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certain of your protection for Lucy, in I regret it. If I had dreamt of it, I case of my death-for you will be her would have acted differently; but it was guardian I have no hesitation about not so. You will find in time consolasailing for England, But here is Lucy" tion for the wound I have unwittingly . As he spoke, Lucy Oakwood's girlish given, and for which I now reproach figure appeared at the further end of the myself ; but, I repeat, I cannot give you long avenue ; and as she approached hope.” them, D'Lisle saw that she was not « Then you must love another," cried alone_Di Paleotti was by her side. Di Paleotti eagerly, “and for him do you He bit his lip and sighed. Perhaps he scorn my love my first love.” And as had hoped that, alone with her brother he spoke, he fixed his burning, black and himself, she might have given him eyes upon her. “Speak! I implore some opportunity of saying to her some- you ! Do you love another ?" what of what he wished regarding her “You forget yourself, my lord,” resuitor; but now it was impossible. He plied Lucy, drawing herself up proudly. turned away silently, but Henry de- * You have no right so to question me." tained him. Could he have heard the “ No right! Have I not loved you, conversation of the maid of honour and adored you, worshipped you, and would the Marquis, how his heart would have even die for you?" rejoiced; but comfort often lies near us “ Cease, my lord !” said the maid of in our sorrow, and, blinded by our grief, honour. “I cannot, and I will not we perceive it not.
listen to this." Di Paleotti had chosen that day, that " You must hear me, Lucy! Oh, hour, to declare to Lucy Oakwood the hear me !" he repeated, seizing her hand passionate and ardent love he enter- violently, and grasping it in his own. tained for her, and had just urged his “ Leave me at once, and mention suit with all the wit he was master of, this no more !" cried Lucy, indignantly. but in vain, Lucy had rejected him “ Calm yourself, my lord, and recol. kindly and considerately, and yet firmly lect yourself;" and as she spoke she and resolutely; and as they now stood looked down the long shady avenue beside the fountain in the walk, he was to where Henry and Hugo stood. Di entreating and vehemently pressing her Paleotti's large black eyes sought her's; to give him at least hope for the and following the direction of her future.
gaze, he saw and knew them fixed, not “I cannot," she repeated again, “I on Henry Oakwood, but on Hugo cannot. If I were to give you hope, it D'Lisle. would deceive you, Time will not "He dashed her hand back against change me, years will not make me her bosom, and rushing into the thicket, love you. I esteem and admire you, left her standing there alone. But but no more. You cannot force love." while his love, thus turned to hatred,
She paused a moment and continued. was weaving in his gloomy soul plans
" I was unprepared for this. Nay, hear of vengeance for the refusal he had me out, and be not impatient,” she met, and while a raging whirlwind of added, perceiving the Marquis about passion darkened and enveloped his to interrupt her.“I was not unaware mind, there arose to the heart of Lucy of your friendship for me, but thought Oakwood a new star---the light of Hope not of this. I will be frank with you and Love,
(To be continued.)
UNSOLVED PROBLEMS OF SCIENCE,
IN Colonel Sabine's opening Address, “ It has been frequently surmised, as President of the British Association and the anticipation is, I believe, a for the Advancement of Science, at the strictly philosophical one, that a power meeting of that body with which our which, so far as we have the ineans of town has been lately honoured, occurs judging, prevails everywhere in our the following remarkable passage on the own planet, should also prevail in other earth's magnetism ;
bodies of our system, and Inight be
come sensible to us, in the case of the sure by our magnetic instruments, is in sun and moon particularly, by small fact a solar period, manifested to us also perturbing influences, measurable by by the alternately increasing and deour instruments, and indicating their creasing frequency and magnitude of obrespective sources by their periods and scurations on the surface of the solar their epochs. As yet, we know of disc. May we not have in these pheneither argument nor fact to invalidate nomena the indication of a cycle, or this anticipation ; but, on the contrary, period of secular change in the magmuch seems to invest it with a high netism of the sun, affecting visibly degree of probability."
his gaseous atmosphere or photosphere · And again, on the same subject: [luminous sphere), and sensibly modi.
