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Labour : hours in Utopia 63, cause

of value (Locke) 94, connec-
tion with property (Locke) 99
seq. (cf. 93, 127), individual's
labour helped by society 102,
other than physical (Hume)
116, source of wealth (Hume)
117, measure of value (Ad.
Smith) 157, 158, a commodity
(Ad. Smith) 158, productive
and reverse 161, in relation to
government (James Mill) 230
seq., 386, (J. S. Mill) 254,
“attractive” 255 seg., hours
of labour (J. S. Mill) 264,
labour and property (Kant)
273 seq., labour and food
(Fichte) 288 seq., (Hegel) 311
(cf. 303), (Marx) 341 seq.,
(Lassalle) 351. seq., right to

labour 145, 192, 193.
Labourers : (Plato) 17, 21, (Aris-

totle) 35 seq., living from hand
to mouth (Locke) 96, not
lauded by Physiocrats 139,
as inventors 365, as chief
class in State 368 seg. See
also Arts, Division, Produc-

tion, Wages.
Laissez-faire : truth in 103, 394,

(Physiocrats) 145, 185, (Ad.
Smith) 175, (Paine and Bent-
ham) 188, 189, not a “law”
194 (cf. 258), (Spencer) 196,
(James Mill) 233 seq., (J. S.
Mill) 257, 258, 263, 264,

(Hegel) 313.
LANGE (F. A.): 265 Note.
Language : origin 155 n., cf. 183,

language of trade (Kant) 276.
Land: balance determining power

(Harrington) 88, taxes ulti-
mately resting on land (Locke)
95, specially treated (James
Mill) 234, (J. S. Mill) 255-
7, not peculiar (Hegel) 303,
(Marx) 342. See also Physio-

crats, Nationalizing.
LASSALLE (Ferdinand): 350 seq.,

371, 392.
LAVELEYE (E. de): 265.
Law (John): 97 n., 134, 146.

Law, International: 71, 73, 74,

· 232 n., 317, 321, 322, 386.
Law and Morality : (Kant) 271,

(Hegel) 305 seq., (Fichte) 283,

388-9. See also Justice.
Law: in economics 141 n., 193 seq.,

212, 344, 387, 390, in physics

358.
Laws: due to human imperfec-

tion (Plato) 25, bad laws not
wholly fatal (Plato) 26, edų.
cative (Aristotle) 43, not
always indispensable 44,
divine and natural (Chris-
tianity) 55, natural (Grotius)
72 seq., of nations (Grotius)
71, standard of justice
(Hobbes) 79 (but cf. 84),
natural (Locke), 95, 96, laws
and property (Locke) 101,
(Physiocrats) 139 seq., 195,
.(Ad. Smith) 170, commercial
law 190, in view of develop-
ment 364. See also Nature,

Jurisprudence, Justice.
Leagues : and law of Nature 75.
LEIBNITZ (G. W.): 86 Note, 352 n.,

359 n.
Leisure: (Aristotle) 32, 33, 34,

(More) 63, 65, (Hume and
Locke) 112, right to have
leisure 193 seq., 202, 206, 368,

384.
LESER (Prof. E.): 153 n., 181 Note.
LESLIE (Cliffe) : 121 n., 180, 196.
LETOURNEAU (Prof. Charles): 255 n.
LEWIS (G. C.): 184.
Liberty : (Plato) 17, 30, (Hobbes)

80, 83, “a necessary of life"
(J. S. Mill) 255 (cf. 263,
394), (Kant) 277, (Fichte
and Krause) 298, (Hegel)
302, 303, 311, (Humboldt)

238. See also Nature.
List (Friedrich): 133 n., 287 n.
Livy (Machiavelli): 60.
LOCKE (John): 5, 76, 77, 90,

Book II. ch. v. passim, 103,
104, 112 n., 117, 127, 136,
139, 144, 146, 154, 185 seq.,
199, 254, 269, 273, on gene-
ration 363, 379.

