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beautiful and majestic person, all dress is deformity, and it belongs to art and taste to diminish that deformity as much as possible. So a man's thoughts, if they be just, dignified, and beautiful, cannot be conveyed to others through the medium of language (however they may be by painting, sculpture, and gesture) so strongly and so perfectly as he conceives them in his own mind; and he should endeavour to diminish the inconvenience arising from the imperfection of all language, as much as possible;-he should study, habitually, such à choice and arrangement of words and sentences, as will give the truest and most agreeable expression to the thoughts of his mind and the feelings of his heart. This is the busi. ness of labour and art; and it was precisely in this, that Demosthenes excelled all other men ; and it is in this, that Mr Webster is deficient. We do not mean that he is greatly so, or that we had not rather err with him, than to be right with some other men ;
" Errare mehercule malo cum Platone, quàm cum istis vera sentire.” We only mean to intimate that, in our opinion, there is, in this respect, room for improvement.
Some persons appear to have been disappointed, that none of those sudden and surprising effects, which we read of in the annals of ancient oratory, were produced on this occasion. We think this fact can be explained without the least disparagement of the speaker's general powers, or of the merits of this address. If we look into the history of the times to which those effects belong, we shall find that the minds both of the audience and of the orator were agitated by the strongest passions. The fears of invasion, defeat, captivity, and death; the hope of victory in a doubtful strife, and of salvation from these last of human calamities; the love of personal and national glory; the horror of contempt and infamy; the hatred of foreign foes, plunderers, and destroyers; the attachment to country, friends, wives, chiidren, and home-these, or like passions, were heaving and struggling in the breasts of both the people and the speaker. Is it strange, that, under such circumstances, great and memorable effects should have been produced by accomplished masters of that living lyre, the human heart? At Bunker Hill, all was matter of calm retrospection and cool reflection. The events, which formed the appropriate topics of the occasion, were numbered with those before the flood. There was no present enemy to denounce, no pressing and imminent danger to guard against, no lives of men, no sacrifices of substance, to be called for; no husband nor son to be torn from wife, parent, and home, to be devoted to country, to death, and to fame; no hostile hatred, ambition, and cruelty, to portray; nothing, in short, so far as regarded the subject, which in itself was calculated to produce any sudden and violent emotion, any more than the ordinary topics of a sacrament sermon. Yet uncommon effects were produced, and we think it fair to say, that those effects were more to be attributed to the talents of the speaker, than to the circumstances under wbich he spoke. In addition to these disadvantages, it may be remarked, that expecration was raised to the highest pitch both from the known and well tried talents of the oralor, and from the singular and sublime, yet tranquil and pacific character of this sober celebration.
We would not have our readers suppose, that, in these remarks, we are answering objections of our own, and trying to work ourselves up, invitâ minervâ, into an intense and unnatural admiration of a performance to which our feelings are indifferent or repugnant. They are intended merely as a reply to those who demand, without regard to circumstances, not a production which should rival in its excellence, but one which should equal in its immediate effects, the most renowned efforts of ancient eloquence. Such an expectation was unnatural, unreasonable, unphilosophical, and ought to have been disappointed. This address, however, needs not our commendation or defence. It is already travelling to the four quarters of the world, It is transcribed on the hearts of the thousands who heard it, and will be on those of the millions who will read it.
Reform of Harvard College.
[CONTINUED.] Beside the resident Professors already mentioned, there are two others, who are not concerned in the instruction of undergraduates, and whose salaries add nothing to the expense of instruction. On these, therefore, it is unnecessary to remark at present.
Having shown that the expense of the establishments of the resident Professors, may be partially diminished at present, and
reduced still more in process of time, without injury or offence to any individual, we come next to the consideration of those of the non-resident Professors. Two of these are supported from the income of foundations, and add nothing, either directly or indirectly, to the expense of the instruction of undergraduates. They do not, therefore, come within the limits of our present intention. Of the remaining four, we notice first that of the Professor of the French and Spanish languages and literature. In the year 1816, the College received from the executors of Abiel Smith, Esq. of Boston, the nominal sum of $30,000, vested in the national stocks. The income of this was, by his will, to be appropriated to the “maintenance and suppori of a Teacher or Professor of the French and Spanish languages at said University.” This income, according to the report now under consideration, is $1418.56. We think that the result to be expected from this very
liberal donation was the appointment of some gentleman skilled in these languages, who should be resident in Cambridge, and ready to afford to the students the benefit of his instruction and conversation without any addition to their previous expenses. The college would ihus have derived from this bequest an advantage wholly unincumbered.
