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counteraeted. But we are obliged to pass over all these, as well as the sixth article of the Review, on the Court of Chancery,” and the seventh, on “ Letters illustrative of English History.”
The eighth article is on a subject frequently discussed in the Edinburgh Review,-“ The Criminal Law of Scotland,”—and calls again for a revision of the system, states the evils of its present organization, and answers objections to improvements which have been before proposed. The ninth is a frightful picture of the Slavery of the British West India colonies, as it exists, both in law and practice. The reviewers, as they have often and with some effect done before, make their, eloquent and powerful appeals to the British nation to interfere and spare humanity the enormities practised by the colonists upon their slaves.
“We believe that, on this subject, the hearts of the English People burn within them. They hate slavery. They have hated it for ages. It has, indeed, hidden itself for a time in a remote nook of their dominions : but it is now discovered and dragged to light. That is sufficient. Its sentence is pronounced ; and it never can escape; never, though all the efforts of its supporters should be redoubled,—never, though sophistry, and falsehood, and slander, and the jests of the pothouse, the ribaldry of the brothel, and the slang of the ring or fives' court, should do their utmost in its defence,-never, though fresh insurrections should be got up to frighten the people out of their judgment, and fresh companies to bubble them out of their money,-never, though it should find in the highest ranks of the peerage, or on the steps of the throne itself, the purveyors of its slander, and the mercenaries of its defence !
In the tenth article facts are stated to show that the less the duty on Coffee is, within certain limits, the greater the consumption; and that the increase of consumption, when the duties are low, is so rapid as to yield the greatest revenue to government when the duties are least. They believe, that by reducing the duties on coffee to a third or fourth of their present amount, the government may increase the wealth, comforts, and enjoyments of a large class of the community, and effectually check that adulteration of coffee which is now practised to a very great extent; and that they may do all this not only without any sacrifice of revenue, but even with a considerable addition to its amount !
The next article is a very interesting one on the state of Hayti. It shows, conclusively, by authentic facts, that the natural increase of population, even under the disadvantages of a long and sanguinary struggle for the attainment and maintenance of independence, is far greater than in the slave colonies; and that the enemies of abolition must waive their objection, “ that the numbers could never be kept up without importation.” Hayti is represented not only in a flourishing condition in regard to population, military force, commerce, and revenue ; but as improving in civilization and the arts and refinements of civilized life.
“ The following is part of a letter from General Inginal, Secretarygeneral to the President; and it will be seen from its tenor how much attention is paid there to the greatest of all subjects which can occupy the attention of rulers, that in which all others are indeed compressed, the Education of the people. It also marks that the improvement of agriculture and commerce is rapidly increasing-and it displays the good spirit which prevails with respect to forcign aggression.
I can assure you, sir, that being perfectly convinced that education and agriculture are the chief sources of the strength of states, the Government of the Republic does not neglect any thing wbich can promote these two objects; and I can announce to you with great satisfaction, that both in their progress answer fully to the care bestowed on them. The number of yonth of both sexes who study in the elementary schools and in the upper classes, is prodigious. In all our towns, the schools kept by private people, and the national schools, are much increased, and they are found in all the large villages of the interior. I am myself astonished at the happy change which has taken place in public education, and which is daily taking place in the improvement of morals—all which is effected tranquilly and with satisfaction, under the mild influence of a truly paternal government.'
The last article is a short notice of Mr Brougham's pamphlet on the Education of the People. The Edinburgh Review has taken up the subject of education, for the last year or two, with a zeal and a power which cannot fail oi their results upon the condition of the systems of public instruction in England. The truth of the maxims, that“ knowledge is power,” and that“ knowledge is essential to freedom,” has long had a speculative assent. We are glad to perceive that the belief begins to affect the practice; and that knowledge is beginning to be diffused with a zeal which shows men in earnest.
