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and as a part of a course of studies for persons intended for the learned professions. The academies and high schools are almost universally preparatory and subordinate to the colleges. The instructers in them are selected with reference to this object; their attention is chiefly devoted to it; and even when they have the capacity and inclination to give instruction in the sciences, they are prevented by want of apparatus and of time. In the secondary schools, little else is taught but reading, writing, grammar, arithmetic, and geography. The Gardiner Lyceum was intended to supply this deficiency, for a portion of our country, and to furnish that kind of instruction which is not furnished elsewhere, and which is most necessary to many important classes in the community. Algebra, geometry, trigonometry, mensuration, book-keeping, surveying, navigation, mechanics, hydrostatics, pneumatics, and chemistry, together with the branches usually taught at schools, constitute the original course which was designed to occupy the space of two years. During the third year the learner was to proceed to other branches of natural philosophy and mathematics, and to natural history and the philosophy of the mind. These, with exercises in composition, instruction in natural and revealed religion, and lectures on several of the above branches, completed the original plan.
The Lyceum was opened in January, 1823, under the direction of Mr Benjamin Hale, as Principal. It began with only two or three students, but the number gradually increased until August, when a second class was admitted. In November there were twenty students, ten in each class. At this time a second Address of the Trustees was published, containing a more particular account of the studies to be pursued in the different years, than had before been given, -—an outline of the lectures on chemistry and mechanics, and an intimation of the desire of the Trustees to have a farm and a professor of agriculture and the kindred arts, connected with ihe institution. The Address gives the following as “the principal objects, which the Trustees have in view, in establishing the professorship in connexion with a practical farm.
“ 1st. To give to the future agriculturist the knowledge of those principles of science upon which his future success depends, and to let him see them reduced to practice.
“ 2d. To furnish a beneficial employment, as recreation. “ 3d. To diminish the expenses of board.
“ 4th. To try a series of agricultural experiments adapted to the soil and climate of Maine."
The trustees also express a hope, that they shall “ be able to provide some suitable employment for those young men who may attend the institution with a view of becoming mechanics, by which they may be enabled to discharge their expenses.” “ Another object of the Trustees is to collect the best models of useful tools and machines."
The academical year begins in August; and the catalogue published in October 1824, states the whole number of students at the Lyceum, at that time, to be sixty-six,-a very large number for a school upon an entirely new plan, and drawn together within less than two years from its commencement. The address to the public, by the principal instructer, accompanying the catalogue of October 1824, gives an account of the adoption of three new and important measures.
I. For the benefit of those, who cannot attend throughout the year, winter classes are proposed for instruction in, 1. Surveying; 2. Navigation ; 3. Carpentry and Civil Architecture; 4. Chemistry,
II. A boarding-house is established, at which the expenses for board, washing, and room are reduced to $1,50 a week, making only 65 dollars a year.
III. A new method of discipline and government is adopted, formed upon the model of the celebrated Hofwyl school, the constitution of which we have already laid before our readers at length. Some modifications have been made in that system of governinent, but we shall take no farther notice of them at this time; as a full account both of the method and its success will appear at some future period in this Gazette.
Arrangements are made to devise suitable courses of studies for mariners and merchants, as well as for those classes for which the institution seems to have been at first principally designed.
Two additional instructers are already employed,-a tutor in mathematics and an instructer in natural history.
The works used as text-books are, perhaps, as good as could be selected out of the miserable mass from which a selection must be made. Many of them, however, are too general and abstract for pupils, whose minds are so unaccustomed to study and close application, as the minds of those must be who form the generality of the school. Many of them are too voluminous for text-books, and some are radically and essentially wrong in principle. We mean in the principle of communicating knowledge. Unless, therefore, these inherent dif
ficulties are overcome by more patience and devotedness in making oral and familiar explanations, than generally falls to the lot of teachers, the school must fail of accomplishing the utmost of which it is capable, until the experience of the instructers shall suggest plans for books more consonant with the principles and phenomena of the human mind, and of course better suited to the objects of this promising establisnment.
Bézout's Arithmetic has been translated for the use of the school by one of the instructers. The original forms part of a course of pure and mixed mathematics, which has had for many years great popularity in France, has gone through numerous editions, and still holds its place in many of the best French schools. To the mathematician tolerably well acquainted with French scientific writers the name is familiar. Bézout devoted a great part of his life to instruction in mathematics, and it was with a perfect knowledge of the difficulties to be overcome, and of the simplest mode of presenting abstract ideas to the uncultivated mind, that he wrote his course for his own pupils and those in similar circumstances. The translator has made some considerable additions the bette: to meet the wants of American schools.
