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but labour accumulated; or rather, we should say, since Professor M’Vickar grants the abstract justice of this maxim and himself repeatedly asserts it, we do not join him in condemning the use of the phraseology founded on that doctrine. He tells us indeed that the practical economist will be perplexed by finding things, so different as capital and labour, confounded." But the practical economist, who can digest the principle that rent forms no part of price (indubitable as the principle is), will not be disturbed at any thing else in this treatise.
Considering the object of the work, we thirik it would have been desirable to have it printed in a rather more cheerful form. The type is too small, even in the text; and the editor's valuable Notes cannot be studied, without endangering a treasure, which all the wealth of all the nations could not compensate,-a healthy eyesight. We have sometimes been inclined to think, that ihe reason why Smith’s immortal work has not more circulated among us is, that the American edition of it is so villanously printed.
DESCRIPTION OF MADRID.
[CONCLUDED) ROYAL ACADEMIES--PUBLIC LIBRARIES--SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND
DUMB-CIRCUS FOR BULL-FIGHTS—THE PRADO AND DELICIAS CABINET OF NATURAL HISTORY-THE ROYAL COLLECTION OF PAINTINGS-TIE ROYAL ARMORY-MUSEUM OF THE PARK OF ARTILLERY-POLICE OF THE CITY.
There are royal academies here, of history, of natural philosophy, of medicine, of jurisprudence, of the fine arts, of economy, of the sacred canons and ecclesiastical discipline, &c. There are also royal colleges and schools for instruction in all the branches of education. The botanical school possesses
advantages surpassing those of most other countries, inasmuch as the royal botanical garden, where it is situated, possesses probably a greater abundance and variety of rare plants, than any other garden in Europe. Botany and agriculture is here publicly taught. The course of lectures begins in May, and is continued till September or October. The schools for children, I am told, are on a very miserable footing. The time of the pupils is mostly employed in learning to repeat Latin prayers, not one word of which
do they understand. But this exercise, they are taught to believe, is most useful to them. The education of women here seems to be considered of as little importance as it is in Turkey, it being confined to their prayers and books of devotion; and it is not improbable, that hence might be traced one of the principal causes of the present degraded state of the kingdom ; for the difference between these and the sensible, well educated mothers of England, for instance, is as great, as is the difference in the political and moral condition of the two countries.
The public libraries of this city are creditable to the monarchs of Spain. The royal library, founded by Philip V. in 1712, has been enlarged by succeeding monarchs, and now consists of more than 200,000 volumes, besides a great number of valuable Arabic manuscripts. This library is open to the public at stated hours, every day in the week. The library of San Isidro, containing 60,000 volumes, is open to the public every day, excepting holydays. The library of San Fernando is open to the public three days in the week. There are besides these, two or three others of minor importance. When on the subject of schools, I forgot to mention one for the instruction of the deaf and dumb. The Spaniards boast of being the first, who conceived the idea, and gave rules for reducing to an art, the mode of teaching this unfortunate class of human beings. The first attenpt was made by Juan Pablo Bonet, in the time of Philip III. This system was afterwards improved by Father Bernardino Ponce, from whom the Abbé l'Epie took the idea, and succeeded in bringing it to a high degree of perfection.
Of theatres, there were formerly four in this city—but at present there are only two, neither of which is now open, as it is the season of Lent. The favourite amusement of the Spaniards, and, much to the honour of human nature, I believe it is peculiar to them, is bull-fighting. The great circus for these exhibitions is situated a little without the gate of Alcalá, and it is said will contain frcm 12 to 14,000 persons. It is of two stories, built of brick and plastered. This amusement is confined to fifteen or sixteen days in the autumn, and here it is that a stranger has the best opportunity of seeing the beauty and fashion of Madrid. Much has been said and written, on the inhumanity of this amusement. The Pope, Pius V., in the year 1567, issued a bull against it, and those who were engaged in it; but his successor, Clement VIII. in 1576, revoked it; since which, ihe Popes have not meddled with it, and the Spaniards will probably always possess the exclusive enjoyment of this barbarous and disgraceful diversion.
There are fifteen entrances to the city, through gates, some of which resemble the Roman triumphal arches, and constitute somo
of its best ornaments. The streets of the city, excepting those of Alcalá and Atocha, are narrow and dark; there is a flagging, of only about two feet from the walls of the houses ; across which are stretched, in various parts, groups of blind beggars, singing, and playing the guitar ; women with sick or deformed children ; old men, who seem as if the exposure must hasten their relief by death, some without legs, others without arms, and all crying out, in the most piteous tones, to those passing, to give them something for the love of God. To avoid treading on these people, you must go off the flagging; from whence, in the spaces not thus occupied, you are constantly subjected to be jostled off by other pedestrians, who are regardless of our rule of taking the right. Nor is it a matter of trifling importance to be thus jostled off, as the streets, being paved with the fint stone, are exceedingly rough, and the walking on them is difficult and painful. To make amends for this defect in the streets, Madrid possesses some of the finest public walks in the world. The Prado, within the walls, and the Delicias, without, are those most frequented. The former is ornamented with several beautiful fountains; one of which is a colossal figure of Cybele, seated on a chariot of four wheels, and drawn by two lions, all of white marble; another is the figure of Apollo, on a square pedestal, supported by four figures representing the seasons, of marble ; another, and the finest, is a colossal figure of Neptune, standing on a conch shell as a car, and drawn by two sea horses. In front of the horses, are seen the heads of four tritons, spouting water from their mouths ; and from a pipe in the conch shell, the water is thrown in a horizontal direction, as far as the heads of the horses. These fountains, as well as others not named, are enclosed in large basons of stone work. The walk between the fountains of Cybele and Neptune, which for distinction is termed the Saloon, is the most frequented and favourite walk of the fashionables of the city. Here on sundays and holydays are collected all the beaux and belles of Madrid, to the amount of some thousands, passing to and fro on the saloon, of about one third of a mile, and leaving the rest of the walk to the contemplative, if there are any such ; or to those whose object is not that solely of seeing and being seen. I passed and repassed among the multitude several times, with the view of observing the beauties of the city, but, certainly, I have no recollection of ever having seen so many of the fairer part of creation together before, without observing one pretty face; not one that would be termed, with us, tolerably pretty ; but many intolerably ugly. On each side of this walk there are carriage roads, where the nobles and rich display their fine carriages and equipages; the young men, their dexterity in riding. There is always a squadron of cavalry distributed along the road, at certain distances, to see
that the coachmen observe the regulations prescribed by the police, and to prevent disorderly behaviour. The walk on one side is bounded by the palaces of Medina Celi, Villahermosa, a chapel, and other buildings; and on the opposite, by the palace in which are the paintings, the open fence of the botanical garden, which, even at this season, makes a pretty appearance, and the collateral walks leading to the Retiro.