LORIA (Prof. A.): 374 n.
LORIMER (James) : 30 n., 86, 196

Note, 297, 298 n., 389.
LOWELL (J. R.): 89.
LOWNDES (T.): 96.
LUCRETIUS : 49.
LUTHER : 204.

MABLY (Abbé): 144 n., 346.
MACAULAY (T. B.): 218 n., 227 n.,

232, 233 n., 239, 243 n., 261.
MACCULLOCH (J. R.): 246, 258,
MACHIAVELLI (N.): 60-62, 65.

71, 87, 377
Machines : Ad. Smith's similes

151, 175, 183 Note, failure to
benefit working classes (J. S.
Mill) 257 n., epoch of (Proud-
hon) 332, history of—à la

Darwin (Marx) 364 (cf. 367).
MACKENZIE (J. S.): 373 n.
MACKINTOSH (James) : 232.
Madmen : (cannot combine) 40.
MAINE (H. S.): 85 n.
MALEBRANCHE (N.): 145 Note,

202, 203
MALTHUS (T. R.): 105, 141 n.,

150, 178, 196, Book III. ch. i.
passim, 236, 237, 240 n., 245,
331, 334, 344, 357 seq., 383,

393
MANDEVILLE (Bernard): 6, 93 n.,

104, 107 seq., 118, 121, 154,
160, 171, 180, 181, 202, 380,

384.
MARCET (Mrs.): 242 n.
MARSHALL (Prof. A): 61 n.,

222 n., 299 n.
MARTELLO (T.) (“ Hiatus "):

MENGER (Prof. Carl): 194 n.,

299 n.
Mercantile theory : 5, 59, 69, 76,

89 (cf. 103), 118, Book II.
ch. vii., 152-3, 162, 246,

378, 382 seq.
MERCIER DE LA RIVIÈRE: 134.
Metaphysics : 85, 86, 110, 112,

119, 147, 269, 279, 300, 337,

384, 388.
Method of Political Economy :

(J. S. Mill) 241 seq. See also

Abstract Method.
MIASKOWSKY (Prof. A.): 131 n.
MICHELET (J.): 239.
Middle Classes : 68, 69, 70, 83 n.,

233, 234, 249, 258, 320, 370,

391, (bourgeoisie) 338, 339.
Mill(James): Book III. ch. ii. 237,

238, 245, 247, 249, 260, 385.
Mill (J. S.): 18 n., 73 n., 86, 161,

*195, 212, 218, 221, 226,
Book III. ch. iii. passim, 270,

386 seq.
MIRABEAU (Marquis de) (the

Elder): 134
Monarchy: (Hegel) 319. See

also Absolute Monarchy.
Money : (Plato) 18, 22, (Aristotle)

37, (Machiavelli) 60, (More)
62 seq., (Bodin) 69, (Hobbes)
82, 83, (Locke) 92 seq., “im-
aginary value

97 n., helps
accumulation

IOI, 103,
(Hume) 118, Mercantile
theory 131 seq., (Quesnay)
135, 137, (Ad. Smith) 156,
(J. S. Mill) 239, 258, 263,
(Kant) 274 seq., (Fichte) 286,
speculative prices 289, 290, (cf.
293), (Fichte and More) 290,
(Hegel) 311, (Proudhon) 333,
(Marx) 337, 341, 342, (Engels)

350, (Keary) 365.
Money-making : (Plato) 13, 22,

(Aristotle) 38, (Æsthetic

Socialists) 370 seq., 375.
MONTAGUE (Prof. F. C.): 228 n.
MONTCHRÉTIEN (A. de): 377.
MONTESQUIEU (Charles): 67 n.,

125 n., 126, 134 n., 146, 148,
231 n., 381.

II 2 n.

MARTINEAU (Dr. James): 145

Note, 227.
Marx (Karl): 106 n., Book V. ch.

i. passim and ch. ii., 364, 391

seg.
MASSIE (Joseph): 106 n.
Materialism : Book V. passim, cf.