“ To justify the anticipation that con- fying the magnetic influence which he clusions of the most striking character, exercises on the surface of our earth?" and wholly unforeseen, may yet be de. These observations on the univerrivable from the materials in our pos- sality of magnetism among the various session, we need only to recall the expe- celestial bodies, remind us of a remarkrience of the last few months, which able opinion once expressed by Newton, have brought to our knowledge the ex- who said, “he took all the planets istence of what may possibly prove the to be composed of the same matter with most instructive, as it is certainly at the earth--viz., earth, water, and stone, first sight the least explicable, of all the but variously concocted."'*. periodical magnetic variations with It is probable that some vast, though which we have become acquainted—I somewhat vague, idea of the unity and refer to the concurrent testimony which universality of the laws of nature, observations at parts of the globe, the throughout all the regions of space, was most distant from each other, bear to floating in the mind of the philosopher the existence of a periodical variation as he uttered these words. He him. or inequality, affecting alike the mag- self took the first, and probably the nitude of the diurnal variations, and most important step, in proving that the magnitude or frequency of the unity, by his magnificent discovery of disturbances or storms. The cycle, the universality of gravitation, demonor period of this inequality, appears strating that the same force causes an to extend to about ten of our years: apple to fall from the tree which binds the maximum and minimum of the the moon and planets in their orbits; magnitude affected by it being se- and the scarcely less admirable reparated by an interval of about five searches of the Herschels on the binary years, and the differences being much stars, have shown that the same intoo great, and resting on an in- fluence extends beyond the solar system duction far too extensive, to admit into the boundless regions of starry of uncertainty as to the facts them space. The universality of light and selves. The existence of a well-marked heat has, of course, been always known, magnetic period, which has certainly as we receive them from the heavens. no counterpart in thermic [climatal] But Newton's opinion on the identity conditions, appears to render still more of chemical elements in all the celestial doubtful the supposed connection be- bodies, was one of those guesses occatween the magnetic and calorific [heat- sionally made by great men, which are ing) influences of the sun. It is not a more valuable than the demonstrations little remarkable that this periodical of inferior intellects. He could have magnetic variation is found to be iden- scarcely hoped that any discovery tical in period, and in epochs of maxima should ever be made to verify this and minima, with the periodical varia- opinion ; yet the materials of its verifitions in the frequency and magnitude cation have, most unexpectedly, fallen of the solar spots, which Mr. Schwabe from the heavens. Meteoric stones, the has established by twenty-six years of existence of which was long classed unremitting labour. From a cosmical among popular fables, are now regarded connexion of this nature, supposing it as most important phenomena in to be finally established, it would follow science ; and they are now almost that the decennial period, which we mea- universally believed to be planetary
* Quoted from Turner in Humboldt's “ Cosmos."
bodies, falling from the regions of space What appear to be meteorological far beyond our atmosphere. They no phenomena are also observed in Jupi. doubt revolve, in orbits of their own, ter, for the well-known “belts" of that round the sun; and occasionally com- planet appear to be bands of cloud, dising within the sphere of the earth's posed in a direction parallel to his equaattraction, are ignited by friction tor by prevailing winds. We might against the air, and form meteors; expect, à priori, that every planet which the great majority of them are dissi- has an atmosphere should have winds, pated before they fall to the earth, but and that the general direction of the a few fall as meteoric stones. Some of winds should be parallel to the equator. these have been analysed, and found to We know even less of the nature of contain no other chemical elements than comets than of the sun. The matter those known in our planet. This fact, of which they are composed is so exthat bodies which fall from the regions tremely light, that, though they are of celestial space consist of the same themselves obedient to the laws of grachemical elements that exist on earth, vitation, they do not exert any sensible affords a very strong presumption of attraction on the planets near which the truth of Newton's conjecture of the they pass. They are probably gaseous; identity of those elements in all the they appear to be quite transparent, planets. Another fact, which tends to and their substance has the remarkable the same result, is disclosed by tele- property of not refracting light in any scopic observations of the planet Mars, appreciable degree. This is observed about the poles of which, during their when a comet passes between the obserwinter, vast masses of snow are ob- ver's eye and a star. Many comets have served.
