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a horse-race. We do not love to dwell on trifling blemishes, and, therefore, did not mark the frequent occurrence of bad rhymes and harsh metres, which again and again oflended our ears.
The lines, “ To the Dead," which, by the way, should have been entitled, “Of the Dead,” we quote as highly beautiful, and as strikingly characteristic of the author's chief excellence—of thinking genuine poetry, which is unlike any other man's poetry.
TO THE DEAD.
That live to others yet!
Tiil dead can ne'er forget.
Most wretchedly alone,
In his lone dungeon shone.
Though months and years have passed,
As when I saw him last.
And eye, is dead to me.
And his eye, for it did not see.
And for the dead the smile ;
Around the funeral pile. With this extract we must take our leave of Mr Brainard for the present; but with hopes soon to receive another volume from his hands, which shall amply fulfil the high promise, which this work makes us, that we have poets of an exalted order among us, and whom untoward circumstances, " the hopes of making a little something," have alone hitherto repressed.
Plans for the Government and Liberal Instruction of Boys in
large numbers ; drawn from experience. London. 1822.
8vo. pp. 238. This book contains so much practical good sense as well as sound philosophy upon the subject of education, that we are resolved to lose no time in laying it, at some length, before our readers. If the book itself were in their hands, we should proceed at once to make our remarks upon its peculiarities and its merits, alluding to it only, as occasions might require, as to a subject with which they are already familiar. But as few copies have probably reached this side of the Atlantic, we shall first give a pretty full analysis of it, reserving our remarks for the close of this or perhaps for some future article. The "Hazelwood School," of which this book contains the plan, has attracted considerable attention in England for the last few years, and is destined, if we mistake not, to attract much more; and to be made in many respects, the model of other schools there, as well as in our own country. But the plan is not such as can be generally adopted for the efficient instruction of the whole people, either in England or in the United States. The complicated machinery of its government would require pupils of an age, when the most interesting, and perhaps the most important period of their education, as it respects both the moral and intellectual character, would be passed. Habits are contracted-principles are in some degree fixed and traits in character are strongly marked, by instructions received, and examples observed long before a pupil would be capable of sustaining many of the relations, which would devolve upon him as a member of a school like the one here described. This consideration limits the application of the Hazelwood system of government to pupils of an age, when much must have already been done. Another will limit it still more. A full development of the plan, and such, according to our author, it must have, in order to ensure its success, would involve expenses, which must place it at once beyond the reach of a great proportion of the people in this country, and of at least as great a proportion of them in England. This limitation contines the application of the sys. tem to a certain class; and could only be removed by the benevolent exertions and appropriations of individuals, for establishing institutions of a similar character, free, or partially
free, to the whole population of the country; or by the government's assuming the whole responsibility and expense of organizing and supporting the elementary schools, and throwing the burden of it upon property.
The former is not likely to be the case to any considerable extent; and the latter policy we fear will not be adopted till the question is more definitely settled, whether the government ought to interfere at all in the education of the people farther than to allow them to educate themselves, and perhaps to offer some few facilities to encourage them to do it. One other plan, perhaps, may suggest itself, by which the system will become more generally applicable to our higher schools, viz. by connecting more of agricultural or mechanical pursuits with it, by which they may wholly or in great part defray their own expenses.
With these restrictions, the Hazelwood School promises to be an interesting and instructive model. Its system of government will afford hints, which, with some modifications, may
be advantageously adopted in those schools and academies, which have a large number of pupils, and those attending constantly and for a long time. On failure of any of these conditions, the system will be found inapplicable to any class of schools in this country; however it may have succeeded under other and more favourable circumstances. The principles of government, though familiar to us on a somewhat larger scale, were new as applied to schools. And the projectors of the Hazelwood establishment certainly must have the credit of ingenuity, as well as originality. The government of schools has generally been a monarchy, and so administered as to become the very essence of tyranny. By this plan it is made essentially democratic, by vesting most of the power in the body of pupils, who form the community of the school. They make and execute all the laws for its regulation, except those which " determine the hours of attendance, and the regular amount of exercises to be performed.” The master and teachers have only a negative authority in these matters, if all their powers are fairly stated in the following constitution. How far their personal influence may extend in swaying public opinion, we are not informed. But we hasten, without further preliminary remarks, to quote the plan of government at length, in the hope thus to gratify those, who are more particularly interested in the subject; and, perhaps, at the expense of being thought particularly dull by most of our readers.
The government of the school is lodged in the hands of the master, the teachers, and a committee of boys elected by their companions.
The committee is chosen on the first Monday in each month, at a general mecting of the school, over which one of the boys is called upon to preside as chairman. The boy who is then highest in rank, the means of obtaining which are hereafter described, appoints a member of the committee; the two next in elevation jointly nominate a second ; the three next choose a third, and so on to the bottom of the list; the last section, if incomplete, being incorporated with the previous division.
