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come to pass both on earth and aloft. There is one abode called Hlidskjalf, and when Allfather sat in the high-seat there, he looked out over the whole world and saw every man's acts, and knew all things which he saw. His wife was called Frigg daughter of Fjorgvinn; and of their blood is come that kindred which we call the races of the iEsir, that have peopled the Elder Asgard, and those kingdoms which pertain to it; and that is a divine race. For this reason must he be called Allfather: because he is father of all the gods and of men, and of all that was fulfilled of him and of his might. The Earth was his daughter and his wife; on her he begot the first son, which is Asa-Thor: strength and prowess attend him, wherewith he overcometh all living things.

X. "Norfi or Narfi is the name of a giant that dwelt in Jotunheim: he had a daughter called Night; she was swarthy and dark, as befitted her race. She was given to the man named Naglfari; their son was Audr. Afterward she was wedded to him that was called Annarr; Jord' was their daughter. Last of all Dayspring had her, and he was of the race of the iEsir; their son was Day: he was radiant and fair after his father. Then Allfather took Night, and Day her son, and gave to them two horses and two chariots, and sent them up into the heavens, to ride round about the f earth every two half-days. Night rides before with the horse named Frosty-Mane, and on each morning he bedews the earth with the foam from his bit. The horse that Day has is called Sheen-Mane, and he illumines all the air and the earth from his mane."

1 Earth.

XI. Then said Gangleri: " How does he govern the course of the sun or of the moon?" Harry answered: "A certain man was named Mundilfari, who had two children; they were so fair and comely that he called his son Moon, and his daughter Sun, and wedded her to the man called Glenr. But the gods were incensed at that insolence, and took the brother and sister, and set them up in the heavens; they caused Sun to drive those horses that drew the chariot of the sun, which the gods had fashioned, for the world's illumination, from that glowing stuff which flew out of Miispellheim. Those horses are called thus: Early-Wake and All-Strong; and under the shoulders of the horses the gods set two wind-bags to cool them, but in some records that is called 'iron-coolness.' Moon steers the course of the moon, and determines its waxing and waning. He took from the earth two children,called Bil and Hjuki, they that went from the well called Byrgir, bearing on their shoulders the cask called Saegr, and the pole Simul. Their father is namedVidfinnr. These children follow Moon, as may be seen from the earth."

XII. Then said Gangleri: "The sun fares swiftly, and almost as if she were afraid: she could not hasten her course any the more if she feared her destruction." Then Harry made answer: "It is no marvel that she hastens furiously: close cometh he that seeks her, and she has no escape save to run away." Then said Gangleri: "Who is he that causes her this disquiet?" Harry replied: "It is two wolves; and he that runs after her is called Skoll; she fears him, and he shall take her. But he that leaps before her is called Hati Hrodvitnisson. He is eager to seize the moon; and so it must be." Then said Gangleri: "What is the race of the wolves?" Harry answered: "A witch dwells to the east of Midgard, in the forest called Ironwood: in that wood dwell the troll-women, who are known as Ironwood-Women. The old witch bears many giants for sons, and all in the shape of wolves; and from this source are these wolves sprung. The saying runs thus: from this race shall come one that shall be mightiest of all, he that is named MoonHound; he shall be filled with the flesh of all those men that die, and he shall swallow the moon, and sprinkle with blood the heavens and all the air; thereof shall the sun lose her shining, and the winds in that day shall be unquiet and roar on every side. So it says in Viluspa:

Eastward dwells the Old One in Ironwood,
And there gives birth to Fenrir's brethren;
There shall spring of them all a certain one,
The moon's taker in troll's likeness.

He is filled with flesh of fey men.

Reddens the gods' seats with ruddy blood-gouts;

Swart becomes sunshine in summers after,

The weather all shifty. Wit ye yet, or what?"

XIII. Then said Gangleri: "What is the way to heaven from earth?" Then Harr answered, and laughed aloud: "Now, that is not wisely asked; has it not been told thee, that the gods made a bridge from earth to heaven, called Bifrost? Thou must have seen it; it may be that ye call it 'rainbow.' It is of three colors, and very strong, and made with cunning and with more magic art than other works of craftsmanship. But strong as it is, yet must it be broken, when the sons of Muspell shall go forth harrying '35

and ride it, and swim their horses over great rivers; thus

they shall proceed." Then said Gangleri: "To my think- J ") ing the gods did not build the bridge honestly, seeing that it could be broken, and they able to make it as they would." Then Harry replied: "Thegods are not deserving of reproof because of this work of skill: a good bridge is Bifrost, but nothing in this world is of such nature that it may be relied on when the sons of Miispell go a-harrying."

XIV. Then said Gangleri: "What did Allfather then do when Asgard was made?" Harry answered: "In the beginning he established rulers, and bade them ordain fates with him, and give counsel concerning the planning of the town; that was in the place which is called Ida-field, in the midst of the town. It was their first work to make that court in which their twelve seats stand, .mijm Beer, t high-seat which Allfather himself has. TJi Wk is th' best-made of any on earth, and the greatc^Bmthout and within, it is all like one piece of gold; men call it Gladsheim. They made also a second hall: that was a shrine which the goddesses had, and it was a very fair house; men call it Vingolf. Next they fashioned a house, wherein they placed a forge, and made besides a hammer, tongs, and anvil, and by means of these, all other tools. After this they smithied metal and stone and wood, and wrought so abundantly that metal which is called gold,that they had all their household ware and all dishes of gold; and that time is called the Age of Gold, before it was spoiled by the coming of the Women, even those who came out of Jotunheim. Next after this, the gods enthroned themselves in their seats and held judgment, and called to mind whence the dwarves had quickened in the mould and underneath in the earth, even as do maggots in flesh. The dwarves had first received shape and life in the flesh of Ymir, and were then maggots; but by decree of the gods had become conscious with the intelligence of men, and had human shape. And nevertheless they dwell in the earth and in stones. Modsognir was the first, and Durinn the second; so it says in Voluspa.


Then strode all the mighty to the seats of judgment,

The gods most holy, and together held counsel,

Who should of dwarves shape the peoples

From the bloody surge and the Blue One's bones.

They made many in man's likeness,

Dwarves in the earth, as Durinn said.

And thea^says the Sibyl, are their names:

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idi, Nordri and Sudri,
estri, Althjofr, Dvalinn;
Nar, Nainn, Nipingr, Dainn,
Bifurr, Bafurr, Bomburr, Nori,
Ori, Onarr, Oinn, Mjodvitnir,
Viggr and Gandalfr, Vindalfr, Thorinn,
Fili, Kili, Fundinn, Vali;
Thror, Throinn, Thekkr, Litr and Vitr,
N/r, Nyradr, Rekkr, Radsvidr.

And these also are dwarves and dwell in stones, but the first in mould:

Draupnir, Dolgthvari,

Horr, Hugstari, Hledjolfr, Gloinn;

Dori, Ori, Duff, Andvari,

Heptifili, Harr, Sviarr.

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