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VII. "How should one periphrase FreyrfThus: by calling
him Son of Njordr, Brother of Freyja, and also God of
Vanir, and Kinsman of the Vanir, and Wane, and God of
the Fertile Season, and God of Wealth-Gifts.
Thus sang Egill Skallagrimsson:

For that Grjotbjorn
In goods and gear
Freyr and Njordr
Have fairly blessed.

Freyr is called Adversary of Beli, even as Eyvindr Spoiler of Skalds sang:

When the Earl's foe
Wished to inhabit
The outer bounds
Of Beli's hater.

He is the possessor of Skidbladnir and of that boar which is called Gold-Bristle, even as it is told here:

Ivaldi's offspring

In ancient days

Went to shape Skidbladnir,

Foremost of ships,

Fairly for Freyr,

Choicely for Njordr's child.

Thus speaks Olfr Uggason:

The battle-bold Freyr rideth
First on the golden-bristled

Barrow-boar to the bale-fire
Of Baldr, and leads the people.

The boar is also called Fearful-Tusk.

VIII. "How should one periphrase Heimdallr? By calling him Son of Nine Mothers, or Watchman of the Gods, as already has been written; or White God, Foe of Loki, Seeker of Freyja's Necklace. A sword is called Heimdallr's Head: for it is said that he was pierced by a man's head. The tale thereof is told in Heimdalar-galdr; and ever since a head is called Heimdallr's Measure; a sword is called Man's Measure. Heimdallr is the Possessor of Gulltoppr; he is also Frequenter of Vagasker and Singasteinn, where he contended with Loki for the Necklace Brisinga-men, he is also called Vindler. Ulfr Uggason composed a long passage in the Husdrapa on that legend, and there it is written that they were in the form of seals. Heimdallr also is son of Odin.

IX. " How should one periphrase Tyr? By calling him the One-handed God, and Fosterer of the Wolf, God of Battles, Son of Odin.

X. "How should one periphrase Bragi? By calling him Husband of Idunn, First Maker of Poetry, and the Longbearded God (after his name, a man who has a great beard is called Beard-Bragi) and Son of Odin.

XI . "How should one periphrase Vidarr? He maybe called the Silent God, Possessor of the Iron Shoe, Foe and Slayer of Fenris-Wolf, Avenger of the Gods, Divine Dweller in the Homesteads of the Fathers, Son of Odin, and Brother

of the iEsir.

XII. "How should Vali be periphrased? Thus: by calling him Son of Odin and Rindr, Stepson of Frigg, Brother of the iEsir, Baldr's Avenger, Foe and Slayer of Hodr, Dweller in the Homesteads of the Fathers.

XIII. "How should one periphrase Hodr? Thus: by calling him the Blind God, Baldr's Slayer, Thrower of the Mistletoe, Son of Odin, Companion of Hel, Foe of Vali.

XIV. "How should Ullr be periphrased? By calling him Son of Sif, Stepson of Thor, God of the Snowshoe, God of the Bow, Hunting-God, God of the Shield.

XV."How should Hoenir be periphrased? By calling him Bench-Mate or Companion or Friend of Odin, the Swift of God, the Long-Footed, and King of Clay.1

XVI. "How should one periphrase Loki? Thus: call him Son of Farbauti and Laufey, or of Nil, Brother of Byleistr and of Helblindi, Father of the Monster of Van (that is, Fenris-Wolf), and of the Vast Monster (that is, the Midgard Serpent), and of Hel, and Nari, and Ali; Kinsman and Uncle, Evil Companion and Bench-Mate of Odin and the iEsir, Visitor and Chest-Trapping of Geirrodr, Thief of the Giants, of the Goat, of Brisinga-men,and of Idunn's Apples, Kinsman of Sleipnir, Husband of Sigyn,Foe of the Gods, Harmer of Sif s Hair, Forger of Evil, the Sly God, Slanderer and Cheat of the Gods, Contriver of Baldr's Death, the Bound God, Wrangling Foe of Heimdallr and of Skadi. Even as Olfr Uggason sings here:


The famed rain-bow's defender,
Ready in wisdom, striveth
At Singasteinn with Loki,
Farbauti's sin-sly offspring;
The son of mothers eight and one,
Mighty in wrath, possesses
The Stone ere Loki cometh:
I make known songs of praise.

Here it is written that Heimdallr is the son of nine mothers.

XVII. "Now an account shall be given of the source of those metapfiorswEich "haveTTut how been recorded, and of which no accounts were rendered before: even such as Bragi gave to iEgir, telling how Thor had gone into the east to slay trolls, and Odin rode Sleipnir into Jotunheim and visited that giant who was named Hrungnir. Hrungnir asked what manner of man he with the golden helm might be, who rode through air and water; and said that the stranger had a wondrous good steed. Odin said he would wager his head there was no horse in Jotunheim that would prove equally good. Hrungnir answered that it was a good horse, but declared that he had a much betterpaced horse which was called Gold-Mane. Hrungnir had become angry, and vaulted up onto his horse and galloped after him, thinking to pay him for his boasting, Odin galloped so furiously that he was on the top of the next hill first; but Hrungnir was so filled with the giant's frenzy

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that he took no heed until he had come in beyond the gates of Asgard. When he came to the hall-door, the iEsir invited him to drink. He went within and ordered drink to be brought to him, and then those flagons were brought in from which Thor was wont to drink; and Hrungnir swilled from each in turn. But when he had become drunken, then big words were not wanting: he boasted that he would lift up Valhall and carry it to Jotunheim, and sink Asgard and kill all the gods, save that he would take Freyja and Sif home with him. Freyja alone dared pour for him; and he vowed that he would drink all the ale of the ^isir. But when his overbearing insolence became tiresome to the iEsir, they called on the name of Thor.

"Straightway Thor came into the hall, brandishing his hammer, and he was very wroth, and asked who had advised that these dogs of giants be permitted to drink there, or who had granted Hrungnir safe-conduct to be in Valhall, or why Freyja should pour for him as at a feast of the jEsir. Then Hrungnir answered, looking at Thor with no friendly eyes, and said that Odin had invited him to drink, and he was under his safe-conduct. Thor declared that Hrungnir should repent of that invitation before he got away. Hrungnir answered that Asa-Thor would have scant renown for killing him, weaponless as he was: it were a greater trial of his courage if he dared fight with Hrungnir on the border at Grjotunagard. 'And it was a great folly,' said he, 'when I left my shield and hone behind at home; if I had my weapons here, then we should try single-combat. But as matters stand, I declare thee a coward if thou wilt slay me, a weaponless man.' Thor was by no means anxious to avoid the fight when challenged to the field, for no one had ever offered him single-combat before.

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