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LII. "There the metaphors coincide; and he who interprets
the language of poesy learns to distinguish which king is
meant; for it is correct to call the Emperor of Constanti-
nople King of Greeks, and similarly to call the king who
rules over the land of Jerusalem King of Jerusalem, and
also to call the Emperor of Rome King of Rome, and to
call him King of Angles' who governs England. But that
periphrasis which was cited but now, which called Christ
King of Men, may be had by every king. It is proper to
periphrase all kings by calling them Land-Rulers, or Land-
Warders, or Land-Attackers, or Leader of Henchmen, or
Warder of the People.
Thus sang Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler:

Who filled the ravens
From life was reft
By the Earth-Rulers
At Oglo."

And as Gliimr Geirason sang:

The Prince beneath the helmet
Reddened the sword hone-hollowed
On the Geats: there the Land-Warder
Was found in the grinding spear-din.

As Thjodolfr sang:

'T is my wish that the glorious Leader
Of Henchmen, the Glad-hearted,
Should leave his sons the heritage
And the sod of his fair freehold.

1 The reverse of Gregory's pun : "Non Angli sed angeli." a See page 98.

As Einarr sang:

The valiant-souled Earth-Warder
On his stern head the helm bears;
The bard before heroes telleth
The fame of the King of Hordland.

It is right also to call him King of Kings, under whom are tributary kings. An emperor is highest of kings, and next under him is that king who reigns over a nation; and each of these is equal to the other in the periphrases made of them in poesy. Next to them are those men who are called earls or tributary kings: and they are equal in periphrasis with a king, save that one may not term them kings of nations. And thus sang Arnorr Earl's Skald concerning Earl Thorfinnr:

Let the men hear how the Earl's King,
Hardy of mind, the sea sought:
The overwhelming Ruler
Failed not to thwart the ocean.

Next to these in the figures of poesy are those men who are called chiefs: one may periphrase them as one might a king,or an earl, calling them Dispensers of Gold, WealthMunificent, Men of the Standards, and Captains of the Host, or Van-Leaders of the Array or of Battle; since each king of a nation, who rules over many lands, appoints tributary kings and earls in joint authority with himself, to administer the laws of the land and defend it from attack in those parts which lie far removed from the king. And in those parts they shall be equal with the king's self in giving judgment and meting punishment. Now there are many districts in one land; and it is the practice of kings to appoint justiciars over as many districts as one chooses to give into their hands. These justiciars are called chiefs or landedmen in the Danish tongue, reeves in Saxony, and barons in England. They are also to be righteous judges and faithful warriors over the land which is entrusted to them for governance. If the king is not near, then a standard shall be borne before them in battle; and then they are quite, as lawful war-captains as kings or earls.

"Next under them are those men who are called franklins: they are those freeholders who are of honorable kindred, and possessed of full rights. One may periphrase them by calling them Wealth-Givers, and Protectors, and Reconcilers of Men; headmen also may have these titles.

"Kings and earls have as their following the men called henchmen and house-carles; landed-men also have in their service those who are called henchmen in Denmark and Sweden, and house-carles in Norway, and these men swear oaths of service to them, even as henchmen do to kings. The house-carles of kings were often called henchmen in the old heathen time. Thus sang Thorvaldr Blending Skald:

Hail, King, swift in the onset!
And thy sturdy house-carles with thee!
In their mouths men have my verses,
Made for a song of praising.

King Haraldr Sigurdarson composed this:

The man full mighty waiteth
The filling of the King's seat;
Oft, I find, to the Earl's heels
Throngs my host of house-carles.

Henchmen and house-carles may be periphrased by calling them House-Guard,or Wage-Band,or Men of Honor: thus sang Sigvatr:

I learned the Warrior's Wage-Band
On the water fought that battle
Newly: 't is not the smallest
Snow-shower of Shields I tell of.

And thus also:

When on the Steed of Cables

The clashing steel was meeting,

'T was not as when a maid bears

The Chief's mead to the Honor-Winners.

The service-fee which headmen give is called wages and gifts; thus sang Ottarr the Swarthy:

I needs must use the Breaker
Of the Battle-Glow of good men;
Here is the watch war-doughty
Of the Wise King assembled.1

Earls and chiefs and henchmen are periphrased by calling them Counsellors or Speech-Friends or Seat-Mates of the King, as Hallfredr sang:

See page 176.

The Counsellor battle-mighty
Of the Prince, whom boldness pleases,
Lets the feud-fiery weeds of Hogni,
Hammer-beaten, clash upon him.

As Snaebjorn sang:

The Speech-Friend of Kings letteth
The long-hulled steer-rope's Race-Horse
Steady the swordlike steel beak
Of the ship against the stern wave.

Thus sang Arnorr:

My young sons do bear for my sake
Grave sorrow for the slaughter
Of the Earl, destroyed by murder,
The Bench-Mate of our Monarch.

King's Counsel-Friend, as Hallfredr sang:

In council 't was determined
That the King's Friend, wise in counsel,
Should wed the Land, sole Daughter
Of Onarr, greenly wooded.1

One should periphrase men by their kindred; as Kormakr


Let the son of Haraldr's true friend
Give ear, and hearken to me:
I raise my song, the Yeast-Stream
Of Syr's snow-covered Monsters.

1 See page 136.

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