The committee at present consists of cleven boys; but its number must evidently vary with any considerable increase or diminution in the school. Each of the assistant teachers is a member ex officio ; but, as we think it desirable to leave the management of affairs as much as possible in the hands of the boys themselves, only one teacher has been in the habit of attending the committee's meeting-s.
The committee mects once a week; it has the formation of all the laws and regulations of the school, excepting such as determine the hours of attendance and the regular amount of exercises to be performed; but when the committee has resolved upon any law, a copy is presented by the secretary to the head master, whose sanction is necessary before it can be put in force.* The law is afterwards read aloud in the presence of the school, when its operation immediately commences, and a copy is hung in a conspicuous part of the school-room, for at least three days.
The regulations of the committee require, that previously to the discussion of any new law, a week's notice shail be given. This necessary arrangement having sometimes occasioned inconvenient delay, a subcommittee, consisting of the judge and magistrate for the time being, has been empowered to make regulations, liable as usual to the veto of the master; which, unless annulled in the mean time by the general committee, continue in operation for a fortnight. A great advantage of this arrangement is, that it affords opportunity of trying as an experiment the effect of any regulation, and modifying it, if necessary, before it forms a part of the code of written laws.
Immediately after its election, the new committee assembles, and proceeds to appoint the officers for the ensuing month. A chairman and secretary are first chosen; then the judge, the magistrate, the sheriff, and the keeper of the records, are elected. At the same time also, the master appoints the attorney-general, the judge nominates the clerk and the crier of the court, and the magistrate his two constables.
Of the duties of the judge we sball speak hereafter. The magistrate has the power of enforcing all penalties below a certain amount. When an offence is committed which is beyond his jurisdiction, he directs the attorney-general to draw an indictment against the offending party, who takes his trial in a manner which will be hereafter described. The magistrate also decides petty cases of dispute between the boys; and is
* The first committee was appointed on the 34 of February, 1817; and although from that time to the present (October, 1821), the committees have been constantly employed in repealing, revising, and correcting the old laws, and in forming new ones, the master's assent has never, in a single instance, been withheld, or even delayed.
expected, with the assistance of his constables, to detect all offences coinmitted in the school. At the end of the month the boy who has officiated as magistrate is rewarded with a half holiday, and, in order to secure to him the good-will and active co-operation of the other boys, he has the privilege of choosing a certain number of them to enjoy the holiday with him. This number is estimated by the master, according to the success of the police in preserving order. The magistrate has also the power to reward the constables with half a day's holiday at the same time, and to permit each of them to confer the same favour on either one or two other boys, according as he shall think his constables have performed their duty.
The sheriff has to enforce all penalties levied by the court of justice; and in case of the inability of the defaulter to pay the fine, it is his duty to imprison him. The rate at which penalties of marks shall be discharged by imprisonment has been determined by the cornnittee. The sheriff has also some other duties, which will be mentioned hereafter.
The keeper of the records has the care of the indictments and other papers belonging to the court of justice.
The attorney-general is the officer who conducts the proceedings against those boys who are tried by order of the magistrate. In cases of appeal, which will be hereafter explained, it is the duty of the attorneygeneral to draw up the necessary documents, if required by the appellant; for this he receives a fee of a certain number of marks from the unsuccessful party.
The court of justice assembles on Wednesday afternoon, whenever there is business which requires its attention. At this time every teacher and every pupil is expected to be in attendance. All boys, except the officers of the court, those who are in certain lower classes, and such as have been convicted by the court within the last month, are competent to serve upon the jury.
The jury consists of six, who are chosen by lot from among the whole body of qualified boys. The lots are drawn in open court, the first by the judge, and the remaining five by the first juryman drawn. The jury choose their own foreman.
The attorney-general and the accused party, if the case be penal, and each disputant, if civil, have a peremptory challenge of three, and a challege for cause, ad infinitum. The judge decides upon the validity of objections.
The officers of the court and the jury having taken their seats, the defendant (when the case is penal) is called to the bar by the crier of the court, and is placed between the constables. The clerk of the court then reads the indictment, at the close of which the defendant is asked if he object to any of the jury, when he may make his challenges, as before stated. The same question is put to the attorney-general. A short time is then allowed the defendant to plead guilty, if he be so disposed; he is asked no question, however, that he may not be induced to tell a falsehood : but in order to encourage an acknowledgment of the fault, when he pleads guilty a small deduction is made from the penalty appointed by the law for the offence. The consequence is, that at least five out of six of those who are justly accused acknowledge the offence in the first instance. If the defendant be determined to stand his trial, the attorney-general opens the case, and the trial proceeds. The defen