280.
Mathematical economics : 224.
MAURICE (F. D.): 373 n.
MELUN : 89 n.
MENGER (Prof. Anton): 336 n.

course

Moral Philosophy: (Ad. Smith) its (Fichte) 284 seq., (Krause)

four parts 147 seq. See also 297, 298, natural rights (Hegel)
Ethics.

314, natural laws of Econom-
MORE (Thomas): 62 seq., 69, 71, ists (Marx) 338, natural selec-
85, 87, 146, 290, 292, 377.

tion 174, 357 seq., 393, 394.
MORELLET (Abbé) : 129 n.

Law of Nature : (Berkeley) 104,
MORELLY : 144.

natural

of things
MORGAN (Lewis): 349, 367.

(Hume) 107, natural laws
MUIRHEAD (J. H.): 361 n.

(Ad. Smith) 172. See also
MUN (Thomas): 130, 146.

Grotius.
Music of the Future, 371.

State of Nature : (Grotius) 75,
Musical Combinations 262 n.

(Hobbes) 79, 378, (Hooker)

75, 76 (cf. 41), (Locke) 99,
Nations, law of: (Grotius) 71 seq. (Hume) i 22, (Hegel) 322. See

See also (International) Law. also Book II. ch. ix. passim.
Nationalizing of the land: 142, and Necessaries and luxuries:(Plato) 13,

of capital 257, 368 seq. See 46, 374, (Aristotle) 33, (Epi-
also Land.

curus) 48, (Machiavelli) 60,
Nature: and custom 25, 43, nature (More) 62, 64, (Grotius) 74,

limiting wants 13, natural (Hobbes) 84, (Harrington) 88,
rights 6, 27, natural produc- (Locke) 96, (Hume) 107, 116,
tion 37, nature goal not 117, 125, 384, (Mandeville)
starting-point 41, Greek view

107 seq., 384, (Quesnay) 135,
of 42, natural justice (Aris- (Ad, Smith) 153, 154, 159,
totle) 43, (Stoics) 49, 50, 162, 170, 171, 172, 383, (God-
(Canon Law) 52, nature pre- win) 202, (Malthus) 212, 213,
fers many things to gold and (Fichte) 288 seq., (Hegel) 310,
silver (More) 63, follow nature in view of Development 362,
(Bodin) 68, 69, natural desires

368.
(Locke) 91, eternal law and NETTLESHIP (Lewis): 14 n.
nature of things (ib.) 92 (cf. | NICHOLSON (E. B.): 189 n.
98), natural value (ib.) 95,
natural interest (ib.) 96, follow Obligation : perfect and imperfect
nature (ib.) 98, nature and
natural in arguments (Hume) ONCKEN (Dr. August) : 134 n.,
123, permanent elements in

169 n., 170 n., 182, 270.
human nature (Hume) 125 Open career :

17, 30, 34. See
(cf. 156), natural right and Nature (natural liberty).
natural order (Physiocrats) Organism and organization (Kant)
137, 140, natural rules of

279.
justice (Ad. Smith) 148, Owen (Robert) : 115, 210, 329,
natural liberty (ib.) 162, 234

333, 316.
(cf. 96, 383), nature makes
individuals not groups (ib.) Paine (Thomas): 188, 191, 261.
165, corrected by man (ib.) PALEY (Archdeacon) : 105.
170, nature's means (ib.) 170,

PALGRAVE (R. H. I.): 40 n., 55 n.,
natural jurisprudence (Ad. 216 n., 218 n.
Smith) 177, 179, nature versus PANTALEONI (M.): 219.
reason (ib.) 177, natural price Papacy as international mediator,
(ib.) 177, natural rights 235, 70.
Nature (J. S. Mill) 249 seq.,

PARADOL (Prévost) : 30 n.
259, (Kant) 270, 272, 278, Paraguay : Jesuits in 255, 367.

