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these societies as both an effect and cause of the progressive melioration of society. To one who should ask, What advantage shall I obtain, or what good can I do, by uniting myself with a peace society, we should say, As a member of such a body, you will be in the way of reading its various publications. Your mind will acquire a habit of regarding war in its true light, that is, as a great evil, and one that is rarely necessary at present, and that may one day cease altogether to be so. The influences which spread from your mind as a centre, like the circles from an impulse on the water, over those of numbers around you, will be kindly, and you will have added your mite to the treasury of universal charity.
The interest of the various publications of these societies is, of course, various. Some are calculated to produce little more effect than the common consequence of repetition. This is something, since one cannot long read or meditate on a momentous truth, without being influenced by it. But many of these pamphlets do more than barely tell the truth. They tell it agreeably; they present it in a dress which gratifies the taste and excites the interest of the bearer.
Of this last class is the Address which gave occasion to this notice. We took it up without any great expectation, and laid it down with a resolution to recommend it to the perusal of our readers. We honestly assure every one of them, that it will afford him much pleasure, and do him some good, at the expense of very little money and very little time. Whoever does not read it, after this recommendation, must be wanting in good sense, faith in our sincerity, or confidence in our judgment; and as we would not willingly believe this of any of them, we shall rest satisfied, that we have been the means of doing them all a service.
The writer of this Address offers a very encouraging view of the probable effect of the diffusion of just and liberal principles of government in restraining war. Wherever these prevail, the people, and not kings, are the real rulers; and the proverbial sport of the latter is too often death to the former to be engaged in without powerful reasons of expediency, and such as are not often likely to occur between well ordered communities. Republics may, therefore, be expected to be pacific. If it be said, that those of Greece were far otherwise, it may be replied, that universal and genuine liberty and equality of rights were as little or even less known under those governments, than they are in some of the monarchical establishments of Europe,-that force was there paramount to law, as much as it now is in Austria or Russia, and that instead of one tyrant, a man had to fear a thousand.
“ The ancient republics,” says Dr Ware, “were any thing rather than what we call liberal. Of equal, well regulated liberty-of the proper rights of mankind, they had no true conception. The freedom of which they boasted so much, and of which we are told so much, amounted only to a licentiousness for themselves, founded upon the subjection and slavery of others. There is scarcely a government in existence at the present day, which does not in reality make a nearer approach to an acknowledge ment of the proper liberty of mankind, than the Athenian republic. Even in the community of Athens itself, where was the security for personal rights! To be truly free is not merely to be delivered from foreign bondage, or the yoke of a tyrannical monarch. Kings and conquerors are not the only source from which our liberties may be infringed. We require to be protected from one another, and I know not whether a just
man has not more to fear from the jealousy of a despotic mob, than from that of a despotic monarch.”
Another view, here presented, gave us much pleasure, inasmuch as it agreed closely with notions, which we have always entertained.
“ All nations," says Dr Ware, “ seem to vie with each other, which, when the work of blood is concluded, shall treat the wounded or imprisoned enemy with the greatest consideration and humanity. Inconsistent as this is—this preposterous alliance between barbarity and humanity-it yet furnishes us with ground for expectation, that the principles which have already produced so great a change, will produce one which is complete and consistent.”
Now there are in the world, who are loud in their indignation at the practice of licensing privateers—who do nevertheless defend the necessity, propriety, and even advantage, of wars, not merely defensive; and bestow upon the mention of a peace society a compassionate smile, and the name of a “devout imagination.” Far be it from us, either in jest or earnest, or by any possible implication, to defend the practice of privateering—but we think that those who denounce it, ought in common consistency to be ready to go a step further. They should be ready to add the weight of their influence, whatever it may be, to that of the peace party, and to push melioration to the point when war shall be nothing worse than a contest of diplomacy.
Of the style of this Address, it is only necessary to observe, that it is the style of a practised writer, and that it did not occur to us, to think of it once during the perusal.
