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Firmly forthwith was fastened

To the Fosterer of Skadi;

To Jotunheim's Strong Dweller

The pole stuck, and the fingers

Of Loki too, companion

Of Hoenir, clung to the pole's end.

The Bird of Blood flew upward
(Blithesome in his quarry)
A long way off with Loki,
The lither God, that almost
Wolf's Sire was rent asunder;
Thor's friend must sue for mercy,
Such peace as he might purchase
To pray: nigh slain was Loptr.

Then Hymir's Kinsman ordered
The crafty god, pain-maddened,
To wile to him the Maiden
Who warded the iEsir's age-cure;
Ere long the necklace-robber,
Brisinga's thief, lured slyly
The Dame of Brunnakr's brooklet
Into the Base One's dwelling.

At that the steep slope-dwellers
No sorrow felt; then Idunn
Was from the south, by giants
New-stolen, come among them.
All Ingvi-Freyr's high kindred,
Hoary and old, to council

Hasted; grewsome of fashion

And ugly all the gods were.

1

This heard I, that the Staunch Friend
Of Hoenir—oft thereafter
With wiles he tricked the iEsir—
Flew, in hawk-wings hidden;
And the vile Sire of Giants,
Vigorous Wing-Plume-Wielder,
Hurtled on eagle-pinion
After the hawk-shaped Loki.

Swiftly the gods have kindled
A fire; and the sovereign rulers
Sustained the flame with shavings:
Scorched was the flying giant,—
He plunged down in mid-soaring:
'Tis pictured on the giant's
Sole-bridge, the shield which, painted
With stories, Thorl'eifr gave me.]

"This is the correct manner of periphrasing the Msiv: To call each of them by the name of another, and to designate him in terms of his works or his possessions or his kindred.

XXIII. "How should the heaven be periphrased? Thus: call it Skull of Ymir, and hence, Giant's Skull; Task or Burden of the Dwarves, or Helm of Vestri and Austri, Sudri, or Nordri; Land of the Sun, of the Moon, and of the

■"Brjalattur texti"—Jonsson,Edda (Reykjavik, 1907), p. 384.The condition of the text makes translation impossible.

Stars of Heaven, of the Wains and the Winds; Helm, or House, of the Air and the Earth and the Sun. So sang Arnorr Earls'-Skald:

So large of gifts ne'er mounted
Young Lord of Shields on ship-deck
'Neath the ancient Skull of Ymir:
Splendid this Prince's largess.

And as he sang again:

Bright grows the sun at dusking,
The earth sinks into the dark sea,
The Toil of Austri bursteth;
All the ocean on the fells breaks.

Thus sang Bodvarr the Halt:

For never 'neath the Sun's Plain
Shall come a nobler Land-Ward,
Keener in battle-onset,
Nor a brother of Ingi better.

And as Thjodolfr of Hvin sang:

Jord's Son drove to the steel-play

(High swelled the godlike anger

In the mind of Meili's Brother),

And the Moon-Way 'neath him quivered.

Even as sang Ormr Barrey's-Skald:

Lady of Draupnir's gore-streak,
However great I know him,

The wielder (by right he ruleth)
Of the Wain's Road sees me gladly.

Even as the skald Bragi sang:

He who threw the dead eyes
Of Thjazi, Skadi's father,
Into the Winds' Wide Basin
O'er the abodes of men-folk many.

And as Markus sang:

'Tis long since the dear-loved Warder
Of sea-men was born on the wave-girt earth-bottom
Of the Storm-Container; each man praises
The sublime age of the Ring-Dispenser.,

Even as Steinn Herdisarson sang:

I sing the holy Ruler
Of the high World-Tent rather
Than men, for very precious
Is He: His praises tell I.

And as Arnorr Earls'-Skald sang:

Help, dear King of Heaven,

The Day's Plain, help my Hermundr.

And as Arnorr sang further:

Soothfast King of the Sun-Tents,
Help stout-hearted Rognvaldr.

And as Hallvardr sang:

Knutr wards the land, as the Ruler
Of All wards the radiant Fell-Hall.

As Arnorr sang:

Michael, wise of understanding,

Weighs what seems done ill, and good things:

Then the Monarch of the Sun's Helm

At the Doom-Seat parts all mortals.

XXIV. "How should one periphrase the earth? Thus: by calling her Flesh of Ymir, and Mother of Thor, Daughter of Onarr, Odin's Bride, Co-Wife of Frigg and Rindr and Gunnlod, Mother-in-law of Sif, Floor and Bottom of the Storm-Hall, Sea of Beasts, Daughter of Night, Sister of Audr and of Day. Even as Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler sang:

Now the beaming gold is hidden
In the body of the Mother
Of the Giants' Foe; the counsels
Of a kindred strong are mighty.

As sang Hallfredr Troublous-Skald:

In council 't was determined
That the King's friend, wise in counsel,
Should wed the Land, sole Daughter
Of Onarr, greenly wooded.

And he said further:

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