North American Review for April, 1825. Besides reviews and notices of several popular works, as Redwood, Butler's Reminiscences, Professor Everett's Orations, &c. this number contains an account of the Insurrection of Tupac Amaru in Peru, in 1780 and 1781. This person was a descendant of the ancient Incas, and well qualified for the undertaking. The contest was fierce and bloody, and threatened the downfall of the Spanish power in Peru; but though of so much importance, was scarcely heard of in Europe till mentioned by Humboldt.
Another article relates to the vindication of Count Pulaski from a charge of gross neglect of military duty, on a certain occasion, during our revolutionary war. This charge appeared in Judge Johnson's Biography of General Greene, and was repelled with great indignation, by a brother officer of the count, in a pamphlet, which is the subject of the review. There can be no doubt that the charge was entirely groundless. The reviewer takes the opportunity of doing that honour to the memory of this gallant officer, which it so well deserves from every American writer.
A very elaborate article, occupying more than fifty pages, is devoted to the History of Modern Astronomy, and the advancement of the science during the last half century, by various astronomers in England and France. We have not space to enter into any analysis of this, which we recommend to our readers, as the most learned and comprehensive article which has ever appeared in any American periodical publication within our knowledge.
An article on Napoleon's Codes of Law, gives an account of their character, and the mode in which they were drawn up. It appears that the emperor did much more than merely to command the services of
learned men for this purpose. The articles were separately discussed before the Council of State, at which he was almost always present, and participated in the discussion, and that with ability apparently not inferior to that of any of the counsellors.
In general, we are disposed to agree with the sentiments advanced in the several articles of this number. We think, however, that in one instance, the impression likely to be given to the public to be erroneous; we refer to the notice of Garnett's Lectures on Female Education. We omit particulars at present, as we intend to make this book the subject of a particular notice.
The Westminster Review for January, 1825. Tørs Review is conducted with less talent than either the Edinburgh or Quarterly. The present number contains an article on the works of Dallas and Medwin, respecting Lord Byron. From some internal evidence, we suspect it to be the work of Mr Hobhouse. The writer stigmatizes Mr Dallas, sen. as ungrateful and greedy ; not content with spunging Lord Byron during his life, but eager to make the most of his remains. He contradicts Mr Dallas' statements in many instances; but we have not room to go into the details of this squabble, which is rather disgusting. Medwin's work is handled with still greater severity. The reviewer prints many of Medwin's assertions with an opposite column containing the fact. We find no reason to alter materially the opinion which we gave in our own review of this work; except, perhaps, that we incline to think Medwin a greater blackguard, than before.
A work on the French Monarchy, Dibdin's Library Companion, and Letters from an Absent Brother, are reviewed in that style of severity, which is so popular with the British journalists. A new number of Moore's Melodies is treated with great favour. A notice of the Penal Code of Louisiana, we shall take occasiop to treat of at greater length than our limits, in this place, will permit.
An article on Contagion and Sanitary Laws is interesting, as any thing tolerably written on that subject must always be. Though we agree in general with the writer, we think him rather too confident, and not sufficiently aware of the uncertainty and difficulty of reasoning on medical subjects. His doctrines are in the main the same with those of Dr Smith's Etiology and Philosophy of Epidemics, which we had occasion to notice in our number for November 1st, 1824.
The most entertaining articles are an attack on Mr Southey and his Book of the Church, and a severe criticism of an article on Panegyrical Oratory, published in the Quarterly Review. We cannot but be somewhat amused, when we see our old enemies, the British periodicals, turning and rending each other with such zeal and execution.
Triumphs of Intellect; a Lecture delivered October, 1924, in the Chapel of Water
ville College. By Stephen Chapin, D. D. Professor of Theology in said College.
