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drawn up with great fidelity and industry, may justly be considered as a very necessary and useful addition to our mineral knowledge; and an accompaniment of practical utility to the last edition of Professor Cleaveland's Manual. But, besides the extension of our geographical knowledge, which this Catalogue embraces, there are no less than seventy substances added to the Ameriaan list of minerals, which are not found in Cleaveland's last edition. The sources of information employed by the author have been also more numerous than could have been well imagined, for a science of such recent origin as that of mineralogy in the United States. It was, therefore, necessary for the collector at least to employ no inconsiderable number of expensive publications to acquire the necessary knowledge of the subject. The work is not merely an empty catalogue, as may be seen by its containing 320 octavo pages, but includes useful notes added or compiled by the author, on the uses and characteristic or remarkable traits of the substance.
A Practical Treatise on the Law of Partnership. By NIEL Gow, Esq. of Lincoln's
Inn, Barrister at Law. First American from the last London edition. With Notes and References to American Decisions, by Edward D. Ingraham, Esq.'
Philadelphia. 1325. 8vo. Tars Treatise on the Law of Partnership is valuable principally because it contains most of the recent decisions on the subject, and brings the law down to the present time. There were two excellent ones in use before,—those of Watson and of Montagu. The volume before us, however, differs very materially from both of these. It is much more elaborate, and perhaps more scientific in its form. The chapters and sections are in the nature of dissertations. The author writes as if he had thoroughly investigated all that has been said or decided on the Law of Partnership; but he gives us the result of his inquiries in his own language, without much quoting, and, indeed, with seldom more than a general reference to the authorities, on which his positions rest. The other two treatises we alluded to, have more the character of digests; or rather they are collections of legal decisions classified judiciously. This is particularly the case with the very popular one of Mr Montagu. After laying out his work generally, he states briefly, under each division, the principles belonging to it, and then inserts the decided cases, from which he has deduced those principles, either at full length, or at least so much of them as were material for the decision of the question before the court.
And we think this last is, on the whole, decisively the best way. The other, it is true, may exhibit more talent, and appear in a much more imposing form at first. There seems to be some play of original thinking about it. But a law-treatise is the last place for genins to shine in,indeed originality may here be a great defect. Gentlemen of the bar want to know how questions have already been argued and settled. It is fact-it is what has actually been said, done, and decided by those superior tribunals, who preside over the law,—that they hunt among musty folios for; and a practical lawyer will never repose full confidence in the most satisfactory treatise that ever was written, without recurring likewise to the original cases, on which that treatise was built. Able essays or disquisitions are of little authority in our courts of judicature. It is not always safe to cite even the best digests or
commentaries. The decisions, or the adjudged cases themselves, out of which the digested principles are drawn, ought to be first examined and produced, if they are in existence; and it is only when these were never properly repeated, or when they have been lost by lapse of time, that the digest or the commentary is resorted to, as the next best evidence of the reality of those decisions, that the nature of the case admits of. These things have been applied to even the great work of Sir William Blackstone, one of the ablest judges who ever sat on the English bench. It was lately said of that work by an eminent jurist in delivering a judicial opinion: “I am always sorry to hear Mr Justice Blackstone's Commentaries cited as authority; he would have been sorry himself to hear the book so cited; he did not consider it such.”
For these reasons, we think Mr Gow's treatise will not supersede the use of Watson and Mootagu. It is certainly, however, a very able work. The editor, too, has added much to its value by the copious supply of American decisions, which he has introduced into it." And perhaps as an elementary book for the student at law, or for the general reader, who wishes merely for a broad view of the subject, and has no occasion to look into the original cases themselves, in order to see the exact application of them,-it is the most interesting of the three; but to the accurate practical lawyer, the other two are in their manner decidedly preferable.
