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And these proceed from Svarinshaugr to Aurvangar on Joruplain, and thence is Lovarr come; these are their names:

Skirfir, Virfir Skafidr, Ai,

Alfr, Yngvi, Eikinskjaldi,

Fair, Frosti, Fidr, Ginnarr."

XV. Then said Gangleri: "Where is the chief abode or
holy place of the gods?" Harr answered: "That is at the
Ash of Yggdrasill; there the gods must give judgment
every day." Then Gangleri asked:" What is to be said cont
cerning that place? "Then said Jafnharr: "The Ash is )(
greatest of all trees and best: its limbs spread out over all
the world and stand above heaven. Three roots of the tree
uphold it and stand exceeding broad: one is among the
iEsir; another among the Rime-Giants,in thayilace where
aforetime was the Yawning Void; the thirSftands over*
Niflheim, and under that root is H vergelmir, and Nidhoggr
gnaws the root from below. But under that root which
turns toward the Rime-Giants is Mimir's Well, wherein
wisdom and understanding are stored; and he is called
Mimir, who keeps the well. He is full of ancient lore, since
he drinks of the well from the Gjallar-Horn. Thither came
Allfather and craved one drink of the well; but he got it
not until he had laid his eye in pledge. So says Voluspa:

All know I, Odin, where the eye thou hiddest,
In the wide-renowned well of Mimir;
Mimir drinks mead every morning
From Valfather's wage. Wit ye yet, or what?

The third root of the Ash stands in heaven; and under

that root is the well which is very holy, that is called the Well of Urdr; there the gods hold their tribunal. Each day the iEsir ride thither up over Bi frost, which is also called the jEsir's Bridge. These are the names of the iEsir's , steeds: Sleipnir' is best, which Odin has ; he has eight feet. The second is Gladr,2 the third Gyllir,3 the fourth Glenr,4 the fifth Skeidbrimir,s the sixth Silfrintoppr,6 the seventh Sinir,7 the eighth Gisl,* the ninth Falhofnir,9 the tenth Gulltoppr,10 the eleventh Lettfeti." Baldr's horse was burnt with him; and Thor walks to the judgment, and wades those rivers which are called thus:

I Kormt and Ormt and the Kerlaugs twain,

* Them shall Thor wade

I Every day when he goes to doom

At Ash Yggdrasill;
For tlMtesir's Bridge burns all with flame,
^^ And the holy waters howl."

Then said Gangleri: " Does fire burn over Bifrost?" Harry
replied: "That which thou seest to be red in the bow is
burning fire; the Hill-Giants might go up to heaven, if pas-
sage on Bifrost were open to all those who would cross.
There are many fair places in heaven, and over everything
there a godlike watch is kept. A hall stands there^ fair,
under the ash by the well, and out of that hall come three
maids, who are called thus: Urdr,12 Verdandi," Skuld ;"these
maids determine the period of men's lives: we call them

1 The Slipper. 2 Bright or Glad. 3 Golden. 4 The Starer.

5 Fleet Courser. 6 Silver-top. 7 Sinewy. 8 Beam, Ray.

9 Hairy-hoof. ,0 Gold-top. "Light-stepper. » Past.

13 Present. M Future.

Norns; but there are many norns: those who come to each child that is born, to appoint his life; these are of the race of the gods, but the second are of the Elf-people, and the third are of the kindred of the dwarves, as it is said here:

Most sundered in birth I say the Norns are;

They claim no common kin:
Some are of iEsir-kin, some are of Elf-kind,

Some are Dvalinn's daughters."

Then said Gangleri: "If the Norns determine the weirds of men, then they apportion exceeding unevenly, seeing that some have a pleasant and luxurious life, but others have little worldly goods or fame; some have long life, others short." Harr said: " Good norns and of honorable race appoint good life; but those men that suffer evil fortunes are governed by evil norns."

XVI. Then said Gangleri: "What more mighty wonders are to be told of the Ash?" Harr replied: "Much is to be told of it. An eagle sits in the limbs of the Ash, and he has understanding of many a thing; and between his eyes sits the hawk that is called Vedrfolnir. The squirrel called Ratatoskr runs up and down the length of the Ash, bearing envious words between the eagle and Nidhoggr; and four harts run in the limbs of the Ash and bite the leaves. They are called thus: Damn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr, Durathrow. Moreover, so many serpents are in Hvergelmir with Nidhoggr, that no tongue can tell them, as is here said:

Ash Yggdrasill suffers anguish,
More than men know of:

The stag bites above; on the side it rotteth,
And Nidhoggr gnaws from below.

And it is further said:

More serpents lie under Yggdrasill's stock
Than every unwise ape can think:

Goinn and Moinn (they 're Grafvitnir's sons),
Grabakr and Grafvolludr;

Ofnir and Svafnir I think shall aye
Tear the trunk's twigs.

It is further said that these Norns who dwell by the Well of Urdr take water of the well every day, and with it that clay which lies about the well, and sprinkle it over the Ash, to the end that its limbs shall not wither nor rot; for that water is so holy that all things which come there into the well become as white as the film which lies within the egg-shell,—as is here said:

I know an Ash standing called Yggdrasill,
A high tree sprinkled with snow-white clay;
Thence come the dews in the dale that fall—
It stands ever green above Urdr's Well.

That dew which falls from it onto the earth is called by men honey-dew, and thereon are bees nourished. Two fowls are fed in Urdr's Well: they are called Swans, and from those fowls has come the race of birds which is so called."

XVII. Then said Gangleri: "Thou knowest many tidings to tell of the heaven. What chief abodes are there more than at Urdr's Well?" Harr said: "Many places are there,

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and glorious. That which is called Alfheimr1 is one, where
dwell the peoples called Light-Elves; but the Dark-Elves
dwell down in the earth, and they are unlike in appearance,
but by far more unlike in nature.The Light-Elves are fairer
to look upon than the sun, but the Dark-Elves are blacker
than pitch. Then there is also in that place the abode called
Breidablik,2 and there is not in heaven a fairer dwelling.
There, too, is the one called Glitnir,3 whose walls, and all
its posts and pillars, are of red gold, but its roof of silver, N,
There is also the abode called Himinbjorg;4 it stands at
heaven's end by the bridge-head, in the place where Bifrost
joins heaven. Another great abode is there, which is named
Valaskjalf;5 Odin possesses that dwelling; the gods made
it and thatched it with sheer silver, and in this hall is the
Hlidskjalf,6 the high-seat so called. Whenever Allfather
sits in that seat, he surveys all lands. At the southern end
of heaven is that hall which is fairest of all, and brighter
than the sun; it is called Gimle/ It shall stand when both
heaven and earth have departed; and good men and of
righteous conversation shall dwell therein: so it is said in
Voluspa:

A hall I know standing than the sun fairer,
Thatched with gold in Gimle bright;
There shall dwell the doers of righteousness
And ever and ever enjoy delight."

Then said Gangleri: "What shall guard this place, when
the flame of Surtrshall consume heaven and earth?" Harr

1 Elf-home. 'Broad-gleaming. * Glittering.

4 Heaven-crag. 5 Seat or shelf of the Fallen. 6 Gate-seat.

7 Either dative of Himill = Heaven (f) (Cl.-Vig.), or Gem-decked (Bugge).

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