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answered: "It is said that another heaven is to the southward and upward of this one, and it is called Andlangr;1 but the third heaven is yet above that, and it is called Vidblainn,2 and in that heaven we think this abode is. But we believe that none but Light-Elves inhabit these mansions now."

XVIII. Then said Gangleri:" Whence comes the wind? It is strong, so that it stirs great seas, and it swells fire; but, strong as it is, none may see it, for it is wonderfully shapen." Then said Harry: "That I am well able to tell thee. At the northward end of heaven sits the giant called Hrssvelgr: he has the plumes of an eagle, and when he stretches his wings for flight, then the wind rises from under his wings, as is here said:

Hraesvelgr hight he who sits at heaven's ending,

Giant in eagle's coat;
From his wings, they say, the wind cometh

All men-folk over."

XIX. Then said Gangleri: " Why is there so much difference, that summer should be hot, but winter cold?" Harr answered: "A wise man woulcj not ask thus, seeing that all are able to tell this; but if thou alone art become so slight of understanding as not to have heard it, then I will yet permit that thou shouldst rather ask foolishly once, than that thou shouldst be kept longer in ignorance of a thing which it is proper to know. He is called SwSudr1 who is father of Summer; and he is of pleasant nature, so that from his name whatsoever is pleasant is called 'sweet.' But the father of Winter is variously called Vindljoni' or Vindsvalr;2 he is the son of Vasadr;3 and these were kinsmen grim and chilly-breasted, and Winter has their temper."

1 Wide-reaching, extensive. 2 Wide-blue. 3 Delightful.

XX. Then said Gangleri: "Who are the iEsir^theyijn

whom it behoves men^to believe? Harry answered: "The divine JEs'n are twelve."(Then said Jafnharr: "Not less holy are the Asynjur, the goddesses, and they are of no less authority." Then said Thridi: >tt3din is highest and eld£St_£>f the_iEsir; J}e rules all things^.and jnighty as aJ£_£!?!LS,J^er-€9ds> they. all serve.hjr&jis children obey a father. FjriggJ&Jlis- wife, and she knows all the fatesof fnen^-tfebugh she speaks no prophecy,—as is said here, when Odin hTmseTrspake with him of the jEsir whom men call Loki:

Thou art mad now, Loki, and reft of mind,—
Why, Loki, leav'st thou not off?

Frigg, methinks, is wise in all fates,
Though herself say them not!

Odin is called Allfather because he is father of all the gods. He is also called Father of the Slain, because all those that fall in battle are the sons of his adoption; for them he appoints Valhall4 and Vingolf,5 and they are then called Champions. He is also called God of the Hanged, God of Gods, God of Cargoes; and he has also been named in many more ways, after he had come to King Geirrodr: We were called Grimr and Gangleri,

'Wind-bringer r (Simrock). 2 Wind-chill.

'Wet and sleety (Cl.-Vig.). < Hall of the Slain.

* Friendly Floor.

Herjann, Hjalmberi;
Thekkr, Thridi, Thudr, Udr,

Helblindi, Harr.

Sadr, Svipall, Sann-getall,

Herteitr, Hnikarr;
Bileygr, Baleygr, Bolverkr, Fjolnir,

Grimnir, Glapsvidr, Fjolsvidr.

Sidhottr, Sidskeggr, Sigfodr, Hnikudr,

Alfodr, Atridr, Farmatyr;
Oski, Omi, Jafnharr, Biflindi,

Gondlir, Harbardr.

Svidurr, Svidrir, Jalkr, Kjalarr, Vidurr,

Thror, Yggr, Thundr;
Vakr, Skilfingr, Vafudr, Hroptatyr,

Gautr, Veratyr."

Then said Gangleri: "Exceeding many names have ye given him; and, by my faith, it must indeed be a goodly wit that knows all the lore and the examples of what chances have brought about each of these names." Then Harry made answer: "It is truly a vast sum of knowledge to gather1 together and set forth fittingly. But it is briefest to tell thee that most of his names have been given him by reason of this chance: there being so many branches of tongues in the world, all peoples believed that it was needful for them to turn his name into their own tongue, by which they might the better invoke him and entreat him on their own behalf. But some occasions for these names arose in his wanderings; and that matter is recorded in tales. Nor canst thou ever be called a wise man if thou shalt not be able to tell of those great events."

1 Literally, to rake into rows.

XXI. Then said Gangleri: "What are the names of the other iEsir, or what is their office, or what deeds of renown have they done?" Harry answered: "Thor is the foremost of them, he that is called Thor of the iEsir, or Oku-TKoF;' he is strongest of all the gods and men. He has his realm in the place called Thrudvangar,'and his hall is called Bilskirnir;2 in that hall are five hundred rooms and forty. That is the greatest house that men know of; it is thus said in Grimnismal:

Five hundred floors and more than forty,

So reckon I Bilskirnir with bending ways;

Of those houses that I know of hall-roofed,
My son's I know the most.

Thor has two he-goats, that are called Tooth-Gnasher and Tooth-Gritter,and a chariot wherein he drives, and the hegoats draw the chariot; therefore is he called Oku-Thor.3 He has also three things of great price: one is the hammer Mjollnir, which the Rime-Giants and the Hill-Giants know, when it is raised on high; and that is no wonder,— it has bruised many a skull among their fathers or their kinsmen. He has a second costly things/best of all: the girdle of might; and when he clasps it about him, then the godlike strength within him is increased by half. Yet a third thing he has,in which there is much virtue: his iron gloves; he cannot do without them when he uses his hammer-shaft. But no one is so wise that he can tell all his mighty works; yet I can tell thee so much tidings of him that the hours would be spent before all that I know were told."

1 Plains of strength. * From the flashing of light (craving.).

'According to Cleasby-Vigfiisson, a popular etymology." Oku is not to be derived from aka (to drive), but is rather of Finnish origin, Ukko being the Thunder-god of the Chudic tribes." Jonsson, however, allows Snorri's etymology to stand.

XXII. Then said Gangleri: "I would ask tidings of more iEsir." Harry replied: "The second son of Odin is Baldr,_ and good things are to be said of him. He is best, and all praise him; he is so fair of feature, and so bright, that light shines from him. A certain herb is so white that it is likened to Baldr's brow; of all grasses it is whitest, and by it thou mayest judge his fairness, both in hair and in body. He is the wisest of the iEsir, and the fairest-spoken and most gracious; and that quality attends him, that none may gainsay his judgments. He dwells in the place called Breidablik,1 which is in heaven; in that place may nothing unclean ba^even as is said here:

Breidablik 't is called, where Baldr has

A hall made for himself:
In that land where I know lie

Fewest baneful runes.

XXIII. "The third among the iEsir is he that is called .Njordr: he dwells in heaven, in the abode called Noatun.

He rules the course of the wind, and stills sea and fire; on him shall men call for voyages and for hunting. He is so

1 Broad-gleaming.

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