Memoirs of the Life of John Philip Kemble, Esq., including a History of the Stage
from the time of Garrick to the present period. By JAMES BOADEN, Esq. Phi
ladelphia. 1825. Two vols in one. 8vo. pp. 607. The history of the English Stage for the last fifty years, with memoirs and anecdotes of the principal actors, affords a subject for a moderatesized book, which might be interesting and valuable, not only to those more immediately connected with the stage, but to the general reader. But the size of this book is out of all proportion to the intrinsic interest of the subject of it, especially to readers in this country; and the ability with which the author has treated it, is not such as will atone for this inherent and appalling difficulty. Seven eighths of the huge volume is taken up in stating facts of no consequence to any one at the present time-in relating stupid anecdotes of more stupid people—and in detailing with a tedious and provoking minuteness the bickerings and petty squabbles of a host of actors totally insignificant in the history of the stage. We do intreat our respectable and enterprizing publishers to spare the public from more such books as this. It can have but little interest, even with English readers, and much less with us. The mention of a few distinguished names in it may attract some notice, but that will make but slender atonement for the mass of nonsense in which they are involved. We do not profess to have read the book through,—we would sooner give up our review than attempt such a thing. But we have read enough to acquire a thorough disgust for it, and to convince ourselves that the folly of the plan is only equalled by the feebleness with which it is executed. If others have patience and good nature enough to worry themselves through it, and can honestly arrive at a different conclusion, we shall be very happy to have our impressions corrected; but till that is done, we shall most conscientiouly believe it is one of the most stupid books with which we have ever been afflicted.
ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES AT PHILADELPHIA.
This is, perhaps, the most useful and active scientific association which at present exists in the United States. It combines a considerable number of individuals of talent, industry, and great zeal, and they promise to labour extensively in that almost untrodden field, the Natural History of America. It has been in existence several years, and its transactions have been submitted to the public; but the present year the first annual report of the Secretary of the Society, containing an account of its transactions for 1824, has been published. The view which it gives of its activity and zeal is highly honourable to the Society, and encourages us to look to this source for many important additions to the natural history of our country.
The meetings of the Society are, we believe, frequent, and are occupied by the reading of scientific communications or the delivery of lectures upon scientific subjects. The number of comrounications read before the Academy during the year 1824, was thirty-seven; of these some account is given by the Secretary under three heads, 1. Zoology; 2. Geology and Organic Remains ; 3. Mineralogy; with a brief abstract of their contents. The number of lectures delivered was twenty-five. Of these, fourteen related to the physiology or the natural history of animals, two to botany, four to mineralogy and geology, and the remainder to subjects of mathematical or general science.
The Academy, during the year, published two half volumes of the Journ of their Transactions, containing the greater part of the communications which have been alluded to; and several remained on hand, which were to be put to press early in the present year. The report contains a most flattering view of the condition and prospects of the Society.
“ Whether we estimate,” says the Secretary, “ the progress of this institution by the number of scientific communications submitted to itby the number or merit of the memoirs deemned worthy of insertion in your journal—by the interest taken in your proceedings by the members ihemselves, as evinced in their more regular attendance at the meetings, and in the increased number of lectures delivered this year-by the accession to our list of associates,-or, finally, by the improved state of our finances, we shall, in each of these bearings, discover great cause for rejoicing, and an assurance that our institution is daily increasing in importance, in respectability, and, what is still more desirable, in usefulness."
LIVINGSTON'S PENAL CODE OF LOUISIANA. In the number of the Westminster Review for January, 1825, is an article on the Penal Code of Louisiana, as drawn up by our distinguished countryman, Edward Livingston, Esq. The Code is examined in detail, and treated in a style of commendation very unusual in foreign reviews. The greatest praise is given to the principles advanced by
Mr Livingston, and the processes recommended by him. It is objected, however, to the Code, that its punishments are, in many instances, defective, since they do not extend to the compensation of the sufferers by the crime, which, in the opinion of the reviewer, ought to form a fundamental part of every penal infliction. Very large extracts are made in the course of the article, which concludes with the following tribute to Mr Livingston.
