | PLECHANOFF (G.): 330 n.
Perfectibility (Fichte) 281, (Hegel) | Political Economy: described 3,

322, (Proudhon) 333. See distinct study 3, 4, 81, 84,
also Condorcet, Godwin.

85, 133, 144, 373, relation to
PERRY (Prof. A. L.): 201 n.

cognate studies 4, 11, modern
Personality: (Stoics) 50, in rela begins with taxation 59, de-

tion to property (Hegel) 303, scribed by Hume 105, con-
to the body (Fichte) 284.

cerned in metaphysical contro-
PESTALOZZI (J. H.): 296.

versy 112, dealing with things
PETTY (William): 146.

"limited in supply” (Jones
Philosophy : described 3, relation etc.) 120, touching philoso-

to economics etc. 4, 137, 147, phy 137, the name P. E. 137,
science of connecting prin branch of philosophy (Ad.
ciples (Ad. Smith) 150, 383, Smith) 149, narrow and wide
systems like machines (ib.) sense 151, 152, including
151, philosophy and sciences theory of population 211, de-
(J. S. Mill) 241.

fined (J. S. Mill) 241 seg.,
Philosophical Radicals : 187, 203. schools of (Marx) 339, con-
Physiocrats : 6, 76, 96, 117, Book cerned with development 355.

II. ch. vii. passim, 150, 151, cf. 362 seg. See also Eco-
152, 154, 160, 161, 184, 187, nomy, Classical Economists.
194, 374, 381 seq.

Population : (Aristotle) 45, (More)
Physiology : 4, 16, 82, 83, 156 n., 65, (Bodin) 68, (Hobbes) 84,

243, 244, 251, 252, 279, 317, English in 17th century 89 n.,
362.

encouragements to (Harring-
Piecework : 162.

ton and Locke) 89, 94, (Berke-
Pitt (Wm., the Younger) :: 149 n., ley) 104, (Mercantile theory)
199, 215.

131, 132, (Physiocrats) 141,
Plagiarisms : 106 n.

142, (Ad. Smith) 158, 171, 172,
PLATO : origin of State 5, econo relation to natural rights 191,

mics Book I. ch. i. passim, (Godwin) 202 (cf. 205), (Con-
two ideals in Republic 12, 14, dorcet) 204, (Malthus) 205
15 n., 17, 18, 28, ideal in seq., (J. S. Mill) 244, 254,
Laws 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 255, 257 n., (Hegel) 314,
(Aristotle on) 33, 43, 45, (Proudhon) 334, (Marx) 344,
heavenly city 50 n., Christian (Darwin) 358, 360, 366.
counterparts to Guardians 52, POSTE (E.): 29 n., 44 n.
53, 54, (cf. 291), P. compared Primogeniture : (Hegel) 319.
with More 62 seq., 67,“ sponte PRIOR (Matthew): 105.
acta85, government 90, 231, Production : (Plato) 11, 14 seg.,
division of labour 95, 101, 155, (Aristotle) 34 seq., (More) 63,
City of Pigs 122, justice 127, (Locke) 93 seq., (Hume) 112
168, 381, philosopher kings seq. (cf. 117 seq.), productive
203, pseudo-temperance 206, class (Physiocrats) 138, (Ad.
pleasures differing in kind 247, Smith) 161, 171, (J. S. Mill)
human wants, 362.

249, 252, (Kant) 274 seq.,
PLAYFAIR (William): 144.

(Fichte) 288, (Proudhon) 331,
Pleasure and desire : (Hume) 110 334, (Marx) 340 seq., for sale

and for use 371 seq. (cf. 351), | Rebellion : (Locke) 100.
391 (cf. 54), feudal 338. Reformation : 367, cf. 329.

Productive labour 25, 136, Religion and citizenship : 51 (see
138, 161, cf. 363.

Christianity), religion and
Profits : (Marx) 343 (cf. 38). See ethics in Adam Smith and
also Interest, Usury.

Kant 182–3, 271, 318.
Proletariate: Book V. 1. 11. passim

Religion, economics and
(cf. 314).

politics : 332, 336, 347, 351,
Property: (Plato) 22, 29, (Aris 364, 367.

totle) 33, 45, (canon law) 52, Renaissance : 55, 377.
53, (More) 64, (Grotius) 73, Rent: (Physiocrats) 138, (Mal-
(Hobbes) 82, (Harrington) 88, thus) 212.
(Locke) 99 seq. (cf. 116), re Revolution accomplished by
lation to value 120, (Hume) Christianity : 52, occasions of
121 seq., 1 26 seq., cf. 369, (Phy it 175. French (see France).
siocrats) 140 seq., (Ad. Smith) Revolutionary socialism : 328 seq.,
157, 158, 178, (Rousseau) 340, Hegel's method revolu.
185, (Godwin) 202, (Bentham) tionary 328, 330, 347, 357,
228, (James Mill) 231, 233, 372.
(J. S. Mill) 239, 254. seq., RICARDO (David) : 74, 81, 196,
(Kant) 273 seq., (Fichte) 284 212, 218, 223, 224 n., 236,
seq., 291, 292, (Hegel) 303 237, 246, 264, 309, 336, 339,
seq., (Proudhon) 332 seq., 344, 345, 385, 387-8, 392.

laws modifiable in future 394. Right: natural right 27 (cf. 78),
Protection : (J. S. Mill) 264, 99, 139, 140, right to live
(Fichte) 287 (cf. 133).

145, 209, Book II. ch. ix.
Protestantism : 71, 372.

passim, 284, notion of right
PROUDHON (P. J.): 330 seq., 391. (Krause) 297, rights of man,
PRYME (George) : 152 n.

6, 50, 97, cf. 368, Declaration
Psychology : 4, 6, (Plato) 28, 29, of Rights 188, (Condorcet)

(Aristotle) 42, (Locke) 91, 204, “ Acquired Rights” (Las-
(Hume) 110 seq., (cf. 120, salle) 351, 352.
137), (Malthus) 212, (Ben RITCHIE (D.): 40, 101 n., 361 n.
tham) 2 21, 225 seq., (James ROBERTSON (Fred.): 170 n.
Mill) 230, (J. S. Mill) 245, RODBERTUS: (Jagetzow) 18 n., 253,
246, (Comte) 244 n., (Hegel) 350.
301, study of motives 374, RÖDER (R. D. A.): 297 n.
380.

Rogers (Thorold): 344.
Public as consumer: 160.

Rome : Municipality 41, notion of
Public spirit as a motive: 107, 174, personality 50, in conflict
206, 254, 262, 311, 320.

with Christianity 51, agra-
PUFENDORF (Samuel): 76, 86 rian laws 60, 125, popes as
Note, 89 n., 223, 271.

international mediators 71 (cf.
PulsZKY (Prof. A.): 361 n., 389 n. 55), church as centralizing

agency 317, 322, 372, Roman
QUESNAY (François): 134 seq., gens 349, testament 350, 352.
151.

ROMANES (G.): 155 n. .

ROSCHER (Prof. Wilhelm): (Bacon)
Race and individual: 277, 278, 388. 67 n., (excise, etc.) 83 n.,
RAE (John): 354 Note.

(Pufendorf) 86, (Mercantile
RAYNAL (Abbé): 145, 209.

theory) 132 n., (Jacob) 242 n.,
READ (Samuel): 350 n.

deductive, 344.

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