a central spot which is called the nucleus, Thus it appears that light, heat, gra- though it is doubtful whether any part vitation, and the chemical elements, is solid. “The nebulosity immediately are all universal; and Colonel Sabine's round the nucleus is so diaphanous, that remarks, which are quoted above, make it gives little light, but at a small disit probable that magnetism may soon tance the nebulous matter becomes be added to the list. There is, however, suddenly brilliant, so as to look like a much in the heavens to which we can bright ring round the body. Somefind no likeness in our planet. We can times there are two or three of these scarcely guess, for instance, at the luminous concentric rings separated by nature of the process which goes on at dark intervals, but they are generally the surface of the sun. The sun has incomplete on the part next the tail. a dark and solid nucleus, surrounded These annular appearances are an opby luminous clouds; and Arago's ob- tical effect, arising from a succession of servations on solar light, with the envelopes of the nebulous matter, with polariscope, give us reason to suppose intervals between them, of which the that those clouds consist of burning gas, first is sometimes in contact with the which, however, from the different nucleus, and sometimes not. * * * colour of the light, cannot be identical As the envelopes are formed in succeswith carburetted hydrogen, the flame sion as the comet approaches the sun, of which produces all kinds of artificial Sir William Herschel conceived them light. But we know nothing whatever to be vapours raised by heat at the of the nature of the chemical process surface of the nucleus, and suspended by which the gas is incessantly produced. round it, like a vault or dome, by the Vast rents, through which the sun's elastic force of an extensive and highly dark body is seen, are often observed transparent atmosphere. In coming to in the luminous clouds, forming what the sun, the coatings began to form are called the spots of the sun. These when the comet [of 1811] was as dismust probably be produced by some tant as the orbit of Jupiter, and in its sort of storms of wind; and it is a re- return they very soon entirely vanished, markable coincidence that these occur but a new one was formed after it had almost exclusively within a distance of retreated as far as the orbit of Mars, thirty degrees and a half on each side which lasted for a few days. Indeed of the sun's equator. Storms are also comets in general are subject to sudden most numerous in the parts of our earth and violent convulsions in the interior, near the equator.
even when far from the sun, which pro
duce changes that are visible at enor- the tails of comets, as well as the oscilmous distances, and bafille all attempts lating motion of the tail of Halley's at explanation, probably arising from comet, which has been mentioned above, electricity, or even causes with which are due to some influence exerted by - we are unacquainted. The envelopes the sun, which may perhaps be identisurrounding the nucleus of the comet, on cal with electricity or magnetism. the side next the sun, diverge on the After every approach to the sun, a opposite side, where they are prolonged comet is observed to have lost part of into the form of a hollow cone, which is its tail. It might be supposed that, as the tail."'*
soon as the influence that forms the Different comets, however, present tail is removed, the gaseous matter that different appearances. Halley's comet constitutes it should return to the comet was observed, in 1835, to send out what as before, by the action of gravitation; looked like flames at the side next the but such is not the case-a portion is 1 sun, which, bending backward, formed dissipated and lost. This fact alone part of the tail. Bessel, of Konigs- might suggest that there is friction in berg, f remarked an oscillating motion the celestial spaces ; not such friction of the tail of that comet, which he de- as can perceptibly affect the motion of clared could not be accounted for by the solid and heavy bodies like the planets, law of gravitation; and he was driven but sufficient to impede the passage of to the supposition that it "indicates a anything so thin and light as the tail polar force, which turnsone semi diame- of a comet. And this conjecture has ter of the comet towards the sun, and almost become a certainty, in consestrives to turn the opposite side away quence of the observed motions of from that luminary. The magnetic Encke's comet, and some others, which polarity possessed by the earth may return to the sun in a shorter time at present some analogy to this."
every revolution, in a manner which It is very remarkable that comets ap- can only be accounted for by the suppopear to grow smaller as they approach sition of a resisting medium. It might thesun. It has been plausibly conjectured be supposed that friction would lengthen by Sir John Herschel, that this appeare the period of revolution, but such is not ance may be caused by the sun's heat the case ; friction acts on a comet as it converting visible vapour into invisible acts on the balance-wheel of a watch, gas. For comets, like planets, shine by which makes shorter and more frequent reflected light. Such an effect of heat oscillations when its pivot is clogged is like what we see on the earth : steam, with dust. when hotter than boiling water, is tran- The nature of the resisting medium sparent like air, but forms clouds in is an interesting question. It seems a cooling.
favourite notion that it is identical with We are totally ignorant of the cause the supposed subtle fluid, the undulawhich produces the tail of a comet. It tions of which produce light. But we is suggested in “Cory's Metaphysical cannot believe, without farther proof, Inquiry,” that the heavens are filled that this fluid, if it has any existence, with a subtle fluid, and that the gaseous can offer resistance to the passage of substance of the comet, when expanded gravitating bodies; for it appears totally by the sun's heat, becomes lighter than unlike the thinnest air or gas, being, so that fluid, and ascends through it from far as we can perceive, destitute of the sun as smoke ascends through the weight, and remaining in what we call air from the earth. We do not see, an absolutely perfect vacuum. It is however, how this ingenious conjecture much more probable that the resisting can be reconciled with the fact that the medium which fills the celestial spaces comet of 1724 had a tail turned towards resembles air in its mechanical properthe sun instead of from it; and it is ties, though it is perhaps some millions said that the tails of soine comets have of times rarer than the air we breathe ; been at right angles to a line drawn and it probably consists of the extended from the comet to the sun. We are atmospheres of the various heavenly inclined to think that the formation of bodies, mingled with the gaseous mat
* Mrs. Somerville's “ Connexion of the Physical Sciences." .
