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his productions were performed. But we will leave the discussion of this
point to others, and proceed to make our readers acquainted with some
of the most striking features in the Play, as it is given.
It opens as in later editions.

Enter two Centinels.
1. Stand : who is that?
2. Tis I.
1. O you come most carefully vpon your watch,
2. And if you meete Marcellus and Horatio

The partners of my watch, bid them make haste.
1. I will: See who goes there.

Enter Horatio and Marcellus.
Hor. Friends to this ground.

Mar. And leegemen to the Dane, &c.
The omissions here, as well as throughout, which will readily be dis-
covered by looking at a modern edition, tend strongly to confirm the
suspicion, that the play was picked out by hearing it performed, and
getting speeches and parts from some of the actors. From where our
quotation ends, the text is nearly the same as in the quarto of 1611,
The first appearance of the Ghost is at the line, “The bell then towling
(not beating') one.” The dialogue continues nearly the same, except
that the omissions are considerable; as, for instance, the Ghost re-enters
at the cue, - ground of this our watch," after which, in the latter edi-
tions, there is inuch matter. But the difference of text is also observable;
for example, when the Ghost vanishes the first time, Horatio says-

In what perticular thought, to worke I know not,
But in the grosse & scope of my opinion,
This bodes, &c.

(410. of 1611.) Whereas the newly-found Play reads

In what particular to worke I know not
But in the thought and scope of our opinion

This bodes some strange eruption to the state.
In the next scene the King, Queen, &c. enter; and it is chiefly re-
markable for the name of Corambis being introduced instead of Polonius
and Leartes. Two Ambassadors are also mentioned, and is an improve-
ment, as their presence gives occasion for the King's speech, otherwise
uncalled for, to his own court. It begins, “Lordes we have urit,"
omitting all the foregoing parts; and the whole is greatly amplified in
the later copies. We will not occupy our page by quoting Hamlet's
Soliloquy, wben these exeunt, as it can be seen by turning to the com-
mon play ; but we imagine that readers will be pleased to have it as it
stands in this original.

Er all but Hamlet.
Ham. O that this too much grieu'd and sallied flesh
Would melt to nothing, or that the vniuersall
Globe of heauen would turne al to a Chaos !
O God within two moneths ; no not two: married,
Mine vncle ; O let me not thinke of it,
My fathers brother: but no more like
My father, then I to Hercules.
Within two months, ere yet the salt of most

Vnrigteous teares had left their flushing
In her galled eyes: she married, o God, a beast
Deuoyd of reason would not have made
Such speede : Frailtie, thy name is Woman,
Why she would hang on him, as if increase
Of appetite had growne by what it looked on.
O wicked wicked speede, to make such
Dexteritie to incestuous sheetes,
Ere yet the shooes were olde,
The which she followed my dead fathers corse
Like Nyobe, all tears: married, well it is not,
Nor it cannot come to good :

But breake my heart, for I must hold my tongue. We cannot go through the minutes of the new (old) Play, and point out where it differs and coincides with the later copies. After the above Soliloquy, Horatio enters with “ Health (not hail) to your lordship;" and the dialogue continues to, “For Godsake let me beare it.”

A fine Shaksperian expression occurs here in the line usually printed, " In the dead waste (or even waist) and middle of the night,” which is

In the dead Vast and middle of the night. Opelia appears as usual. The Ghost appears to Hamlet at the line,

More honoured in the breach than in observance. Hamlet's Soliloquy, on his entrance after Opelia's correspondence is shown, runs thus :

To be, or not to be, I there's the point.
To die, to sleepe, is that all ? I, all :
No, to sleepe, to dreame, I marry there it goes,
For in that dreame of death, when wee awake
And borne before an euerlasting ludge,
From whence no passenger euer return'd
The vndiscouered country, at whose sight
The happy smile, and the accursed damnd.
But for this, the ioyful hope of this
Whol'd beare the scornes and flattery of the world,
Scorned by the rich, the rich curssed by the poore?
The widow being oppressed, the orphan wrong'd
The taste of hunger, or a tirants raigne,
And thousand more calamities besides,
To grunt and sweate vnder this weary life,
When that he may his full quietus make
With a bare bodkin, who would this indure,
But for a hope of something after death?
Which pulses the braine, and doth confound the sence,
Which makes vs rather beare those euilles we haue,
Than fie to others that we know not of.
I that, O this conscience makes cowardes of vs all.

Lady in thy orizons, be all my sinnes remembred. This is a poor version; but, passing over the intervening scenes which follow the common course, we come to the most remarkable difference in the whole—the famous Closet Scene; though in doing so we omit the beginning (here)

Why what dung idiote slaue ame I,

and that in the advice to the players, where “ town criar” reads “a towne bull bellow.” There is one striking word in the Play Scene, which removes a pbrase that has been much objected to

Ham. Lady will you give me leave, and so forth:
To lay my head in your lappe.