The increasing demand for scientific instruction in this country, must, as we before intimated, bring forward many new books adapted to our peculiar situation and wants. It is most sincerely to be hoped that something better will soon appear, than the miserable and disjointed copies of poor old English compends, which are now almost universally used. And while such works as Colburn's two Arithmetics, Woodbridge's Geography, and this Arithmetic of Bézout are becoming common, we may have confidence that when scholars and men of science will devole themselves to the humble task of making school-books, they will be rewarded by seeing darkness and error gradually giving place to truth and knowledge.
Mathematics may seem to occupy an undue space in the course of studies for the first two years; but when it is conisidered that they afford one of the sturdiest exercises for sobering the fickleness, and taming the waywardness of the youthful mind; and at the same time form the foundation of ihe arts of the mariner and the mechanic, and are of great use to the farmer and the merchant, it appears probable that it will be found necessary to increase the quantity rather than allow it to be diminished.
The Monday morning recitations are in Scripture History, Paley's Natural Theology, and Paley's Evidences of Christianity. It is impossible to speak too highly of an arrangement, which gives so conspicuous a place to a kind of knowledge essential to our social and political happiness.
There seems to be one defect in the course of study, which indeed is common to almost every school in New England. No effectual provision is made for instruction in drawing ; by which nothing more is here meant, than what is technically called right-line drawing. Without some knowledge of this, it is impossible thai a correct draught or plan should be made of a bridge, a dam, or a house ; of a machine, a ship, a harbour, coast, or piece of land. it ought, therefore, to be one of the first objects of attention to the architect, the navigator, and the surveyor; all of whom are to be provided for in such a school as this. In most countries of Europe it is one of the first pursuits in the common schools, and it is so useful to all persons engaged in the manual arts, and would be so pleasing an acquisition to the scholar, that it strongly recommends itself to general notice. Some mention is made of it in a sketch of the studies for one of the winter classes, but it seems not to be thought of sufficient importance to be made a distinct study:
It could hardly be expected that an extensive apparatus should be collected within the short time this Lyceum bas been established. Strong desires are expressed by the trustees of being able soon to procure the philosophical and mechanical instruments and models necessary for the more perfect instruction of the school. There is no doubt, considering the zeal and devotedness with which the interests of this school are prosecuted, both by the trustees and the teachers, that the best use would be made of them, and that they would not be suffered to fall to ruin from disuse and want of care, as philosophical instruments have been allowed to do in some parts of our country.* A small number they already have, and it is to be hoped that the munificence of those who may be induced to take an interest in the Lyceum, will enable them to make the collection complete.
The situation of the “ Lyceum in the Town of Gardiner"> is certainly very fortunate, from its central position (with regard to Maine), on a navigable river, in a populous neigh
* Most of the beautiful instruments purchased some time since by our government, have gone to ruin from neglect. This has happened eren at West Point.
bourhood and fertile country, where commerce is continually extending; and in a town possessing uncommonly fine mill privileges; and which already offers to the student in mechanics the exhibition of a greater variety of machinery moved by water, than can be found in any other town in the state." These circumstances taken in connexion with the very low rate of board, and smallness of other expenses, render the situation extremely eligible, not only with reference to the inhabitants of Maine, but for those of other states, who may wish to send children to a good school of this kind.
In so favorable a situation, and under the management of persons so skillful and active as the instructer and directors have already shown themselves to be, it is very desirable that the experiment of a practical farm, superintended by a professor of agriculture, and carried on in a great degree by the students themselves, should be fairly tried. It is difficult to doubt of its utility as an instrument of instruction and agreeable recreation; but, whatever it may bring to the Lyceum, it can produce only good to the public. It is one of those great philosophical experiments, which the voice of the agricultural community has long called for, and the directors of the Lyceum at Gardiner are fortunate and wise in being the first to hear and understand the call. Philosophy has of late years enriched the arts of life with too many and too valuable gifts to leave it doubtful that a close union between enlightened theory and patient labour, on a great scale, will be productive of the most beneficial results.
It is with similar feelings and hopes, that the plan must be contemplated of building workshops, furnished with various instruments, for the recreation and exercise of those students, who may be destined to any of the mechanical arts.
There are several particulars relating to the Lyceum, which have been merely mentioned, though they are of a very interesting nature. Such are the new mode of government, the institution of winter classes, the places and modes of study and recitation. On these and many other points, experiments are making, in the true spirit, it strikes us, of philosophical induction, and they can lead only to the happiest results. We cannot conclude this brief notice of the plan and purposes of the Gardiner Lyceum, without expressing our admiration of the spirit with which the institution was projected, and with which its best interests have been guarded and fostered. From the different addresses of the