ter dispersed from the tails of comets. been dark bodies, like vast planets, It is common to speak of the height of which, from some conflagration or other our atmosphere ; but, in fact, on the convulsion of nature, became luminous supposition of the infinite divisibility of for a time; and such phenomena sugmatter, every atmosphere must be in- gest that the prophecies of the Scripfinitely extended, * each stratum being tures about the surface of our globe thinner than the one below it. And being destroyed, or perhaps revovated, meteors have been heard to explode at by fire, may be fulfilled literally. We estimated heights of fifty and seventy cannot know where the oxygen is to miles ; heights at which the air is so come from to support such a conflagrarare, that it does not appear to refract tion—perhaps froin the atmosphere of the sun's light, as the lower strata of some comet. the atmosphere do, producing twilight: There are other lights in nature beyet there must be air to transmit sound. sides those emitted in any process that The hypothesis of a rare atmosphere can be identified with coinbustion. Humfilling space derives still more plausi- boldt, in his “ Cosmos,” remarks of the bility from the remark of Olbers, that aurora borealis: there is reason to suppose the celestial
“ This phenomenon derives the greater spaces not to be perfectly transparent, The starry heavens are, in all probabi.
* part of its importance from the fact, that
- the earth becomes self-luminous, and that, lity, infinite, because the Creator in
as a planet, besides the light which it habits infinity, and is of infinite power. receives from the central body, the sun, it Were the number of stars, however, in- shows itself capable in itself of developing finite in every direction, and the celes- light. The intensity of the terrestrial light, tial spaces perfectly transparent, the eye or rather the luminosity which is diffused, would meet a star at every point of the exceeds, in cases of the brightest coloured heavens, and the whole sky would be a radiation towards the zenith, the light of blaze of light. But air is not perfectly the moon in its first quarter. Occasionally, transparent; and if an almost infinitely as on the 7th of January 1831, printed rare atmosphere fills all space, the num
? characters could be read without difficulty.
This almost uninterrupted development of ber of stars may be infinite without our lim
our light in the earth leads us by analogy to being able to see any except some mil- the remarkable process exhibited in Venus. lions of the nearest.
The portion of this planet which is not illuThere are no more wonderful pheno- mined by the sun often shines with a phosmena in nature than those of variable, phorescent light of its own. It is not new, and extinguished stars. Some improbable that the moon, Jupiter, and the stars alternately appear and disappear, comets, shine with an independent light, When these variations are at short and besides the reflected solar light visible regular periods. we may suppose that through the polariscope. Without speakthe light is intercepted by some dark ing
dark ing of the problematical, but yet ordinary
fmode in which the sky is illuminated, when revolving body during the periods of obscuration ; or that the star rotates, uninterrupted flickering light for many mi
a low cloud may be seen to shine with an as all celestial bodies appear to do, al- nutes together, we still meet with many ternately presenting a bright and a dark other instances of terrestrial development side to us. But when the appearance of light in our atmosphere. In this cateand disappearance of a star occurs at gory we may reckon the celebrated lumilong or uncertain periods, neither of nous mists seen in 1783 and 1831 ; the these suppositions will account for the steady luminous appearance exhibited withfact: we can only conclude that some out any flickering in great clouds observed extraordinary and vast changes are at by Rosier and Beccaria; and lastly, as Arago work, at the nature of which we cannot
nnot well remarks, the faint, diffused light which even guess. Many stars have disap- 8
guides the steps of the traveller in cloudy,
po starless, and moonless nights, in autumn peared from their place in the firma.
and winter." ment, and there are several instances of new ones having burst forth, shone The aurora borealis brings us back brightly for a few months, and vanished to the subject of magnetism again; for into darkness again. These must have it is well known to be accompanied by
* This does not imply that every atmosphere must contain an infinite quantity of air. The sum of an infinite but constantly diminishing series may be finite.