The north view from the city is bounded by the mountains of Guadarrama, whose tops are at this season of the year covered with snow.
And when the wind blows from that quarter it is as cold as are our clear northwesters in April and November. The river Manzanares, which encircles about one half of the city on the N. W., has its source in those mountains, and emptying into the Xaraina, finds its way to the Tagus. This river, however, during the greater part of the year, is nothing but a rivulet, fordable every where. There are, notwithstanding, two superb and very expensive stone bridges thrown across it, the Toledo and the Segovia, which are not surpassed in beauty, magnitude, and solidity, by those crossing the Thames at London. It was observed by a way, that,“ never were seen more beautiful bridges; there was wanting only a river.” Various attempts have been made to procure a water communication with the Tagus by means of a canal, for which purpose a privilege was granted to a company by Charles III. in the year 1770. It was begun near the bridge of Toledo ; but with all the encouragement given to it by the monarch, and all the advantages that, it was apparent, would result from its execution, it was abandoned, after about one half of it was completed, by cutting a distance of six or seven miles. If one fourth of the amount of property, which has been squandered in the royal residences, had been expended in the accomplishment of such useful works at this canal, it is highly probable the royal exchequer would not have been at the low ebb it now is; and that many in the middling class, among other luxuries, would have been able to keep better fires than they now can. The last consideration, probably, does not much disturb the royal breast.
I hardly know how to begin, in order to convey to you an idea of the contents of the cabinet of natural history. An imperfect one only can be gained by a transient view of it; still more imperfect must that be, received from my description. There are two large rooms, on the same floor, where the minerals, gems, and crystals are exhibited in glass cases. In two others adjoining, are the beasts, birds, and reptiles ; in a third are fishes and shells ; in the fourth, a collection of Grecian vases; in the fifth, a great variety of guaqueros and other curiosities from South America ; and in the sixth, an elephant's skin stuffed, and the skeleton of a non-descript animal. The minerals occupy the four sides of a
large room; and the great variety and brilliancy of the specimens make a display, equalled only by the collection at Paris. There is one lump of pure silver which weighs two hundred and eighty-five pounds ;-a large piece of virgin gold of great value ;-a large collection of stones, exceedingly curious for the variety and beauty of the natural landscapes seen on them ; but taken together the collection is less striking for its intrinsic value, though this is great, than for its brilliancy, variety, and beauty, and the taste displayed in the distribution. The gems are also displayed so as to be seen to the greatest advantage, and the eves of the observer are almost dazzled with the view of the rich diamonds, rubies, emeralds, amethysts, topazes, &c. which this case contains. There is also a great number of beautiful pearls, some of which are seen as originally attached to their shells; also a case of very valuable and beautiful cameos, another of agates, jaspers, cornelians, &c. Along the centre of the room are long tables, on which, and under glasses, are cxhibited a most beautifully varied collection of crystals; also a meteoric stone weighing ten pounds, which has a volcanic appearance. T'he halls containing the beasts and birds are sufficiently spacious for that purpose, and the animals are tastefully arranged ; but I saw none among them of a kind which I had not seen before, excepting the non-descript skeleton. This was found in making an excavation at Paraguay. It is nearly as large as the elephant, but bears no resemblance to that animal. The celebrated Cuvier has given it the name of Megatherium. The shells are an extensive and most beautiful collection ; and among those most rare, are many, exhibiting in wax the form of the fish attached to them.
The Grecian vases, if not the most curious, are among the must beautiful objects to be seen here. They are made, some of the clearest and most beautiful crystals, and some, of precious stones. All, for variety and gracefulness of form, beauty of colours, brilliancy of polish, and exquisite taste, surpass any thing of the kind I have
Their value I could not ascertain, but presume it to be such that monarchs only
own them. The room containing the Indian curiosities, Chinese dresses, a mandarin in full dress, &c. is less than the Asiatic Marine Hall in Salem ; and the variety is much less, being principally confined to curiosities from their possessions in South America.
The royal collection of paintings are deposited in the palace, near the Prado. They are exhibited in three immensely long halls, two of which contain exclusively those of the Spanish school, and the other those of the Italian. The paintings are all numbered, and for twenty cents the visitor is furnished with a