Tales for Mothers. Translated from the French of J. N. Bouilly, Member of several
Learned and Literary Societies, and Author of Contes à Ma Fille," “ Conseils
à Ma Fille,” and “Les Jeunes Femmes.” New York. 1824. pp. 184. These Tales are pretty, and nothing more. As far as their style and manner are concerned, they are rather adapted to children than mothers. The stories are commonplace, and possess very little interest for the mothers in this country,—who can find so many better ones in their own language. Probably, too, they have lost much of their spirit by translation. One circumstance only gives them a certain interest. It is the description contained in them of domestic life among the French. The tale-teller of course lays his scene in the interior of families. He is constantly speaking of circumstances simple in themselves, and familiar to his native readers. Many of them, however, are new to us, and probably to every one, who has not resided for some length of time, among the the class of people who are the subjects of them. As a means of adding to our knowledge of national manners and customs, therefore, the work is doubtless useful. We observe, that religious motives are not often brought forward. Religion seems to be a subject, which is not so much avoided, as disregarded. In the last tale, the moral turns upon the punishment of a wife's infidelity, which is termed an irreparable misfortune. The punishment is that of sentiment entirely. Her husband falls in a duel, indeed, but be bequeaths to her a sufficient estate. Her children, except one, as they grow up to maturity, decline meeting her, but treat her with respect; and the one who remains with her, though she does pot her to “lean her hand on her shoulder, when she speaks of her
father," does nevertheless express strong filial affection. The grief, remorse, &c. is all sentimental; there is no intimation of repentance of the crime, as a breach of the law of God. In fact a story of horrid ingratitude and wickedness is told in that gentle and well-bred manner, which “never mentions hell to ears polite.” We were strongly impressed with the contrast, when it occurred to us to imagine how the same story would have been told by such writers as the author of Adam Blair, or the Human Heart.
An Esplanation of the Apocalypse or Revelation of St John. By Alexander
Smyth. Washington. 1924. 12mo. pp. 59. The question which the author of this pamphlet intends to settle is, whether the Revelation of St John the Divine, is a prophetical vision of future events, or an enigmatical relntion of past events, under the form of prophecy. General Smyth thinks the latter its true character. Aud he solves the enigma, by applying in some detail the different chapters and texts of the book of Revelation to persons who lived, and events which happened near the Christian era. He concludes, and gives his reasons for the conclusion, that the book was written by Irenæus, a disciple of Polycarp, and afterwards bishop of Lyons, A. D. 177. The author has shown much learning and historical research. He calls his work the solution of an enigma, and surely he has proved himself a very Edipus.
The London Magazine and Review, for February, comments with great freedom and candour upon the Message of President Monroe at the opening of the last session of Congress. A cordial approbation of our political system is expressed; and the lucid exposition of the state of the country by the President seems to excite great admiration. “ No American,” say they, “can rise from the perusal of this address without feeling that there has been a fair and full disclosure made to him, by the head of the government, as to the actual state of his country ;-there is in it neither reservation nor mystery; and whatever may be his sentiments as to the subject matter, he is, at all events, certain, that nothing has been withheld from him.”
LIGHT PRODUCED BY CRYSTALLIZATION. M. Buchner, having mixed some impure benzoic acid, perfectly dry, with the sixth part of its weight of vegetable charcoal, placed it on a soup plate, which was covered with a cylinder, luted to it by almond paste, in such a manner, that what took place in the interior could be distinctly seen through an aperture disposed for this purpose. After the whole had been exposed several days to a moderate heat, and some beautiful crys
tals formed, it was removed to a hotter furnace, and half an hour afterwards M. Buchner observed a brilliant flash of light in the interior of the cylinder. A succession of flashes ensued, which completely filled the cylinder, and continued half an hour, when it was taken off the furnace and examined. A great quantity of crystals of benzoic acid were deposited. They resembled the crystals of the same substance obtained in the usual way by a more moderate heat and without light, except that they were less regular. M. Buchner attributed this phenomenon to a neutralization of electricity, as it took place at a moment when the crystal was deposited on the inner surface the cylinder. The same effect has been noticed on crystallizing acetate of potassa, and in preparing oxygen by means of chlorate of potassa and manganese.