“We cannot conclude this notice of his labours, without joining our feeble voice to that of the legislative assembly for which he is preparing this code, and earnestly soliciting Mr Livingston to prosecute his work' in the spirit of this Report. In England the eyes of its most enlightened philosophers, of its best statesmen, and of its most devoted philanthropists, will be fixed upon him; and in his own country, his name must be bad in everlasting remembrance,' venerated and loved. He is one of those extraordinary individuals whom nature has gifted with the power, and whom circumstances have afforded the opportunity, of shedding true glory and conferring lasting happiness on his country; and of identifying his own name with its freest, and most noble and most perfect institutions.”
SIR WALTER SCOTT. The students of the University of St Andrews have unanimously elected Sir Walter Scott Rector of that University. But the Senatus Academicus have declared the election void, by the statutes of the University, which, they contend, restrict the choice to persons holding certain situations within its precincts. This construction, they assert, has the sanction of four hundred years' usage, and cannot now be modified by the University itself. This subject is under investigation before a committee, in order to settle the principle of the eligibility of persons not holding said “certain situations within its precincts.” In the mean time Sir Walter bas declined the honor intended him, on the score of increasing years and aversion to business.
GERMAN UNIVERSITIES. A great sensation has been produced throughout Germany by the appearance of a work entitled, “ The Disgraceful Proceedings of the Universities, Lyceums, and Gymnasia of Germany; or, History of the Conspiracies of the Schools against Royalty, Christianity, and Virtue, by K.M. E. Fabricius." This work, of about 200 pages, is dedicated to the German members of the Holy Alliance, and to their ministers and ambassadors at the Diet, and it denounces and vituperates the most enlightened and estimable of the German literati and men of science. It proposes to abolish all universities, or to put them under a more severe surveillance.
ANCIENT CHRONICLES OF THE NORTH. There exists, in manuscript, in the Royal Library, and in several other collections in Copenhagen, a great number of Sagas, or chronicles, written in the Icelandic language, the publication of which is the more desirable, as they would throw a powerful light on the ancient
history of the North, and as there is reason to fear that they will perish by decay, if they are not soon withdrawn from the dust of the libra. ries. These considerations have induced three learned Icelanders to associate themselves, in the task of publishing these precious relics of antiquity, with M. Rafu, who has just edited a tract called " The Chronicle of the Warriors of loonsburg.” The intended publication will be in three different languages—in the original Icelandic, accompanied by two translations, the one in Danish and the other in Latin. The work just mentioned, which was copied from a manuscript of the 12th century, collated with two others of the 14th century, has been published only in Danish, as a specimen, in order to give the public an idea of the utility, as well as of the nature of the projected work, which is to be commenced in 1825.
STATISTICS OF HAYTI.
The population of Hayti, in 1824, amounted to 935,335. The whole number of inbabitants in the island, before the revolution, did not exceed 660,000. The regular army, for the same year, is stated at 45,520 men, and the national guards at 113,328.
DISCOVERY OF AN ANCIENT WELL AT ATHENS. Pausanias, in his “ Attics," chap. xxvi. mentions a well in the citadel in the temple of Erechtheus, cut in the rock, said to contain salt water, and to yield the sound of waves when the south wind blows. This well, after remaining closed up and unknown for perhaps a thousand years, was discovered in 1823. Want of provisions, and, still more, want of water, had compelled the Turks to surrender. The Greeks, after they got the fortress in their hands, foresaw that similar privations might operate against themselves, and having observed, while engaged in the seige, some water filtering through the soil at the foot of the rock, they dug down from above towards the spot whence it seemed to proceed, and soon came to a subterraneous stair of 150 steps, conducting to a small square chamber, in which was a well yielding a copious supply of fine water.
ARTS AND SCIENCES.
Five Hundred Questions, selected from a full course of Illustrations and Experiments upon Chemistry. Applied to the Useful Arts, given at the Agricultural Seminary at Derby, Connecticut; with a short statement of the Course of Instruction pursued at that Institution. 12mo. New Haren.
Memoir of the Life of Josiah Quincy, Jun. of Massachusetts : by his son, Josiah Quincy. 8vo. Boston. Cummings, Hilliard, & Co.