86, 271.

Parliamentary representation : (J. seq., (Bentham) 225, and pain

S. Mill) 261, 262 (cf. 265 (Locke) 91, (Bentham) 216
Note), (Hegel) 320.

seq., 385, (J. S. Mill) 247,
PATTEN (Prof. S. N.): 213 n.

248, 386, (Kant) 270.
Penal laws : 298 n., 305, 312, 313. PLECHANOFF (G.): 330 n.
Perfectibility (Fichte) 281, (Hegel) | Political Economy: described 3,

322, (Proudhon) 333. See distinct study 3, 4, 81, 84,
also Condorcet, Godwin.

85, 133, 144, 373, relation to
PERRY (Prof. A. L.): 201 n.

cognate studies 4, 11, modern
Personality : (Stoics) 50, in rela begins with taxation 59, de-

tion to property (Hegel) 303, scribed by Hume 105, con-
to the body (Fichte) 284.

cerned in metaphysical contro-
PESTALOZZI (J. H.): 296.

versy 112, dealing with things
PETTY (William) : 146.

"limited in supply” (Jones
Philosophy : described 3, relation etc.) 120, touching philoso-

to economics etc. 4, 137, 147, phy 137, the name P. E. 137,
science of connecting prin branch of philosophy (Ad.
ciples (Ad. Smith) 150, 383, Smith) 149, narrow and wide
systems like machines (ib.) sense 151, 152, including
151, philosophy and sciences theory of population 211, de-
(J. S. Mill) 241.

fined (J. S. Mill) 241 seq.,
Philosophical Radicals : 187, 203. schools of (Marx) 339, con-
Physiocrats : 6, 76, 96, 117, Book cerned with development 355.

II. ch. vii. passim, 150, 151, cf. 362 seq. See also Eco-
152, 154, 160, 161, 184, 187, nomy, Classical Economists.
194, 374, 381 seq.

Population : (Aristotle) 45, (More)
Physiology : 4, 16, 82, 83, 156 n., 65, (Bodin) 68, (Hobbes) 84,

243, 244, 251, 252, 279, 317, English in 17th century 89 n.,
362.

encouragements to (Harring-
Piecework : 162.

ton and Locke) 89, 94, (Berke-
Pitt (Wm., the Younger) : 149 n., ley) 104, (Mercantile theory)
199, 215.

131, 132, (Physiocrats) 141,
Plagiarisms : 106 n.

142, (Ad. Smith) 158, 171, 172,
PLATO: origin of State 5, econo relation to natural rights 191,

mics Book I. ch. i. passim, (Godwin) 202 (cf. 205), (Con-
two ideals in Republic 12, 14, dorcet) 204, (Malthus) 205
15 n., 17, 18, 28, ideal in seq., (J. S. Mill) 244, 254,
Laws 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 255, 257 n., (Hegel) 314,
(Aristotle on) 33, 43, 45, (Proudhon) 334, (Marx) 344,
heavenly city 50 n., Christian (Darwin) 358, 360, 366.
counterparts to Guardians 52, | POSTE (E.): 29 n., 44 n.
53, 54, (cf. 291), P. compared Primogeniture : (Hegel) 319.
with More 62 seq., 67, “ sponte PRIOR (Matthew): 105.
acta85, government 90, 231,

Production : (Plato) 11, 14 seq.,
division of labour 95, 101, 155, (Aristotle) 34 seq., (More) 63,
City of Pigs 122, justice 127, (Locke) 93 seq., (Hume) 112
168, 381, philosopher kings seq. (cf. 117 seq.), productive
203, pseudo-temperance 206, class (Physiocrats) 138, (Ad.
pleasures differing in kind 247, Smith) 161, 171, (J. S. Mill)
human wants, 362.

249, 252, (Kant) 274 seq.,
PLAYFAIR (William): 144.