MOTION OF THE ELECTRIC FLUID.
It has long been received as a fact, that an electrical discharge was capable of being transmitted through a considerable distance (say three or four miles) instantaneously, and without any sensible diminution of its intensity. Mr Barlow, however, by employing wires, of various lengths up to 840 feet, and measuring the energy of the electric action by the deflection produced in a magnetic needle, has found that the intensity diminishes very rapidly, and very nearly as the inverse square of the distance. Hence the idea of constructing electrical telagraphs is quite 'chimerical. He found also, that the effect was greater with a wire of a certain size than with one smaller, yet that nothing was gained by increasing the diameter of the wire beyond a given limit.
DISCOVERY OF A FOSSIL BAT.
About the middle of last October, the workmen employed in the quarries of Montmartre discovered the fossil remains of a bat. This most interesting specimen was almost immediately presented to Baron Cuvier by the gentleman into whose possession it had come. Permission to examine this bitherto unique production was readily granted to the author of this notice, who was then in Paris. The portion of stone in which the fossil remains are imbedded, had been subdivided during the operation of quarrying, so as to leave the exact impression of the animal equally well marked on each surface. The specimen altogether seemed to be exceedingly perfect, and to resemble in size, proportion of the pectoral members, head, &c. the ordinary species of bats now existing. Nothing positive, however, can be said as to any exact resemblance between the antediluvian bat and those of the present day, until the anatomy of the head and teeth be made out, by removing from them the incrustation of solid stone, at present entirely conceal. ing the structure of these parts.
The discovery of a fossil bat must be considered as a sort of era in the history of the organic remains of a former world; hitherto, so far as we know, no animal so highly organized has been unequivocally shown to exist in a fossil 'state. Between the bat and Man, naturalists have interposed but a single species, the Quadrumana: may we not hope that future research may at last add to the list of antediluvian remains, the so much sought for Anthropolite?
Lempriere's Universal Biography, containing a Critical and Historical Account of the Lives, Characters, and Labours of Eminent Persons of all Ages and Countries. With original articles of American Biography, By Eleazer Lord. 2 vols. 8vo. New York. F. Lockwood.
Essay on Language, as connected with the Faculty of the Mind, and as applied to Things in Nature and Art By William S. Cardell. New York. C. Wiley.
Story of Jack Halyard, the Sailor Boy, or the Virtuous Family ; designed for American Children in Families and in Schools. By William S. Cardell. Third edition, corrected and enlarged. New York.
Universal Geography. By M. Malte-Brun. No. 4. 8vo. Boston. Wells & Lilly.
History of Boston. 8vo. No. 8. Price 25 cents per Number. Boston. A. Bowen.
A Digest of the Laws of Pennsylvania, from the year 1700 to the 30th day of March, 1824, &c. By John Purdon. 1 vol. 8vo. Philadelphia.
Proceedings in the Courts Martial in the Cases of Lts. Weaver and Conner of the United States Navy. 8vo. pp. 84.
The Laws passed at the Second Session of the Eighteenth Congress. Svo. pp. 120. Washington. Gales & Seaton.
A Catalogue of American Minerals, with their Localities; including all which are known to exist in the United States and British Provinces, having the Towns, Countries, and Districts in each State and Province arranged Alphabetically. With an Appendix, containing Additional Localities and a Tabular View. By Samuel Robinson, M. D. Member of the American Geological Society. 8vo. pp. 320. Boston. Cummings & Hilliard.
The Medical Recorder. No. XXX. Philadelphia.
A Selection of Hymns and Psalms, for Social and Private Worship. Third edition, corrected. 12mo. pp. 463. Cambridge. Hilliard & Metcalf.
The North American Review, No. XLVII. for April, 1825. Boston. Cummings, Hilliard, & Co.
First Annual Report of the Proceedings of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts. Te