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And Morginn on Vakr;'

Ali rode Hrafn,

They who rode onto the ice:

But another, southward,

Under Adils,

A gray one, wandered,

Wounded with the spear.

Bjorn rode Blakkr,
And Bjarr rode Kertr;*
Atli rode Glaumr,3
And Adils on Slongvir;'1
Hogni on Holvir,5
And Haraldr on Folkvir;6
Gunnarr rode Goti,7
And Sigurdr, Grani."

Arvakr' and Alsvidr'" draw the Sun, as is written before; Hrimfaxi" or FjorsvartnirI2 draw the Night; Skinfaxi" and Gladrl4 are the Day's horses.

"These names of oxen are in Thorgrimr's Rhymes:

Of all oxen the names
Have I accurately learned,—
Of these: Raudr" and Hcefir,"
Rekinn"and Hyrr,"'

1 Watchful, Nimble, Ambling, or perhaps Hawk.

2 Related to Kerti = a candle? 3 Tumult. * Slinger. 5 Horse j etymology? 6? 7 Goth.

8 Shining-Lip > (Jonsson). « Early-Wake. ,0 All-Swift.

11 Frosty-Mane. I2 Swart-Life. I3 Shining-Mane.

'* Bright, or Glad.

"Red. I6Meet. "Driven. "Gentle.

Himinhrjodr" and Apli,2
Arfr3 and Arfuni.4

These are names of serpents: Dragon, Fafnir, Mighty
Monster, Adder,Nidhoggr, Lindworm,She-Adder, Goinn,5
M6inn,s Grafvitnir,5 Grabakr,5 Ofnir,5 Svafnir,5 Hooded

Neat-Cattle: Cow, calf, oxen, heifer, yearling, steer, bull.

Sheep: Ram, buck, ewe, lamb, wether.

Swine: Sow, she-pig, boar, hog, suckling.

LVIII. "What are the names of the air and of the winds?
Air is called Yawning Void and Middle World, Bird-Abode,
Wind-Abode. Wind is called Storm, Breeze, Gale, Tem-
pest, Gust, Blowing. Thus does one read in Ahvinnsmal:

Wind 't is called among menfolk,
And Waverer with the gods,—
Neigher the great powers name it;
Shrieker the giants,
And Shouter elves call it;
In Hel Clamorer 't is called.

The Wind is also called Blast.

LIX. "Two are those birds which there is no need to periphrase otherwise than by calling blood and corpses their Drink and Meat: these are the raven and the eagle. All other male birds may be periphrased in metaphors of blood or corpses; and then their names are terms of the eagle or the raven. As Thjodolfr sang:

1 Heaven-Bellowing, or perhaps Heaven-Destroyer. * Calf.

3 Bull \ properly = cattle, pecus, fee; hence, inheritance. 4 Heir; cf. with 3.

5 For these names and their meanings, see Gylfag., ch. xvi.

The Prince with Eagle's Barley
Doth feed the bloody moor-fowl:
The Hord-King bears the sickle
Of Odin to the gory Swan's crop;
The Sater of the Vulture
Of the Eagle's Sea of corpses
Stakes each shoal to the southward
Which he wards, with the spear-point.

These are names of the raven: Crow, Huginn,1 Muninn,"
Bold of Mood, Yearly Flier, Year-Teller, Flesh-Boder.
Thus sang Einarr Tinkling-Scale:

With flesh the Host-Convoker
Filled the feathered ravens:
The raven, when spears were screaming,
With the she-wolfs prey was sated.

Thus sang Einarr Skulason:

He who gluts the Gull of Hatred,
Our precious lord, could govern
The sword; the hurtful raven
Of Huginn's corpse-load eateth.

And as he sang further:

But the King's heart swelleth,
His spirit flushed with battle,

1 For the meaning of these names (which are those of Odin's Ravens), see Gylfag., ch. xxxviii.

Where heroes shrink; dark Muninn
Drinks blood from out the wounds.

As Viga-Glumr sang:

When stood the shielded Maidens
Of the gory sword, strife-eager,
On the isle; the Bold of Mood then
Received the meat of wound-blood.

As Skuli Thorsteinsson sang:

Not the hindmost in the hundred
Might Hlokk of horns have seen me,
Where to the Yearly Flier
I fed the wounds full grievous.

The erne is called Eagle, Old One, Storm-Shearer, Inciter,
Soarer, Wound-Shearer, Cock. As Einarr sang:

With blood the lips he reddened
Of the black steed of Jarnsaxa;
With steel Erne's meat was furnished:
The Eagle slit the Wolfs Bait.

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As Thjodolfr sang:

The Spoiler of the Lady

Swiftly flew with tumult

To meet the high God-Rulers,

Long hence, in Old One's plumage.1

And as stands here:

With skill will I rehearse

Of the Storm-Shearer my verse.

And again as Skuli sang:

Early and late with sobbing

I wake, where well is sated

The hawk of the Cock's blood-ocean:

Then the bard heareth good tidings.

LX. "What are the names of the Sea? It is called Ocean, Main, Wintry, Lee, Deep, Way, Weir, Salt, Lake, Furtherer. As Arnorr sang, and as we have written above:

Let men hear how the Earls' King,
Hardy of mind, the Sea sought;
The overwhelming Ruler
Failed not to resist the Main."

Here it is named Sea, and Main also.
"Ocean, as Hornklofi sang:

When the man-scathing Meeter
Of the Mansion of the Rock-Reefs

1 See page 130. 2 See page 198.

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