Such a gentleman was appointed to reside in Cambridge with a salary of $1000; but of this sum only $418.56 is derived from the income of the foundation, the remainder is paid by the students. The remaining $1000 is given to a Professor of the French and Spanish languages and literature, who resides in Boston, and who may reside, for aught we know, at the Antipodes, provided he delivers a course of lectures, at a certain period of the year, in Cambridge. The course consists, according to the report, of fifty-five lectures. This arrangement strikes us as premature, to say the least of it. On this point, however, we desire to be clearly understood. We are very far from intending to depreciate the merit of these lectures, or of the accomplished individual who now fills the Professorial chair. The lectures we have understood to be highly valuable, learned, and beautiful. But we are of opinion, that they are a luxury which the funds of the College cannot well afford. Neither do we wish to give our opinion arrogantly, concerning the motive which influenced the Gov.. ernors of the College in the formation of this establishment, as well as in other instances. This motive we suppose to be a desire to add to the celebrity, dignity, and usefulness,
of the University, by attaching to it a numerous body of eminent individuals. We are aware that, on this subject, wise and good men differ from us; but as these are not the days when men pin their faith on any man's sleeve, we do not hesitate to give our opinion on this as well as on any other maiter of public concernment which happens to come before us.
We think this notion of securing to the College the services of eminent persons may be carried too far, and that an institution, like an individual, may be extravagant. We think it has been carried too far, and doubt the general soundncss of the opinion implied by the gentlemen of the first committee of the Board of Overseers, that the establishments in Cambridge are behind the spirit of our age and country.” We think that, in some instances, they are before it, and that the Professorship under consideration is an instance of it; an annual course of lectures on French and Spanish literature is agreeable and useful; a splendid work on bolany, entomology, or any other natural science, is also agreeable and useful; but either will hardly pay its own expense in this country; and however we may regret the fact, we must quietly put up with it for the present. The period will come, bui it is not yet. In this department, therefore, of French and Spanish instruction, we think about $600 per annum might have been saved.
The other non-residents are the medical Professors. Two of them, the Professors of Physic and Anatomy, receive together $1 200; of the income of funds appropriated by the donors to this purpose we find but $1031.03. The balance, $168.97, it would seem, must be derived from the unappropriated funds, and of course goes to increase the assessments on the undergraduates.
An extensive building is provided for the Medical School in Boston, and the Professors derive an income from the fees from medical students. The students are obliged to attend their lectures, before they can obtain a degree from the University. A valuable collection of anatomical preparations is also provided for the Professor of Anatomy at the College. It seems to us, that under these circumstances it would not have been upreasonable to require these gentlemen to perform their duties at Cambridge gratuitously. These duties are six lectures, biennally, from the Professor of Medicine, and from fifteen to twenty from the Professor of Anatomy, annually.
But as the income of the donations must be paid them, there is no more to be said, except that the addition of $168.97 to it, from the unappropriated funds, seems quite unnecessary.
The chemical Professor performs no duties at Cambridge. He receives $200 only from a specific appropriation. But since, as in the other cases, his title and office cause an income, we do not see why he should not be called on to deliver a course of lectures to the Students at Cambridge. If his time is too valuable to permit this, there seems no very strong reason why he should not appoint and pay a Lecturer, and thereby save to the College $800, or that part of it which is now paid from the unappropriated funds to such a Lecturer.
The salaries of the Tutors, we believe, are originally $666. “In September 1811, it was voted by the Corporation, with the assent of the Overseers, that the annual salary of any Tutor who shall have been in office more than three years, and not exceeding six, shall be eight hundred dollars, to be paid to him quarter-yearly, so long as he shall remain Tutor; and that the annual salary of any Tutor wbo shall bave been in office more than six years shall be one thousand dollars, to be paid to him quarter-yearly, so long as he shall remain Tutor. And be it further voted, that any Tutor who shall have been in office more than six years, shall have the style and rank of Professor of the department of which he is an Instructer, so long as he shall remain Tutor; provided, however, that said Professor be entitled to all the privileges, and subject to all the duties to which, as Tutor, he would be entitled and subject, and that the tenure of his office remain the same, he being bound to such further duties connected with his department and entitled to such exemptions as shall be determined by the Corporation, with the assent of the Overseers.”
The intention of this vote was, as is evident, to induce gentlemen to remain in these oflices long enough to become thoroughly acquainted with the business of instruction and government, and of course to be more useful than they could be by devoting only a portion of their time to the duties of an office, which would be regarded only as a temporary resource while the incumbent was preparing for some other business or profession. It was supposed, and it is the opinion of many now, that this arrangement was judicious, that the order and improvement of the students depended very much upon the skill and efficiency of their tutors, that this class of officers was a very important one, and that this progressive increase of salary was the best, if not the only way, of making it sufficiently useful and efficient.
The character of this office approaches to that of the school-master, and is highly important if it be true that a pro