Oph. No my Lord.
Ham. Vpon your lap, why do you thinke I meant

contrary matters. But we are brought to a conclusion, and can only add some remarkable passages of the Closet Scene:

Looke you nowe here is your husband
With a face like Vulcan,
A looke fit for a murder and a rape,
A dull dead hanging looke, and a hell-bred eie
To affright cbildren and amaze the world:
And this same have you left to change with death
What divell has thus cosoned you at hobman-blinde ?

#

Enter the Ghost in his Night Gowne. Hamlet exclaims

Saue me, saue you gratious

Powers above, &c.
At the exit of the Ghost the Queen says,

Alas it is the weakeness of thy braine
Which makes thy tongue to blazon thy hearts griefe ;
But as I have a soule, I sweare by Heauen,
I never knew of this most horride murder :
But Hamlet, this is onlie fantasie,
And for my love forget these idle fils.

Ham. Idle, no mother my pulse doth beate like yours
It is not madnesse that possesseth Hamlet.
O mother, if euer you did my deare father loue
Forbeare the adulterous bed to-night
And win yourself by little as you may
In time it may be you will lothe him quite.
And mother, but assist me in revenge
And in his death your infamy shall die.

Queene. Hamlet, I row by that Majesty
That krowes our thoughts, and lookes into our hearts
I will conceale, consent, and doe my best,
What stratagem soe're you shall denise.

Ham. It is enough, mother good night. These are very striking, and would have tempted us to go farther in this analysis, but we trust we have done enough to satisfy, in a sufficient measure, the intense curiosity which this book has raised in every literary circle--and the more so, as we have learnt, with much gratification, that Messrs Payne and Foss are about to commit the Hamlet to the press, for a literatim impression. They will greatly oblige the public by this judicious conduct, and every lover of Shakspeare, i. e. every lover of literature, will thank them for it. The work may be looked for in about a fortnight.

The original volume is valued at from 2001. to 3001. by the Philobiblios."

APPLICATION OF A PRINCIPLE IN HYDROSTATICS.

The acquisition of knowledge and the application of it to the practical business of life are very different things. The former engages our almost exclusive attention, while its results are valuable to us chiefly as they are possessed in connexion with the latter. Philosophers spend their lives in the investigation of abstract principles, while they are often taught all that is useful by the practical mechanic, who could not state bis knowledge in the form of a principle at all. These two things, so distinct in all our systems of instruction, yet so inseparable for all practical purposes, ought to be learned more in connexion with each other. They would then lend mutual aid. The philosophical investigation of principles would be much facilitated, and would proceed with much surer steps, by a constant reference to the facts and phenomena from which they are derived. And the observer of facts would be much aided by knowing how to class them, as they present themselves, and where to look for those suitable to verify, restrict, or extend the application of a doubtful, vague, or limited principle. The abstract principles of science, as learned by philosophers, are generally much in advance of their practical applications in the common pursuits and business of life. Most of the splendid discoveries which characterize our age, are but combinations and applications of principles, which have long been understood. We are much more indebted to those, who reduce to practice and promulgate a useful discovery, than to those who rest satisfied with having made it. Because, however the individual may enjoy in private his own inventions, the world of mankind are not made glad by them, till they are turned to some practical account, which affects their condition and happiness.

It would be of incalculable utility both the philosopher and the artisan in their different pursuits, to bring science and the arts together -to learn theory and practice at the same time—and to observe phenomena, and trace the laws, which govern them, as parts of the same process in acquiring knowledge. It is well, therefore, occasionally to apply to phenomena the principles by which they are explained ; and as locks and canals are so much the order of the day, a principle in hydrostatics is here applied to explain the great pressure upon the gate of a canal lock, wben the water is high upon it, but when there is little difference in the height on each side.

Let us suppose the gate to be ten feet long and the water to be ten feet deep on the upper side, and nine on the lower side. At first thought it would seem that the pressure of the nine feet on one side, would exactly counteract the pressure of pine feet on the other; and that the gate would be pressed with only one foot, in the same manner as if there were water of but one foot deep pressing the gate on one side, and none on the other. But this is not the fact. In this case, each foot of the top of the gate would be pressed by the weight of one half of a cubic foot of water, or 314 lbs, which, on ten feet in length, would amount to 312} lbs. This pressure might be easily overcome, and the gate opened with a lever of small power and with but little strength. But this one foot of water on the top acts on all the water below, and causes a pressure on each foot twice as great as it exerts itself on the ypper foot of the gate.

The pressure on the upper side of the gate, then, by the principles of hydrostatics, is

10 x 10 x 621

= 3125 lbs.

2 for each foot in length; and for the whole ten feet

10 x 3125 = 31250 lbs; the pressure on the lower side, by the same principles, is

9 x 9 x 621

x 10 = 25312) lbs.

2 The difference is 59374 lbs. which is the actual pressure upon the upper side of the gate under the supposed circumstances. As the gate is turned towards the upper lock with a lever of but small power, we may suppose one man to be able to move about 200 lbs. At this rate it would require the strength of 30 men to move it.

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