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in his original. One poem that he mentions is lacking in the Poetic Edda as we know it: Heimdallargaldr, the Song or Incarnation of Heimdallr; moreover, he makes seventeen citations from other poems which, although lost to us, evidently formed portions of the original Eddie collections, or belonged to the same traditional stock. The disappearance of the manuscript which Snorri used is a great loss.

The first translation of the Prose Edda was published at Copenhagen in 1665, when the complete text appeared, with Latin and Danish interpretation. This was entitled Edda hlandorum an. Chr. 1215 islandice conscripta per Snorronem Sturlts, nunc primum islandice, danice, et latine ex antiquis codicibus in lucem prodit opera P. "J. Resenii. The standard Danish translation is that of R. Nyerup, Copenhagen, 1865. In 1746, J. Goransson printed at Upsala the first Swedish version, with a Latin translation. Goransson's original was the Codex Upsaliensis. Anders Uppstrom made an independent translation in 1859.

In 1755—5 6 there appeared at Copenhagen a work of the greatest importance for the study of Scandinavian antiquities in England: Mallet's Monumens de la Mythologie et de la Poesie des Celtes et Particulierement des Anciens Scandinaves. This book, which comprised a general introduction on the ancient Scandinavian civilization, a translation of Gylfaginning, and a synopsis of Skaldskaparmal and Hattatal, was turned into English by Bishop Eexcjju.under. the, title of NortAernAnticjuities. Percy claimed to know Goransson's text as well as the French. Northern Antiquities was published at London in 1770, and was reprinted at Edinburgh in 1809, with additions by Sir Walter Scott.

The best-known translation, and the only complete one which is at all trustworthy, is that in Latin, combined,with the Icelandic text, in the Arnamagnaean edition, Copenhagen, 1848-87. which forms volume xli of the hlendinga Sogur, published at Reykjavik.

In 1842, G.W. Dasent, the translator of Njals Saga, and a prominent scholar in the Scandinavian field, printed at Stockholm his Prose or Younger Edda, which contains a translation of Gylfaginning and of the narrative passages of Skdldskaparmal. A similarly incomplete English version was printed at Chicago, in 1880, by Rasmus B. Anderson. Professor Anderson also edited a combined translation of both Eddas, the Poetic Edda by Benjamin Thorpe, and the Prose Edda by I. A. Blackwell. Blackwell's translation, which stops with Bragansdur, had first appeared at London in 1847, together with an abstract of Eyrbyggja Saga by Scott. Samuel Laing's translation is likewise incomplete.

A French version of Gylfaginning, La Fascination de Gulfi, was published at Strassburg by F. G. Bergmann. A second edition appeared in 1871.

So far as I can ascertain, the first translation into German was the work of Friedrich Riihs, Berlin, 1812. This contains a long historical introduction, and ends with the story of the Volsungs in Skaldskaparmal. Karl Simrock's DieyiingereEdda, published in 1851 and reprinted in 1855, although incomplete, is more accurate than any earlier translation, and is remarkable for its literary excellence. The most scholarly rendering into German is by Hugo Gering, Leipzig, 1892, but unfortunately it includes only the narrative portions of the book.

Until 1900, the best edition of Snorri's Edda was by Thorleifr Jonsson, Copenhagen, 1875. This was superseded by Finnur Jonsson's splendid Danish edition. In 1907, Professor Jonsson produced an Icelandic edition,

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It was fortunate for me that these last two editions appeared before I began my work. Professor Jonsson provided me with an excellent text; and, second in value only to this, with an index and an invaluable Icelandic prose re-phrasing of the skaldic verses.

I regret exceedingly that the highly technical nature of Hattatal forbids translation into English. There are, to be sure, more or less—usually less—accurate translations into Scandinavian and into Latin. Even in the excellent Arnamagnaean edition, many of the glosses are purely conjectural; and any attempt to convey into English a vocabulary which has no equivalent in our language must fail. ]§&aldskaparmal, however, is here presented, complete, for the first time in English^

To those who have helped me I wish to express my deepest appreciation. First of all, to Professor William Henry Schofield I owe a debt of gratitude which is more than four years old, and has increased beyond computation. Dr. Henry Goddard Leach, my first instructor in Scandinavian literature, gave me my greatest single intellectual stimulus, and thereby determined the current of my work. Dr. Frederick W. Lieder, of Harvard University, deserves my thanks for his devoted assistance in reading proof, a task as dreary as it is essential. I am also indebted for valuable suggestions to Mr. H. W. Rabe, of Simmons College.

It i^ a great satisfaction to acknowledge these debts, incurred in the course of a labor which has been my delight for several years. I should, however, do injustice to those who have aided me, as well as to myself, if I did not assume full responsibility for the faults of the translation. Whatever these may be, I trust that the book may perform some service in bringing before the Englishreading public a greater portion of Snorri's classic treatise than has previously been accessible. The reader will perceive the value of the Edda if he will compare it, for legendary and antiquarian interest, with the Mabinogion, and will also realize that the Edda is a masterpiece of style, —style that no translator can ever reproduce.

A. G. B.

Cambridge, Massachusetts
July 1, 1916


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