(Fichte) 288, (Proudhon) 331,
Pleasure and desire : (Hume) 110 334, (Marx) 340 seq., for sale

and for use 371 seq. (cf. 351), Rebellion : (Locke) 100.
391 (cf. 54), feudal 338. Reformation : 367, cf. 329.

Productive labour 25, 136, Religion and citizenship: 51 (see
138, 161, cf. 363.

Christianity), religion and
Profits : (Marx) 343 (cf. 38). See ethics in Adam Smith and
also Interest, Usury.

Kant 182–3, 271, 318.
Proletariate: Book V. 1. II. passim

Religion, economics and
(cf. 314).

politics : 332, 336, 347, 351,
Property : (Plato) 22, 29, (Aris- 364, 367.
totle) 33, 45, (canon law) 52,

Renaissance : 55, 377.
53, (More) 64, (Grotius) 73, Rent: (Physiocrats) 138, (Mal-
(Hobbes) 82, (Harrington) 88, thus) 212.
(Locke) 99 seq. (cf. 116), re- Revolution accomplished by
lation to value i20, (Hume) Christianity : 52, occasions of
121 seq., 126 seq., cf. 369, (Phy- it 175. French (see France).
siocrats) 140 seq., (Ad. Smith) | Revolutionary socialism : 328 seq.,
157, 158, 178, (Rousseau)

340, Hegel's method revolu.
185, (Godwin) 202, (Bentham) tionary 328, 33°, 347, 357,
228, (James Mill) 231, 233, 372.
(J. S. Mill) 239, 254. seq.,

RICARDO (David) : 74, 81, 196,
(Kant) 273 seq., (Fichte) 284 212, 218, 223, 224 n., 236,
seq., 291, 292, (Hegel) 303 237, 246, 264, 309, 336, 339,
seq., (Proudhon) 332 seq., 344, 345, 385, 387-8, 392.

laws modifiable in future 394. Right : natural right 27 (cf. 78),
Protection : (J. S. Mill) 264, 99, 139, 140, right to live
(Fichte) 287 (cf. 133).

145, 209, Book II. ch. ix.
Protestantism : 71, 372.

passim, 284, notion of right
PROUDHON (P. J.): 330 seq., 391. (Krause) 297, rights of man,
PRYME (George) : 152 n.

6, 50, 97, cf. 368, Declaration
Psychology: 4, 6, (Plato) 28, 29, of Rights 188, (Condorcet)

(Aristotle) 42, (Locke) 91, 204, "Acquired Rights" (Las-
(Hume) 110 seq., (cf. 120, salle) 351, 352.
137), (Malthus) 212, (Ben- RITCHIE (D.): 40, 101 n., 361 n.
tham) 22 I, 225 seq., (James ROBERTSON (Fred.): 170 n.
Mill) 230, (J. S. Mill) 245, RODBERTUS: (Jagetzow) 18 n., 253,
246, (Comte) 244 n., (Hegel) 350.
301, study of motives 374, RÖDER (R. D. A.): 297 n.
380.

ROGERS (Thorold): 344.
Public as consumer : 160.

Rome : Municipality 41, notion of
Public spirit as a motive : 107, 174, personality 50, in conflict
206, 254, 262, 311, 320.

with Christianity 51, agra-
PUFENDORF (Samuel): 76, 86 rian laws 60, 125, popes as
Note, 89 n., 223, 271.

international mediators 71 (cf.
Pulszky (Prof. A.): 361 n., 389 n. 55), church as centralizing

agency 317, 322, 372, Roman
QUESNAY (François): 134 seq., gens 349, testament 350, 352.
151.

ROMANES (G.): 155 n.

RoscHER (Prof. Wilhelm): (Bacon)
Race and individual: 277, 278, 388. 67 n., (excise, etc.) 83 n.,
RAE (John): 354 Note.

(Pufendorf) 86, (Mercantile
RAYNAL (Abbé): 145, 209.

theory) 132 n., (Jacob) 242 n.,
READ (Samuel): 350 n.

deductive, 344.

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