Waterville. 1824. 8vo. pp. 3i. UNDER this captivating title, we expected to find sketched some of the great achievements of mind in modern times, in extending its empire more widely both over itself and over the material word. Or, we thought
we might find described some of the practical arts, to which the improvements in science have given rise, and the influence of these same arts upon the condition and prospects of our country, or of mankind. But Professor Chapin has disappointed us in our reasonable expectation. By “ triumphs of intellect,” he only means “ the distinguished success at. tending well directed and persevering applications of the mental powers." And he takes occasion to stimulate the students to whom he addresses himself, to make such “persevering applications of their mental powers," in order to ensure the “triumphs of intellect” as described. He gives many instances of eminent men, who have attained their distinction by persevering industry, without having given in early life any indications of their future greatness.
The discourse is desultory, and sometimes declamatory. The author, in point of time, passes from age to age, rather more rapidly, than we can conveniently follow him; and in point of place, he bounds from mountain to valley, from continent to continent, with the utmost facility. He seems acquainted with all history, at least, those remarkable facts and events, which are convenient for learned allusions. He alludes to them happily, and with facility; and seems to take it for granted, that his young auditors understand his allusions as well as himself
. But when the force and beauty of a sentence is made to depend upon an allusion to a fact in history, there is some danger, especially when we address young people, that the fact may not be known; and then an eloquent sentence is wasted, by being misunderstood or not understood at all. Those who address young men, that cannot fairly be supposed to have the same knowledge of what has been as themselves, would do well to take tbis into consideration. Or they will find at the close of a discourse, that they have amused rather than instructed their hearers, and made them, perhaps, admire what they could not understand. The style of Dr Chapin is energetic, though sometimes bombastic. He evidently possesses great interest in his pupils, and ardour in his pursuits, and will without doubt inspire them with some of his own feelings.
RECOVERED EDITION OF SHAKSPEARE.
[Concluded.] Before we proceed to give a more particular account of the chief ornament of this tome, it may be agreeable to state certain data from Commentators on and editions of Shakspeare's Plays.
Mr Malone had seen the Hamlet 1604, for he preserved its title; and indeed we are assured that he had that copy, now the Duke of Devonshire's, (from the late J. Kemble’s library), for many months in his possession. Its title is, The Tragicall Historie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. By William Shakespeare.
Newly imprinted and enlarged to almost as much again as it was, according to the true and perfect Coppie. Printed by J. R. for N. Landre.
Succeeding editions were
1605. Smethwicke by assignment John Smethwicke,.
no date. Hamlet was first registered in the books of the Stationer's Company, 26 July, 1602. Malone thinks it was then published. He thought the earliest extant of that of 1604. N. V. The entry was to James Roberts.
The title-page of the play in Messrs Payne and Foss's book is as under
By William Shake-speare.
At London printed for N. L. f and Iohn Trundell.
1603. The Play consists of thirty-one leaves, and on an average about thirtyfive lines on a page, making in all about 2200 lines; while the edition of 1604 (the quarto edition reprinted in Steevens' four volumes) consists of sixty leaves, with an average of thirty-two lines per page, or total of above 3800 lines. This shows that the newly-discovered drama does not contain much more than half the text of the earliest edition previously known.
But it is very singular also in other respects. There are various new readings, of infinite interest; sentiments expressed, which greatly alter several of the characters; differences in the names; and many minor points which are extremely curious. For example, every alternate page is headed Tragedie and Tragedy; Laertes is Leartes, throughout; Polonius is Corambis; Gildenstern is Gilderstone ; Osrick has no name, but is styled a Braggart Gentleman of the Court; and in the Closetscene “ the Ghost enters in his nightgown."
From these variations, and the absence of so much of what appeared in the edition of the ensuing year, 1604, we hardly know what to infer. It has been said that Shakspeare founded his play, as was often his custom, on a preceding drama; but this has too much of Shakspeare in it to be that drama. It may be surmised, that in the course of its immense popularity, some piratical bookseller obtained a garbled copy of Hamlet, and published it; for at this period copyrights were not sold by authors as in our days, and Shakspeare seems never to have paid much attention to literary profit, or to any fame beyond the walls of the theatre where
* This is the ed. in Steevens' 4 vols. with the same account as above. + N. L. is evidently N. Landure, who published the known edition of 1604. Kidd's, if we remember rightly,