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them into a certain cave. Thereupon they took three flat stones, and set them on edge and drilled a hole in each stone. Then were taken Loki's sons, Vali and Nari or Narfi; the iEsir changed Vali into the form of a wolf, and he tore asunder Narfi his brother. And the iEsir took his entrails and bound Loki with them over the three stones: one stands under his shoulders, the second under his loins, the third under his houghs; and those bonds were turned to iron. Then Skadi took a venomous serpent and fastened it up over him, so that the venom should drip from the serpent into his face. But Sigyn, his wife, stands near him and holds a basin under the venom-drops; and when the basin is full, she goes and pours out the venom, but in the meantime the venom drips into his face. Then he writhes against it with such force that all the earth trembles: ye call that 'earthquakes.' There he lies in bonds till the WeTrToTthe Gods." ,

LI. Then said Gangleri: "What tidings are to be told concerning the Weird of the Gods? Never before have I heard aught said of this." Harry answered: "Great tidings are to be told of it, and much. The first is this, that there shall come that winter which is called the Awful Winter.*" in that time snow shall drive from all quarters; frosts shall be great then, and winds sharp; there shall be no virtue in the sun. Those winters shall proceed three in succession, V and no summer between; but first shall come three other winters, such that over all the world there shall be mighty # battles. In that time brothers shall slay each other for greed's sake, and none shall spare father or son in manslaughter and in incest; so it says in Vbluspa:

Brothers shall strive and slaughter each other;

Own sisters' children shall sin together;

111 days among men, many a whoredom:

An axe-age, a sword-age, shields shall be cloven;

A wind-age, a wolf-age, ere the world totters.

Then shall happen what seems great tidings: the Wolf shall swallow the sun; and this shall seem to men a great harm. Then the other wolf shall seize the moon, and he also shall work great ruin; the stars shall vanish from the heavens. Then shall come to pass these tidings also: all the earth shall tremble so, and the crags, that trees shall be torn up from the earth, and the crags fall to ruin; and all fetters and bonds shall be broken and rent. Then shall Fenris-Wolf get loose; then the sea shall gush forth upon the land, because the Midgard Serpent stirs in giant wrath and advances up onto the land. Then that too shall happen, that Naglfar shall be loosened, the ship which is so named. (It is made of dead men's nails; wherefore a warning is desirable, that if a man die with unshorn nails, that man adds much material to the ship Naglfar, which gods and men were fain to have finished late.) Yet in this seaflood Naglfar shall float. Hrymr is the name of the giant who steers Naglfar. Fenris-Wolf shall advance with gaping mouth, and his lower jaw shall be against the earth, but the upper against heaven,—he would gape yet more if there were room for it; fires blaze from his eyes and nostrils. The Midgard Serpent shall blow venom so that he shall sprinkle all the air and water; and he is very terrible, and shall be on one side of the Wolf. In this din shall the heaven be cloven,and the Sons of Muspell ride thence: Surtr shall ride first, and both before him and after him burning fire; his sword is exceeding good: from it radiance shines brighter than from the sun; when they ride over Bifrost, then the bridge shall break, as has been told before. The Sons of Muspell shall go forth to that field which is called Vigridr; thither shall come Fenris-Wolf also and the Midgard Serpent; then Loki and Hrymr shall come there also, and with him all the Rime-Giants. All the champions of Hel follow Loki; and the Sons of Muspell shall have a company by themselves, and it shall be very bright. The field Vigridr is a hundred leagues wide each way.

"When these tidings come to pass, then shall Heimdallr rise up and blow mightily in the Gjallar-Horn, and awaken all the gods; and they shall hold council together. Then Odin shall ride to Mimir's Well and take counsel of Mimir for himself and his host. Then the Ash of Yggdrasill shall tremble, and nothing then shall be without fear in heaven or in earth. Then shall the iEsir put on their war-weeds, and all the- Champions, and advance to the field: Odin rides first with the gold helmet and a fair birnie, and his spear, which is called Gungnir. He shall go forth against Fenris-Wolf,and Thor stands forward on his other side, and can be of no avail to him, because he shall have his hands full to fight against the Midgard Serpent. Freyr shall contend with Surtr, and a hard encounter shall there be between them before Freyr falls: it is to be his death • that he lacks that good sword of his, which he gave to Skirnir. Then shall the dog Garmr be loosed, which is bound before Gnipa's Cave: he is the greatest monster; he shall do battle with Tyr, and each become the other's slayer. Thor shall put to death the Midgard Serpent, and shall stride away nine paces from that spot; then shall he fall dead to the earth, because of the venom which the

Snake has blown at him. The Wolf shall swallow Odin; that shall be his ending But straight thereafter shall Vidarr stride forth and set one foot upon the lower jaw of the Wolf: on that foot he has the shoe, materials for which have been gathering throughout all time. (They are the scraps of leather which men cut out of their shoes at toe or heel; therefore he who desires in his heart to come to the iEsir's help should cast those scraps away.) With one hand he shall seize the Wolf's upper jaw and tear his gullet asunder; and that is the death of the Wolf. Loki shall have battle with Heimdallr, and each be the slayer of the other. Then straightway shall Surtr cast fire over the earth and burn all the world; so is said in Voluspa:

High blows Heimdallr, the horn is aloft;
Odin communes with Mimir's head;
Trembles Yggdrasill's towering Ash;
The old tree wails when the Ettin is loosed.

What of the iEsir? What of the Elf-folk?
All Jotunheim echoes, the iEsir are at council;
The dwarves are groaning before their stone doors,
Wise in rock-walls; wit ye yet, or what?

Hrymr sails from the east, the sea floods onward;
The monstrous Beast twists in mighty wrath;
The Snake beats the waves, the Eagle is screaming;
The gold-neb tears corpses, Naglfar is loosed.

From the east sails the keel; come now Muspell's folk
Over the sea-waves, and Loki steereth;
There are the warlocks all with the Wolf,—
With them is the brother of Byleistr faring.

Surtr fares from southward with switch-eating flame;
On his sword shimmers the sun of the war-gods;
The rocks are falling, and fiends are reeling,
Heroes tread Hel-way, heaven is cloven.

Then to the Goddess a second grief cometh,
When Odin fares to fight with the Wolf,
And Beli's slayer, the bright god, with Surtr;
There must fall Erigg's beloved.

Odin's son goeth to strife with the Wolf,—
Vidarr, speeding to meet the slaughter-beast;
The sword in his hand to the heart he thrusteth
Of the fiend's offspring; avenged is his Father.

Now goeth Hlodyn's glorious son
Not in flight from the Serpent, of fear unheeding;
All the earth's offspring must empty the homesteads,
When furiously smiteth Midgard's defender.

The sun shall be darkened, earth sinks in the sea,—
Glide from the heaven the glittering stars;
Smoke-reek rages and reddening fire:
The high heat licks against heaven itself.

And here it says yet so:

Vigridr hight the field where in fight shall meet

Surtr and the cherished gods;
An hundred leagues it has on each side:

Unto them that field is fated."

LII. Then said Gangleri: "What shall come to pass

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